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(d. c. 303?) of Verulamium.

Said to have been martyred with St Alban

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 124, 1576, p. 90, 1583, p. 89.

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Legendary priest sheltered by St Alban, in whose place Alban was arrested [ODNB sub Alban]

The name is the Latinized Greek equivalent of caracalla, cloak. This was misread as the name of the priest

The name is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 124; 1576, p. 89; 1583, p. 89.

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fl. C4. Captain under Emperor Galerius

Asclepiades invaded Antioch with Galerius to rid the city of Christianity. He had Romanus tortured and had a seven-year-old child whipped and imprisoned. The child was beheaded and Romanus strangled. 1570, pp. 124-26; 1576, pp. 90-91; 1583, pp. 89-90.

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Constantine I

(271x273 - 337) [H. A. Pohlsander]

Roman emperor in the West (306 - 37); defeated Maxentius, rival emperor, in 312

Sole Roman emperor (324 - 37)

Constantine took three legions with him out of Britain, thereby weakening its defence. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife and daughter of Maximian. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Constantine, preparing for battle against Maxentius and fearing his magical powers, saw the sign of a cross in the sky. He then had a dream with a vision of the cross and of Christ. He took a cross into battle with him as a standard and defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 86; 1583, p. 85.

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After the defeat of Maxentius, Constantine no longer sacrificed to the Roman gods, but he deferred baptism to his old age. He issued edicts restoring church goods and bringing Christians back from exile. 1570, pp. 139-41; 1576, pp. 103-04; 1583, pp. 101-03.

Constantine wrote to Anulinus, his proconsul in Africa, instructing him to restore goods to the Christian churches and to ensure that Christian ministers were freed from public duties. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine wrote to Pope Miltiades, instructing him to set up a synod to examine the cause of Cæcilian of Carthage, and sent letters to other bishops, issuing instructions and encouraging the ending of schisms. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Initially Constantine and Licinius were on good terms, and Constantine gave Lucinius his sister in marriage. 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 87.

Licinius and Constantine issued a joint edict authorising freedom of worship for Christians. But Licinius began to turn against Constantine and the Christians, instigating a new, more surreptitious persecution. 1570, pp. 120-21, 122; 1576, pp. 86-87, 88; 1583, p. 86, 87.

Constantine defeated Licinius. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

He wrote to Alexander of Alexandria and Arius, urging them to end their disagreement. 1570, p. 142, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine built churches and schools and provided books of scripture. 1570, pp. 142-43, 1576, p. 105, 1583, pp. 103-04.

Constantine wrote a letter to Shapur II, asking him to treat the Christians in Persia well. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

Constantine renounced the Roman gods and was baptised. 1563, p. 8.

Constantine fulfilled St Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

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(d. 311) [M. Di Maio]

Served as Diocletian's caesar in the East (293 - 305)

Roman emperor in the East (305 - 11)

Galerius was made ceasar in the eastern empire to deal with the Persian threat. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He was the chief persecutor of the Christians, and developed an unpleasant illness. He issued a proclamation ending the persecution, but a few months later restrictions, banishment and persecutions began again. 1570, pp. 39, 115; 1576, pp. 31, 82-83; 1583, pp. 82-83.

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Julius III

Pope (1550 - 1555)

Born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Received a letter dated 30 November 1554 from King Philip of England announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-8; 1583, p. 1478).

Received a letter from Cardinal Pole, dated 30 November 1554, announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1012-13 [in Latin, only in this edition]; pp. 1013-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79).

Received a message from Parliament asking him to confirm the purchasers of monastic lands and chantry lands in their current ownership (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

Reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English (1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457;1583, p. 1531).

Issued a bull excommunicating anyone who retained monastic lands or Church property (1570, p. 1729;1576, p. 1477; 1583, pp. 1559-60).

Permitted homosexuality in the papal court (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Proclaimed a jubilee, presided over the Council of Trent and sponsored the shrine of Our Lady ofLoretto (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Foxe relates anecdotes concerning his gluttony (1563, pp. 1117-18; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583,p. 1560).

Stephen Gardiner issued instructions for Julius's funeral in April 1555 (1563, p. 1118; 1570, p. 1730;1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

A London woman was imprisoned for refusing to pray for Julius III at his funeral ceremonies (1563, p.1118; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

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Prudentius (Aurelius Prudentius Clemens)

(348 - after 405) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Spanish Roman Christian poet; lawyer; provincial governor; retired to become an ascetic

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 56, 86, 101, 104, 124, 126, 129; 1576, pp. 35, 60, 71, 74, 90, 92, 93; 1583, pp. 35, 59, 71, 74, 89, 92.

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Romanus (St Romanus)

(d. c. 303/04) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Deacon of Caesarea; martyred at Antioch

When Galerius invaded Antioch, Romanus warned his fellow Christians of the arrival of the soldiers and urged them to stand firm. Asclepiades had him tortured and strangled. 1570, pp. 124-26; 1576, pp. 90-91; 1583, pp. 89-90.

112 [89]

where he bringeth in the head of the holy martyr, to speake vnto the people after it was smitten of from the body. Also where he bringeth in the Angels going vp, & comming downe in a piller of fire, & singing al the night long. Item in the riuer which he sayth, S Alban made drie, such as were drowned in the same before in the bottome, were founde aliue. With other such like Monkish miracles and grosse fables, wherewith these Abbey Monkes were wont in time past to deceaue the Church of God, and to beguile the whole world for their owne aduātage. Notwithstanding this I write not to any derogatiō of the blessed and faithful martyr of God, who was the first that I did euer finde in this Realme, MarginaliaS. Alban the first martyr in this realme of England. to suffer Martyrdome for the testimonie of Christ. And worthy no doubt of condigne commendation, especially of vs here in this land: whose Christian faith in the Lorde, and charitie toward his neighbour: I pray God all we may followe. As also I wishe moreouer that the stories both of him, and of al other Christian Martyrs might haue bene deliuered to vs simply as they were, wtout the admixture of all these Abbeylike additiōs of Monkish miracles, MarginaliaThe stories of the Saintes corrupted with lyes. wherwith they were wont to paint out the glory of such saintes to the moste, by whose offerings they were accustomed to receaue most aduauntage.

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MarginaliaAmphibalus, Martyr. Flores Historiarum. The martyrdome of Amphibalus.As touching the name of the Clearke mētioned in this story, whome Alban receaued into his house, I finde in the Englishe stories to be Amphibalus, although the latine authors name him not, who þe same time flying into Wales was also set from thence againe to the same towne of Verolamium, otherwise called Verlancaster, where hee was martyred, hauing his bellie opened, and made to runne about a stake, while all his bowels were drawen out, then thrust in with swordes and daggers: and at last was stoned to death, as the foresaid legend declareth.

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Moreouer the same time with Alban, suffered also ij. citizens of the foresaide Citie of Verlancaster, whose names were Aaron and Iulius: MarginaliaAaron, Iulius, Martyrs. beside other, whereof a great number the same time no doubt, did suffer, although our Chronicles of their names doe make no rehearsall.

The time of the Martyrdom of this blessed Alban and the other, seemeth to be about the second or thirde yeare of this tenth persecution, vnder the tyrāny of Dioclesian, and Maximinianus Herculius, bearing then the rule in England, about the yeare of our Lorde 301. MarginaliaPersecution in thys realme of Britaine. before the comming of Constantius to his gouernement. Where, by the way is to be noted, that this realme of Britaine being so christened before, yet neuer was touched with any other of the nine persecutions, before this tenth persecution of Dioclesian & Maximinian. In which persecution our stories and Polichronicon doe recorde, that all Christianitie almost in the whole Ilelande was destroyed, the Churches subuerted, all bookes of the Scripture burned, many of the faithfull both men & women were slaine. Among whome the first and chiefe ringleader (as hath bene sayde) was Albanus. And thus much touching the martyrs of Britaine. Nowe from Englande to returne againe vnto other countries, where this persecution did more vehemētly rage: we will adde hereunto (the Lorde willing) the stories of other, although not of all that suffered in this persecution (which were impossible) but of certaine most principal, whose singular constancie in their strong torments are chiefly renowmed in latter histories: beginning first with Romanus the notable and admirable souldiour and true seruaunt of Christ, whose historie set forth in Prudentius, doth thus proceede: so lamentably by him described, that it will be harde for any man almost with dry cheekes to heare it.

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MarginaliaThe lamentable story of Romanus Martyr.Pitiles Galerius with his graunde captaine Asclepiades violently inuaded the citie of Antioche, entending by force of armes to driue all Christians to renounce vtterly their pure religion. 

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Romanus to Cassianus

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

The Christians as god would, were at that time cōgregated together, to whom Romanus hastely ran, declaring that the Wolues were at hande, which woulde deuour the Christian flocke, but feare not (sayde he) neither let this imminēt perill disturbe you, my brethren: brought was it to passe, by the great grace of God working in Romanus, that olde men and matrones, fathers and mothers, young men and maidens were all of one will and minde, most ready to shed their bloud in defence of their Christian profession. MarginaliaThe exhortation of Romanus to the christians. Word was brought to þe captaine that the band of armed souldiors was not able to wrest the staffe of faith, out of the hand of the armed congregation: and all by reason that one Romanus so mightely did encourage them, that they sticke not to offer their naked throtes, wishing gloriously to die for the name of their Christ. Seeke out that rebell (quod the captaine) and bring him to me that he may aunswer for the whole sect. Apprehended he was, & bound as a sheepe appoynted to the slaughter house, was presented to the Emperor: who wt wrathfull countenance behol-ding him, sayde: What? Art thou the author of this sedition? art thou the cause why so many shall loose their liues? By the gods I sweare thou shalt smart for it, and first in thy flesh shalt thou suffer the paines, whereunto thou hast encouraged the hearts of thy felowes. Romanus answered: MarginaliaThe Christian boldnes of Romanus. Thy sentence O Emperour I ioyfully embrace, I refuse not to be sacrificed for my brethren, and that by as cruell meanes as thou mayest inuent: and whereas thy soldiors were repelled from the christian cōgregation, that so happened, because it lay not in Idolaters and worshippers of Deuils to enter into the holy house of God, and to pollute the place of true prayer. Then Asclepiades wholy emflamed with this stoute answere, commaunded him to be trussed vp, and his bowels drawne out. The executioners themselues more pitiful in hart then the captaine, said: not so sir, this man is of noble parentage: vnlawful is it to put a noble man to so vnnoble a death: scourge him then with whips (quod the captaine) with knaps of lead at the ends. In stede of teares, sighs & grones, Romanus song psalmes al the time of his whipping, requiring them not to fauour him for nobilities sake: MarginaliaThe noble patience of Romanus in his suffering. not the bloud of my progenitours (said he) but Christian profession maketh me noble. Then with great power of spirit he inueied against the capitain, laughing to scorne the false gods of the heathen, with the idolatrous worshipping of them; affirming the God of the Christians to be the true God that created heauen and earth, before whose iudiciall seat all nations shall appeare. but the wholsome wordes of the Martyr were as oyle to the fire of the captaines fury. The more the Martyr spake, the madder was hee, in so much that he commaunded the Martyrs sides to be launced with kniues, vntil the bones appeared white againe. Sorie am I, O captain (quod the Martyr) not for that my flesh shall be thus cut and mangled, but for thy cause am I sorowfull, who being corrupted with damnable errours, seducest others. The seconde time hee preached at large, the liuing God, and the Lorde Iesus Christ his welbeloued sonne, eternall life through faith in his bloud; expressing therewith the abhomination of idolatry, wt a vehement exhortation to worship & adore the liuing God. MarginaliaThe preaching of Romanus to the Captaine. At these words Asclepiades commaunded the tormentors to strike Romanus on the mouth, that his teeth being striken out, his pronunciation at least wise might be impeired: The commandement was obeied, his face buffeted, his eye liddes torne with their nailes, his cheekes scorched with kniues, the skin of his bearde was plucked by little and little from the flesh, finally his seemely face was wholy defaced. The meeke Martyr sayde: I thanke thee, O Capitaine, that thou hast opened vnto me many mouthes, whereby I may preach my Lord & Sauiour Christ. Looke howe many woundes I haue, so many mouths I haue lauding and praising God. The captaine astonished wt this singular constancie, commanded them to cease from the tortures. Hee threatneth cruell fire, he reuileth the noble martyr, he blasphemeth god, saying: Thy crucified Christ, is but an yesterdaies God, the gods of the Gentiles are of most antiquitie. MarginaliaAntiquitie alleadged of the pagans.

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Heere againe Romanus taking good occasion, made a long Oration of the eternitie of Christ, of his humane nature, of the death & satisfaction of Christ for all mankinde. Which done, he sayde: geue me a childe (O Capitaine) but seuen yeres of age, which age is free from malice and other vices, wherwith riper age is commōly infected, and thou shalt heare what he will say; his request was graunted. A pretie boy was called out of the multitude, and set before him. Tell me my babe (quoth the Martyr) whether thou thinke it reason that we worship one Christ, and in Christ one father, or els that we worship infinite gods? Vnto whom the babe aunswered: MarginaliaThe confession of a childe against Idolatry. That certainly, whatsoeuer it be, that men affirme to be God, must nedes be one: which with one, is one and the same: and in as much as this one is Christ, of necessitie Christ must be the true God; for, that there be many gods, we children cannot beleue. The capitaine hereat cleane amased, said: thou yong villaine & traitor, where and of whom learnedst thou this lesson? Of my mother (quod the childe) with whose milke I sucked in this lesson, that I must beleue in Christ. The mother was called, and shee gladly appeared, the captaine commanded the childe to be horsed vp, and scourged. MarginaliaA childe martyred for the testimonye of Christ. The pitiful beholders of this pitilesse acte, could not temper thēselues from teares: the ioyful and glad mother alone, stood by with dry cheekes: yea, shee rebuked her sweete babe for crauing a draught of colde water, she charged him to thirst after the cup, that the infantes of Bethleem once dranke of, forgetting their mothers milke and pappes: MarginaliaAn example of vertuous education. shee willed him to remember little Isaac, who beholding the sworde wherewith, & the altar wheron he should be sacrificed, willingly profered his tender necke to the dent of his fathers sword.

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