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Cuthbert TunstallJohn Stokesley
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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

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John Stokesley

(1475 - 1539) [ODNB]

MA Oxford 1500; DTh 1516; archdeacon of Surrey 1522; archdeacon of Dorset 1523; dean of St George's, Windsor 1524; royal confessor 1517; royal chaplain 1519; almoner 1520; bishop of London (1530 - 39)

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

John Stokesley became bishop of London after Thomas Wolsey was deprived. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

After King Henry had extended Wolsey's praemunire to the whole clergy, the bishops agreed to call all the priests in their dioceses to contribute. Stokesley called his clergy together, but there was such protest and disorder that he sent them away with his pardon. He then complained of his clergy to Sir Thomas More. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

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Simon Fish was wary of returning home because he was afraid of Sir Thomas More and John Stokesley. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

Articles were put by Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. According to Monmouth, Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, he was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley and agreed to abjure, but not to read openly the abjuration in the form presented. He appealed to the king and was excommunicated by the bishop. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Stokesley sent a letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, directing them to be present at the sentencing of Richard Bayfield. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

Mr Selyard, writing to John Stokesley, asked him to send word by his friend William Saxey of anything that could be discovered against Robert Bate. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley had all of Tyndale's New Testaments and other books brought into St Paul's churchyard and burnt. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley pronounced sentence on John Tewkesbury as a relapsed heretic and turned him over to the sheriffs. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

James Bainham was examined before John Stokesley in the house of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Many people in the London diocese were made to abjure under Bishop Stokesley. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. Stokesley was suspected of wanting the benefice for someone else. He imprisoned Patmore in his own palace and then had him sent to Lollards' Tower, where he was kept in harsh conditions. 1583, p. 1044.

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Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced sentence upon him and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London to be burnt. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Stokesley swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Stokesley met Princess Elizabeth's christening procession at the church door. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Stokesley preached a sermon in 1534 commending the efficacy of masses. This was attended by Thomas Merial, who was accused of heretical opinions and brought before Stokesley. 1570, pp. 1439-40; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Stokesley was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Stokesley attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Stokesley favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Holland, Stokesley's summoner, was sent for by Sir Christopher Barker to take Thomas Frebarne to the bishop. Frebarne had obtained pork in Lent for his pregnant wife. The bishop had Holland take him and the pig to the civil authorities. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1184.

Edmund Bonner, when nominated to the bishopric of London, told Richard Grafton that John Stokesley had been wrong to persecute those like Lobley for having bibles in English. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

1147 [1123]

K. Henry 8. The disputation of Iohn Lambert before the king.

being drowned wyth malice against the poore man, wythout the kinges commaundement, obseruing no order, before the Archbishop had made an end, vnshamefastly kneeled downe to take in hand the disputation, alledged a place out of the 12. Chapter to the Corinthians, where S. Paule sayeth: Haue not I seene Iesus? And againe in the 15. chapter: Marginalia1. Cor. 15.He appeared vnto Cephas: and afterwarde vnto Iames, then to all the Apostles, but last of al, he appeared vnto me as one borne out of due time. &c.

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Heereunto, Lambert aunswered, he did nothing doubt but that Christ was seene, and did appeare, but he did deny that hee was in two or in diuers places, accordinge to the maner of his body.

MarginaliaWint. replyeth.Then Winchester agayne, abusinge the authoritie of Paule, repeateth the place out of the seconde Epistle to the Corinthians and 5. Chapter: Marginalia2. Cor. 5.And if so be, we haue knowen Christe after the fleshe, nowe hencefoorth knowe wee hym so no more. &c.

MarginaliaLambert aunswereth to Wint.Lambert aunswered, that this knowledge is not to be vnderstanded according to the sense of the body, and that it so appeared sufficiently by S. Paule, whyche speaking of hys owne reuelation, sayeth thus: I know not whether in the body or without the body, God knoweth, whiche was rapte into the thirde heauen, I knowe not, whether in the body or without, God knoweth. Whereby, euen by the testimony of S. Paule, a man shall easily gather, that in thys reuelation hee was taken vp in spirite into the heauens, & did see those things, rather then that Christe came downe corporally from heauen, to shew them vnto him: especially, for that it was said of the Aungell: That euen as hee ascended into heauen, so hee should come againe. And S. Peter sayeth, whom it behoueth to dwell in the heauens. And moreouer appoynting the measure of time, he addeth: Euen vntill that all things be restored. &c. Heere againe, Lambert being taunted and rebuked, coulde not be suffered to prosecute hys purpose.

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After the Byshoppe of Winchester had done, MarginaliaTonstall Byshop of Durisme against Lambert.Tonstall Bishop of Durham tooke hys course, and after a long preface, wherein he spake much of Gods omnipotencie, at the last he came to this poynt, saying: that if Christ could performe that which he spake touching the conuerting of hys body into bread, without doubt he would speak nothyng, but that he would performe.

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MarginaliaThe answer of Lamber to Tonstall.Lambert answeared, that there was no euidente place of Scripture, wherein Christ doth at any time say, that he woulde chaunge the breade into hys body: and moreouer, that there is no necessitie why he shoulde so doe. MarginaliaThe figuratiue phrase of the scripture to be marked.But thys is a figuratiue speache, euery where vsed in the Scripture, whē as the name and appellation of the thing signified, is attributed vnto the signe. By whiche figure of speache, circumcision is called the couenaunt, the Lambe, the passeouer: beside 600. such other.

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Nowe it remaineth to be marked, whether wee shall iudge all these after the words pronounced, to be straightway chaunged into an other nature. Then agayne began they to rage a freshe againste Lambert, so that if hee coulde not be ouercome wyth arguments, he shoulde be vanquished with rebukes and tauntes. What shoulde he doe? He might well holde his peace like a Lambe, but bite or barke againe he could not.

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Next orderly stepped forth the valiant champion Stokesly byshop of London, who afterward lying at þe poynte of death, reioysed, boasting, MarginaliaThe wicked boast of Stokesly. that in his life time he had burned 50. heretickes. Thys man amongest the residue, intending to fight for his belly, with a long protestation promised to proue, that it was not onely a worke of a diuine miracle, but also that it did nothing abhorre nature. For, it is nothing dissonant from nature (sayeth he) the substances of lyke things to be oftentimes chaunged one into an other: So that neuertheles, the accidentes doe remayne, all be it the substaunce it selfe, and the matter subiecte be chaunged. MarginaliaThe waterishe cold argument of Stokesly.Then hee declared it by the example of water boylinge so long vppon the fire, vntill all the substance thereof be euaporate. Nowe (sayeth he) it is the doctrine of the Philosophers, that a substaunce can not be chaunged, but into a substaunce: wherefore we doe affirme the substaunce of the water, to passe into the substaunce of the aire. MarginaliaOne substance may be chaunged into an other, but then the accidents change also with it.Notwythstanding the qualitie of the water, which is moystnesse, remaineth after the substaunce is chaunged, for the ayre is moist, euen as the water is.

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MarginaliaThe bishops triumphe before the victory.When this argument was heard, the Byshops greatly reioysed, and sodenly their countenance chaunged, as it were assuring themselues of a certaine triumph and victory by this Philosophicall transmutation of elements, and like as it had ben of more force, then Crisippus argument, which passed all maner of solution.

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MarginaliaLamberts answere to Stokesly.Lambertes aunswere was long looked for heere of all men. Who, assoone as he had obtained silence and liberty to speake, MarginaliaTauntes and raging against Lambert. first of all denied the Bishoppes assumpte, that themoisture of the water did remaine after the substance was altered. For all be it (sayth he) that we doe graunt with the Philosophers, the ayre to be naturall moist, notwythstanding it hathe one proper and a diuers degree of moysture, and the water an other. Wherefore, when as the water is conuerted into the aire, there remaineth moisture, as you doe say, but that is not the moisture of water, but the proper and naturall moisture of the aire. Whereupon there is an other doctrine amongest the Philosophers, as a perpetuall rule, that it can by no meanes be, that the qualities & accidents in natural things should remaine in their owne proper nature, without their proper subiect.

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Then againe the king and the Byshops raged against Lambert, in somuch that he was not only forced to silence, but also might haue ben driuen into a rage, if his eares had not bene acquainted with such tauntes afore. After this the other Bishoppes, euery one in his order, as they were appoynted, supplied their places in the disputation.

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MarginaliaTen disputers agaynst Lambert.There were appoynted ten in number, for the performing of this Tragedie, for his ten Arguments, which (as before we haue declared) were deliuered vnto Taylor the preacher. It were too long in this place, to repeate the reasons and arguments of euery Byshop: and no lesse superfluous were it so to doe, specially for somuch as they were all but common reasons, and nothing forceable, and suche as by the long vse of disputation haue ben beaten, and had little in them, either worthy the hearer, or the reader.

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MarginaliaLābert in great perplexityLambert in the meane tyme beyng compassed in wyth so many and great perplexities, vexed on the one side with checkes and taunts, and pressed on the other side, with the authority and threats of the personages, and partly being amazed with the maiestie of the place in the presence of the King, and especially being wearied with longe standinge, whych continued no lesse then fiue houres, from twelue of the clocke, vntill fiue at nyght, being broughte in despayre that he shoulde nothing profite in thys purpose, and seeing no hope at all in speaking, was at this poynt, MarginaliaLambert kepeth silence when speaking would do no good.that he chose rather to holde his peace.

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Whereby it came to passe, that those Byshoppes, which last of all disputed with him, spake what they lusted wythout interruption, saue onely that Lambert now and then, would alledge somwhat out of S. Augustin for the defence of hys cause, in which author he seemed to be very prompt and ready. But for the most parte (as I sayde) being ouercome with wearines and other griefes, he held his peace, defending himselfe rather with silence, then with argumentes, which he saw would nothing at al preuayle.

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At the last, when the day was passed, and that torches begā to be lighted, the king minding to breake vp this pretensed disputation, sayd vnto Lambert in this wise: MarginaliaThe kinges wordes to Lambert.What sayst thou now (sayd he) after al these great labours which thou hast taken vpon thee, and all the reasons & instructions of these learned men, art thou not yet satisfied? Wilt þu liue or dye? What sayst thou? Thou hast yet free choose. Lamber aunswered: I yelde and submit my selfe wholy vnto the will of your Maiestie. Then said the king. Commit thy selfe vnto the handes of God, and not vnto myne.

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Lambert, I commend my soule vnto the handes of God, but my body I wholy yeld & submit vnto your clemency. Then sayd the king, MarginaliaThe king condemneth the Martir of Christ Iohn Lambert.if you do committe your selfe vnto my iudgement, you must dye, for I will not be a patron vnto heretickes, and by and by turning himself vnto Cromwell, he sayd: MarginaliaL. Cromwell commaunded by the king to read the sentence.Cromwell: read the sentence of condēnation agaynst him. This Cromwel was at that time the chiefe frend of the Gospellers. And here is it muche to be maruailed at, to see how vnfortunately it came to passe in this matter, that through the pestiferous & crafty counsaile of this one Bishop of Winchester, Sathan (whiche oftentimes doth raise vp one brother to the destruction of an other) did here performe the condemnation of this Lambert by no other ministers, then Gospellers themselues. Taylour, Barnes, Cranmer and Cromwell: who afterwardes in a maner al, suffered the like for the Gospels sake: of whō (God willing) we will speake more hereafter.

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MarginaliaThe crafty fetch of Steph. Wint.This vndoubtedly was the malicious and crafty subtiltie of the Bishop of Winchester, whiche desired rather, that the sentence might be read by Cromwell, then by any other, so þt if he refused to doe it, he shoulde likewise haue incurred the like daunger. But to be short, Cromwell at the kings commaundement taking the schedule of condēnation in hand, read the same: MarginaliaThe sentence agaynst Iohn Lambert.Wherein was conteined the burning of heretickes, whiche either spake or wrote anye thing, or had any bookes by them, repugnant or disagreeing from the Papisticall Church, and theyr tradition, touching the sacrament of the aultare: also, a decree that the same shoulde be sette vppe vppon the Churche porches, and be read foure tymes euery yeare, in euery Churche

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