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Edmund Bonner

(d. 1569) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Leicester 1535; bishop of Hereford 1538; bishop of London (1540 - 49, 1553 - 59)

Henry VIII sent injunctions to Bonner regarding the abolishing of images in churches. 1563, pp. 685-86.

Edmund Bonner wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera obedientia, in which he expressed agreement with Gardiner's favouring of King Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and his position as head of the church. 1570, p. 1206; 1576, p. 1032; 1583, pp. 1059-60.

Stephen Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. Bonner owed his main preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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Bonner, when archdeacon of Leicester and ambassador in France, accused Gardiner of papistry. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1082.

Bonner sent a declaration to Thomas Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

King Henry wrote to Bonner in France, asking him to assist those printing English bibles in Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Bonner performed his duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

After Anne Askew had been examined by the quest and the mayor of London, she was imprisoned in the Counter and then examined by Bonner. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Bonner witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Bonner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

Edward VI's commissioners attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and gave Bonner a list of injunctions. He made a protestation, which he subsequently repented and recanted. He was pardoned, but committed to the Fleet for a short period. 1570, pp. 1501-02; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, pp. 1309-10.

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Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1492; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Hearing of the death of Thomas Seymour and of the rebellions in the kingdom, Bonner began to slacken his pastoral diligence. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 13103.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward VI called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. The council ordered him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross in three weeks' time and provided him with the articles upon which he was to preach. 1563, p. 695; 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

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John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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The commissioners, finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. Bonner submitted a set of questions the witnesses were to answer. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armygell Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-713; 1570, pp. 1508-13; 1576, pp. 1279-82; 1583, pp. 1317-23.

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On the following day, 19 September, Bonner's registrar appeared to report that Bonner was too ill to attend the session. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

Bonner was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and deprived of his bishopric under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Bonner remained in prison until the death of Edward VI. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1518; 1576, p. 1287; 1583, p. 1329.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1515; archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 56); burnt in 1556

Cranmer acknowledged the help he received from John Frith's book attacking the doctrine of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 500; 1570, p. 1176; 1576, p. 1006; 1583, p. 1033.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Cranmer's separation of the king and Queen Catherine was authorised by parliament. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Cranmer was godfather to Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Cranmer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Cranmer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Cranmer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

On the second day of the synod, Thomas Cranmer sent his archdeacon to command Alexander Alesius to cease from disputation. 1570, p. 1353; 1576, p. 1155; 1583, p. 1184.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Cranmer disputed with Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, pp. 534-35; 1570, p. 1282; 1576, pp. 1096-97; 1583, p. 1122.

Thomas Cranmer alone disputed the Six Articles in parliament. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1110; 1583, p. 1136.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a copy of his arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king.1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

When King Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Cranmer had great difficulty in getting King Edward to sign Joan Bocher's death warrant. 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Thomas Dobbe was brought before Cranmer, who committed him to the Counter, where he died. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to all the other bishops to inform them of the new directive. 1563, pp. 685, 691; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Cranmer, with other learned bishops and learned men, was appointed to draw up a uniform order of common prayer. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, p. 1340.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Cranmer was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Thirlby

(1506? - 1570) [ODNB]

BCL Cambridge by 1521; DCL 1528; DCnL 1530; auditor for Cambridge University 1530/31

Archdeacon of Ely by 1534; bishop of Westminster (1540 - 50); bishop of Norwich (1550 - 54); bishop of Ely (1554 - 50)

When Thomas Thirlby was a scholar at Cambridge, he often played the recorder in his room. At such times Thomas Bilney, living in the room above, would begin to pray. 1563, p. 482.

Thomas Thirlby was one of the learned men at Cambridge supported by the Boleyns. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Thirlby was resident ambassador to France with Stephen Gardiner in 1538. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

In a letter to Thomas Cromwell, Edmund Bonner asks for financial help, mentioning that he owes money to Thomas Thirlby and Simon Haynes. 1570, p. 1240; 1576, p. 1062; 1583, p. 1088.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Thomas Thirlby was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 829-30, 855.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Windsor
NGR: SU 967 768

A borough, market town and parish having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berkshire. 20 mile east by north from Reading, 22.5 miles west by south from London. The castle, built by Henry I, occupies more than 12 acres of ground, comprising upper, lower and middle wards. A principal royal residence in Tudor times. The living [of the town] is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1323 [1299]

K. Edward 6. Statutes repealed. Reformation of Religion. Boners letter.

Moreouer, that they should not geue orders to any person, but such as were learned in holy Scripture: neyther should deny thē that were learned in the same, being of honest conuersatiō and liuing. And last, that they should not at any time or place preach or set forth vnto the people any doctrine contrary or repugnant to the effect and entent cōteined and set forth in the kings highnes homelies, neither yet should admitte or geue licence to preach to any within theyr diocesses, but to such as they should know (or at the least assuredly trust) would do the same. And if at any time by hearing, or by report proued, they should perceiue þe cōtrary, they should then incontinent not onely inhibite that person so offending, but also punish him and reuoke theyr licence.

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Nowe during the time that the Commissioners were occupied abroad in theyr circuits about the spedy and diligent execution of these godly & zelous orders and decrees of the king and his counsell, his maiesty (with the aduise of the same) yet still desiring a farther reformation as well in this case of religiō, as also in some others of his Ciuill gouernment, appointed a parliamēt of the three estates of his Realme to be summoned agaynst the 4. day of Nouēber, in the first yeare of his raigne and the yeare of our Lorde. 1547. MarginaliaA Parliament called in the first yeare of king Edward. which continued vnto the 24. day of December then next folowing. In the which Session, for as much as hys highnes minded the gouernaunce and order of his people to be in perfect vnity & concord in al things, and especially in the true fayth and religion of God, and therewithal also duely wayed the great daunger that his louing Subiects were in for confessing the gospell of Christ, through many and diuers cruell statuts made by sondry his predecessors, against the same (which being stil left in force mought both cause the obstinate to contēn his graces godly procedings, and also the weak to be fearefull of theyr christianlike profession) he therfore caused it among other things by the authority of the same parliament to be enacted, MarginaliaStatut. an. 1. Reg. Edwardi. 6. Cap. 12. that all Actes of Parliament & Statutes, touching, mentioning, or in any wise concerning religion or opinions, that is to say (as well þe statute made in the first yeare of the reigne of king Rich. the second 

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Possibly a mistaken reference to 5 Rich. II, stat. 2, c. 2 (1382); Statutes of the Realm, 9 vols. in 10 (London: George Ayre and Andrew Strahan, 1810-22), 2.25-26.

, MarginaliaThe statute made An. 1. Reg. Rich. 2. and the statute made in the second yeare of the reigne of King Henry the fift 
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2 Hen. V, stat. 1, c. 7 (1414). Statutes, 2.181-84.

, MarginaliaAn. Reg Hen. 5. and the statute made in the 25. yeare of the raigne of K. Henry. 8. MarginaliaAn. 25. Reg. Hē. 8.cōcerning punishment and reformation of hereticks and Lollards and euery prouision therein conteined 
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Act for the Punishment of Heresy, 1534 (25 Hen. VIII, c.14; Statutes, 3.454-55.

, and the Statutes made for the abolishment of diuersity of opinions in certain Articles concerning Christian religion commōly called the 6. Articles, made in the 31. yeare of the raigne of K. Henry 8 
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Act Abolishing Diversity in Opinions, also known as the Act of Six Articles, 1539 (31 Hen. VIII, c. 14); Statutes, 3.739-43. This notorious legislation ordained that individuals who denied the doctrine of transubstantiation were to be burnt alive. It also imposed stringent penalties for violation of official policy in favor of administration of communion in one kind, clerical celibacy, the binding nature of vows of chastity or widowhood, celebration of private Masses, and auricular confession.

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. Marginalia Item An. 31. Henr. 8. & also the statute made in the Parliamēt begon the 16. day of Ianuary in the 33. yeare of the reigne of the sayd K. Hēry the 8. MarginaliaAn. 34. Henr. 8. and after proroged vnto the 21. day of Ianuary in the 24. 
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I.e., thirty-fourth year.

yeare of his sayd raigne, touching, mentioning, or in any wise concerning bookes of the olde and new Testament in English, & the printing, vttering, selling, geuing, or deliuering of bookes or writings, and reteining of english bookes or writinges, and reading preaching, teaching, or expounding the scriptures, or in any wise touching, mētioning or cōcerning any of the sayd matters 
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Act for the Advancement of True Religion and for the Abolishment of the Contrary, 1543 (34 Hen. VIII, c. 1; Statutes, 3.894-97

: MarginaliaAn. 35. Henr. 8. repealed. Item note for the statute, An. 2. Reg. Hē. 4. cp. 15 
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De haeretico comburendo ('Concerning the heretic who is to be burned'), 1401. 2 Hen. IV, c. 15; Statutes, 2.125-28. This notorious legislation ordained that those who translated or owned translations of the Bible would be burnt at the stake.

. because that statute was repealed by an estatute made 25. an. Henr. 8. therefore the same is here omitted.
And also one other statute made in the 35 yeare of the Raigne of the sayd K. Henry 8. concerning the qualification of the Statute of the sixe Articles 
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A Bill Concerning the Six Articles, 1544 (35 Hen. VIII, c. 5; Statutes, 3.960-62).

, and all and euery other act or acts, of parliament concerning doctrine or matters of religion, and al and euery braunch, article, sentence, matter, paines, or forfaytures conteined, mētioned, or in any wise declared many of the same Actes or Statutes) should from thenceforth be vtterly repealed, MarginaliaThe bloudy statute of the 6. articles repealed. made voyd, and of none effect 
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Act of Repeal, 1547 (1 Edw. VI, c. 12); Statutes, 4.i.18-22.

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By occasion wherof, as wel al such his godly subiects as were then still abiding within this Realme, had free liberty publickely to professe the Gospel: as also many learned & zealous preachers (before banished) were now both licensed freely to returne home agayne 

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Exiled preachers who now returned included John Hooper and William Turner, both of whom received appointment as chaplains to Protector Somerset, Miles Coverdale, and others.

, & also encouraged boldly and faythfully to trauel in theyr fūction and calling, so that God was much glorified, and the people in many places greatly edified.

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Moreouer in the same Session his Maiestye with the Lords spirituall and temporall, and the Commons in the same Parliament assembled, throughly vnderstanding by the iudgement of the best learned, that it was more agreable vnto þt first institution of the sacrament of the most precious body and bloud of our Sauior Christ, and also more conformable to the common vse and practice both of the Apostles, and of the primatiue Churche, by the space of fyue hundreth yeares and more after Christes Ascension, that the sayde holye Sacrament shoulde bee ministred vnto all Christen people vnder both the kindes of bread and wine 

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Protestants rejected the practice of denying wine to members of the laity on the ground that it was a non-biblical practice that did not come into general use until the twelfth century.

, then vnder the forme of bread onely, and also that it was more agreable vnto the sayd first institution of Christ and the vsage of the Apostles and primatiue Churche, that the people being presēt should receiue the same with the priestthen that the priest should receiue it alone: dyd by theyr authority moreouer enacte, that the sayde holy Sacrament should be from thēceforth commonly deliuered and ministred vnto the people throughout the churches of Englād and Ireland and other the kinges dominiōs vnder both þe kindes of bread and of wine MarginaliaThe cōmunion vnder both kindes., except necessity otherwise required: and also, that the Priest that should minister the same, should at the least one day before, exhort all persons which should be present, likewise to resort & prepare them selues to receiue the same. And at þe day prefixed, after some godly exhortation made by the minister (wherin should be further expressed the benefit and comfort promised to them which worthely receiue this holy Sacrament, & the daunger and indignation of God threatned to them which presume to receiue the same vnworthely, to the end that euery man might try and examine his owne conscience before he should come thereunto) the sayd Minister shoulde not without a lawfull cause denye the same to any person that would deuoutly and humbly desire it: any Law, Statute, ordinaunce, or custome, contrary therunto in any wise not withstanding.

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MarginaliaThe assembly of Byshops and others at Windsore.After which most godly consent of the parliament, the king being no lesse desirous to haue the forme of administration of the Sacrament truely reduced to the ryght rule of the scriptures and first vse of the primatiue church, then he was to establish the same by the authority of his owne regall lawes appoynted certain of the most graue and best learned Bishops and others of his Realme, to assemble together at his Castle of Windsor, there to argue and entreat vpon this matter, and conclude vpon and set forth one perfect and vniforme order according to the rule and vse afore sayd.

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And in the meane while that the learned were thus occupyed about theyr conferences, the Lord Protectour and the rest of the kinges Councell, farther remembring that that time of yere did then approch, wherin were practised many superstitious abuses and blasphemous ceremonies agaynst the glory of God, and trueth of his word (determining the vtter abolishing thereof) directed theyr letters vnto the godly and reuerend father Thomas Cranmer, then Archbishop of Caunterbury, & Metropolitane of England, requiring him that vpon the receit thereof he should will euery Bishop within his Prouince, forthwith to geue in charge vnto all the Curates of theyr Diocesses, MarginaliaCandles not to be borne on Candlemas day.that neither candles should be any more borne vpō Candlemas day, MarginaliaAshes forbidden on Ashwednesday.neither yet ashes vsed in Lent, nor Palmes vpon palme Sonday 

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In conjunction with the endorsement of iconoclastic destruction of 'abused' religious images, the systematic abolition of ecclesiastical ceremonies on appropriate feast days eradicated the highly affective experience of late medieval worship. King, English Reformation Literature, pp. 150-51.

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Whereupon the Archbishop zealously fauouring thee good and Christianlike purpose of the king and his Coūsell, did immediately in that behalfe write vnto all the rest of the Bishops of that prouince, and amongest them vnto MarginaliaEdm. Boner.Edmund Boner then Bishop of London. Of whose rebellious and obstinate contumacy, for that we haue hereafter more to say, I thought not to stand long hereupon, but onely by the way somewhat to note his former dissimulation and cloked hipocrisy 

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Foxe's attack on Bonner for dissimulation is typical.

in that he outwardly at the first consented as well vnto this, as also vnto all other the kinges proceedinges (but whether of feare or of any other subtle fetch, I know not, howbeit most like, rather for one of them or both, then for any true loue.) And therefore receiuing the Archbishops letters as one of them seeming to allow the contentes thereof, he did presently write vnto the Bishop of Westminster, & to others, to whom he was appoynted, requiring them to geue such knowledge therof in theyr diocesses, as thereunto apperteyned: as more plainely appeareth by these his owne letters here inserted which here do folow.

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¶ A Letter missiue of Edmund Boner sent to the Byshop of Westminster, with the tenour of the Archbishops Letter for abolishing of candles, Ashes, Palmes, and other Ceremonies.

Marginalia

Boners letter for the abolishing Ashes, Palmes. &c.

Anno 1548.

MY very good Lord, after most harty commendations, these be to aduertise your good Lordship that my Lord of Canterburyes grace this present 28. day of Ianuary sent vnto me hys letters missiue, cōteing this in effect: that my Lord Protectours Grace with the aduise of other the kinges maiesties most honorable Counsell. for certayne considerations them mouing, are fully resolued that no candles shall be borne vpon Candlemas day, nor also from henceforth Ashes or Palmes vsed any longer, requiring me thereupon by his sayd letters, to cause admonitiō and knowledge thereof to be geuen vnto your Lordship and other Byshops with celerity accordingly. In consideration wherof I do send at this presēt these letters vnto your sayd Lordship, that you therupon may geue knowledge & aduertisement therof within your Dioces as appertayneth: Thus committing your good Lordship to almighty God, as wel as fare as your good hart

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