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Alexander Nowell

(c. 1516/17 - 1602) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1536; MA 1540; DTh 1545; master of Westminster School 1543; canon of Westminster 1551; MP Looe, Cornwall 1553; protestant exile; dean of St Paul's (1560 - 1602)

John Redman called Alexander Nowell to his deathbed to discuss religion. 1563, pp. 867-74; 1570, pp. 1537-41; 1576, pp. 1310-14; 1583, pp. 1360-64.

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Elias Lomas

Servant of John Redman

Elias Lomas was present at the deathbed of John Redman. 1563, p. 867; 1570, p. 1537; 1576, p. 1310; 1583, p. 1360.

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John Redman

(1499 - 1551) [ODNB]

Theologian; BA Cambridge 1526; MA Paris 1528; BTh Cambridge 1534; DTh 1537

Royal chaplain; archdeacon of Stafford 1540; archdeacon of Taunton by 1542; warden of King's Hall,Cambridge 1542; Master of Trinity College 1546

John Redman preached at the funeral of Martin Bucer. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, pp. 1227-28; 1583, p. 1257.

John Redman was a witness in the trial of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 852-54;=.

On his deathbed, John Redman discussed matters of religion with Richard Wilkes, Alexander Nowell, John Young and others. 1563, pp. 867-70; 1570, pp. 1537-39; 1576, pp. 1310-12; 1583, pp. 1360-62.

After Redman's death, John Young sent a testimonial letter to John Cheke, praising Redman and his thoughts on religion. 1563, pp. 870-74; 1570, pp. 1539-41; 1576, pp. 1312-14; 1583, pp. 1362-64.

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John Young

(1514 - 1581/2) [ODNB]

College head; BA Cambridge 1535; MA 1539; BTh 1546; DTh 1553; vice-chancellor of Cambridge (1553 - 55); regius professor of divinity (1555/6); imprisoned 1558

Young was present at the deathbed of John Redman and discussed matters of religion with him. 1563, pp. 867-70; 1570, pp. 1537-39; 1576, pp. 1310-12; 1583, pp. 1360-62.

After John Redman's death, John Young sent a testimonial letter to John Cheke, praising Redman and his thoughts on religion. 1563, pp. 870-74; 1570, pp. 1539-41; 1576, pp. 1312-14; 1583, pp. 1362-64.

In the disputation at Cambridge in 1549, John Madew answered the first disputation, opposed by William Glyn, Alban Langdale, Thomas Sedgewick and John Young. 1570, pp. 1556-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1376-82.

In the same disputation at Cambridge in 1549, Andrew Perne answered the third disputation, opposed by Thomas Parker, Leonard Pollard, Thomas Vavasour and John Young. 1570, pp. 1556-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1385-88.

John Young was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 846.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions by the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

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Martin Bucer

(1491 - 1551) [ODNB]

b. Alsace; theologian; Dominican friar 1508; MA, BTh Heidelberg; present at Luther's disputation

Released from monastic vows in 1521; led reform in Strasbourg; went to England with Fagius; professor at Cambridge (1549 - 51)

Martin Bucer was brought to Cambridge by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Catholics defamed Bucer, claiming that on his deathbed he denied that Christ was the messiah. John Redman and other Englishmen knew this to be false. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

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Pietro Matire Vermigli (Peter Martyr)

(1499 - 1562) [ODNB]

b. Florence; Augustinian friar; Greek and Hebrew scholar; evangelical reformer

DTh Padua 1525; abbot in Naples; prior at Lucca

From 1542 in exile: Strasbourg (1542-47); regius professor of divinity at Oxford (1548-49); Strasbourg (1553-56); Zurich (1556-death)

Peter Martyr was brought to Oxford by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Peter Martyr disputed with William Chedsey and others at Oxford over transubstantiation in 1549. 1570, p. 1519; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1330.

Doctors Tresham, Chedsey and Morgan Philips were the chief opponents of Peter Martyr in the disputations at Oxford in 1549. 1570, pp. 1552-55; 1576, pp. 1323-26; 1583, pp. 1373-76.

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Richard Wilkes

Present at John Redman's deathbed

Richard Wilkes took notes on the communication he had with John Redman. He and others discussed matters of religion with Redman. 1563, pp. 867-74; 1570, pp. 1537-41; 1576, pp. 1310-14; 1583, pp. 1360-64.

1384 [1360]

K. Edw 6. Sentence of depriuation agaynst Winchester. Doctor Redman.

MarginaliaAnno 1551.Nicholas Bishop of London, Thomas Byshop of Ely, and Henry Byshop of Lincolne, Syr William Peter Knight, one of our said soueraigne Lordes two principall secretaries, Sir Iames Hales knight, one of our sayd soueraigne Lordes Iustices of his common plees, Griffith Leison and Iohn Oliuer, Doctors of the Ciuill lawe, Richard Goodrike & Iohn Gosnold Esquiers, delegates, and Iudges assigned & appointed, rightfully & lawfully proceeding according to the forme & tenor of þe said commission, for the hearing, examinatiō, debating, & finall determination of þe causes and matters in the said commisson mentioned and conteined, and vpon the contentes of the same, and certeine articles obiected of office against you Steeuen Bishop of Winchester, as more plainely and fully is mencioned and declared in the said commission and articles, all which we repute & take here for to be expressed: & after sondry iudiciall assemblies, examinations, & debatings of the said cause & matters, with all incidents , emergents, & circumstances to the same or any of them belonging, and the same also beeing by vs ofte heard, seene, and well vnderstanded, and with good and mature examination and deliberation debated, cōsidered and fully wayed and pondred, obseruing all such order and other things as by the lawes, equitie, and the said commission ought or needed heerein to be obserued, in the presence of you Steeuen Bishop of Winchester, do proceede to the geuing of our finall iudgement and sentence diffinitiue in this maner following:

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For asmuch as by the actes inacted, exhibites, and allegations purposed, deduced, & alleaged, & by sufficient proofes with your owne confession in the causes aforesaid had and made, MarginaliaWynchester foūd to be a transgressor.we do euidently finde and perceiue that you Steuen Bishop of Winchester haue not only transgressed the commaundements mencioned in the same, but also haue of lōg time, notwithstanding many admonitions and commandements geuen vnto you to the contrary, remained, a person much grudging, speaking, and repugning against the godly reformations of abuses in religion set foorth by the kings highnes authoritie within this his realme: and forasmuch as we do also finde you a notable, open, and contemptuous disobeyer, of sondry godly and iust commandements geuen vnto you by our sayd soueraigne Lorde and by his authoritie, in diuers great and weighty causes, touching and cōcerning his princely office, the state and common quietnes of this his Realme: and for asmuch as you haue and yet do contemptuously refuse to recognise your notorious negligences, & misbehauiours, contempts, and disobediēces, remaining still after a great number of seuerall admonitions alwaies more and more indurate, incorrigible, and without all hope of amendement, cōtrary both to your oth sworne, obedience, promise, and also your boūden duety of allegiance: and for the great sclaunder and offence of the people, arise in many partes of the Realme, through your wilfull doings, sayings, and preachings, contrary to the common order of the Realme, and for sondry other great causes by the actes, exhibites, your owne confession, and proofes of this processe more fully appearing, considering withall that nothing effectually hath ben on your behalfe alleaged, purposed, and proued, ne by any other meanes appeareth, whiche doth or may empayre or take away the proofes made against you, vpon the sayde matters and other the premisses:

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Therefore we Thomas Archbyshop of Caunterbury, Primate of all England and Metropolitane, Iudge delegate aforesayd, calling God before our eyes, with expresse consent and assent of Nicholas B. of London, Tho. bishop of Ely, Henry B. of Lincolne, sir Wil. Peter Knight, Sir Iames Hales Knight, Griffith Leison, and Ioh. Oliuer, doctors of the ciuill law, Rich. Goodricke, and Iohn Gosnold, Esquires, Iudges, and Colleagues with vs in the matters aforesaid, and with the counsaile of diuers learned men in the lawes, with whome we haue conferred in and vpon the premisses, MarginaliaSteuē Gardiner Bish. of Winchester depriued of his iudge and determine you Steeuen Bishop of Winchester, to be depriued and remooued from the Bishopricke of Winchester, and from all the rightes, authoritie, emoluments, commodities, and other apurtenaunces to the sayde Byshoprike in any wise belonging, whatsoeuer they be, and by these presentes we doe depriue and remoue you from your sayd Bishopricke, and all rites & other commodities aforesaide: and further pronounce & declare the sayd Byshopricke of Winchester to all effectes and purposes, to be voyde by this our sentence definitiue, which we geue, pronounce, and declare in these writings.

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This sentence diffinitiue being geuen, the sayd Byshop of Winchester vnder his former protestatiōs, dissented frō the geuing and reading thereof, and frō the same as vniust of no efficacy or effect in law: and in that that the same conteineth excessiue punishmēt, and for other causes expressed in his appellation aforesayd, did then and there apud Acta,immediately after the pronouncing of the sētence, by word of mouth, MarginaliaSteuē Gardiner appealeth from the Sentence to the king.appeale to the kinges Royall maiestie, first, secondly and thirdly, instantly, more instantly, most instantly, most instantly, & asked apostles, or letters dimissorials to be geuen and granted vnto him: And also vnder protestation not to recede from the sayd appellation, asked a copy of the sayd sētence, the Iudges declaring that they would first knowe the kinges pleasure and his counsell therin: vpon the reading and geuing of which sentence, the promoters willed Will. Say and Thomas Argall to make a publicke Instrument and the witnesses then and there present to beare testimony thereunto. &c.

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MarginaliaThe end of Winchesters story.And thus haue ye the whole discourse and processe of Steuen Gardiner late bishop of Winchester, vnto whome the Papisticall cleargy doth so much leane, as to a mighty Atlas: an vpholder of their ruinous Religion. And though I haue not herewithal so fully expressed all his letters, answeres, preachinges, examinations, desensions, exhibites & attestations, with the depositions of all suche witnesses as he could and did produce for the most aduantage of hys owne cause, with such notes also and collections gathered vpon the same, as here I might, and as before I haue don I must intreate þe reader to cōsider first þe greatnes of this volume which would not well beare the tedious tractatiō thereof: and secondly to content himself in resorting to our first history, where not onely he may peruse the whole discourse of this bishops doinges set foorth at large: MarginaliaThe Notes and collections hereof, read in the first edition. fol. 862.but also may briefely read in a few summarye notes collected, the whole course of his doctrine and Iudgement, touchyng what poyntes of religion he did consent and agree, or not agree vnto. pag. 862.

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And thus an end Winchester for a while, til we come to talke of his death hereafter. MarginaliaWinchester a good lawyer yet but a naughty diuine, and a worse Bishop.Whome as wee number amongest good Lawyers, so is he to be reckoned amongest ignoraunt and grosse Diuines, proud Prelates and bloudy persecuters: as both by his cruell life and Pharisaicall doctrine may appeare, especially in the article of the Sacrament, and of our iustification and Images, and also in crying out of the Paraphrase, not considering in whose person the things be spoken, but what the Paraphrast vttereth in the person of Christ, or of the Euangelist, and not in his own, that he wrasteth vnto the author, and maketh thereof heresie, and abhomination.

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The like impudency and quarrelling also hee vsed agaynst Bucer, Luther, Peter Martyr, Cranmer, & almost agaynst all other true Interpreters of the Gospell. So blinde was his iudgement, or els so wilfull was his mind in the truth of Christs doctrine, MarginaliaWinchester as vnskilfull as wilfull.that it is hard to say whether in him vnskilfulnes or wilfulnes had greater predomination. But agaynst this doct. Gardiner we will now set and match 

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John Redman

In early November 1551, John Redman, the first master of Trinity College, Cambridge, died. One reason why his death attracted attention was the reputation of the deceased. Redman was a leading theologian (he had been Lady Margaret professor there) who was admired both for his character and his learning. A Catholic humanist, Redman had accepted the Royal Supremacy, and had a foot in both the evangelical and conservative camps. (For an overview of Redman's life and career see Ashley Null, 'John Redman, the Gentle Ambler' in Westminster Abbey Reformed, 1540-1640, ed. C. S. Knighton and Richard Mortimer (Aldershot, 2003), pp. 38-74). Another reason for the notoriety of Redman's death was that he invited leading Cambridge theologians to his deathbed to discuss contentious religious issues. One of those present was Foxe's close friend Alexander Nowell.

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In December 1551, A reporte of Maister Doctor Redman's answeres (London, 1551), STC 20827, was printed. This work claimed that Redman died embracing justification by faith and rejecting the Real Presence. The Reporte was printed by William Seres, a printer under Cecil's patronage, from accounts of Redman's death in Cecil's possession. The Reporte was thus an attempt by Edwardian propagandists to claim that a theologian respected by religious conservatives agreed with them on key doctrinal issues. Under Mary, the Catholics struck back. Cuthbert Tunstall had Redman's treatise, De justificatione, printed. It was a work of Redman's which did not accept justification by faith, written in Henry VIII's reign. And Thomas Smyth printed an edition of Redman's Complaint of Grace, a work critical of major Edwardian religious reforms. In printing his account of Redman's deathbed conversations, Foxe - almost certainly encouraged by Cecil and possibly Nowell as well - was, in a real sense, responding to these Marian ripostes. And he did so, even though he was visibly uneasy with aspects of Redman's theology. Redman's conversations were of little interest to already convinced Protestants, but they could be quite useful in winning over wavering Catholics. Foxe's willingness to print his account of Redman is a reminder of the extent to which he intended the Acts and Monuments as a device for inducing Catholics to convert.

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In 1563, Foxe used two sources. The first was the Reporte, which he reprinted word-for-word. The second was a letter from John Young, who had been present at Redman's deathbed, to John Cheke, describing what had transpired. Young was master of St. John's College and was arguably the leading Catholic theologian in Marian Cambridge. Foxe claimed that he was working from the original letter in Young's handwriting. (It is worth noting that Young, although he lived until 1582, never repudiated the letter). Foxe almost certainly obtained this letter from Cecil, who inherited Cheke's papers and books. In the first edition, Foxe printed Young's letter in the original Latin and also provided a translation. In the second edition, Foxe retained the translation but discarded the Latin text of the letter. He also altered the order of the materials reprinted from the Reporte, now printing Redman's conversation with Wilkes before Redman's conversation with Nowell. But the only substantive additions Foxe made to his account of Redman in 1570 were two brief introductions to the account of Redman's deathbed and to Young's letter to Cheke. The version of the account of Redman printed in 1570 was replicated exactly in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman

on the cōtrary side, MarginaliaD. Redman set to match Steuen Gardiner.D. Redman, for so much as he departing this transitory life the same present yeare 1551. commeth now by course of history here to be mencioned. Who for his singular life and profounde knowledge, being inferiour in no respect to the sayde Gardiner, shall stand as great a frend in promoting the gospels cause, as the other seemeth an enemy 
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This is an exaggeration; Redman was by no means a convinced evangelical. He was, instead, a Catholic humanist who was sceptical of papal supremacy and receptive to some Protestant teachings.

by all maner of wayes to empayre and deface the same. For the more assured declaratiō whereof, we will hereto adioyne (the Lorde willing) the learned communication betweene the said Doct. Redman lying in his deathbed, and M. Wilkes, mayster Alexander Nowell, Doct. Yong, and other witnesses moe 
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Richard Wilkes was the master of Christ's College. John Young was, at the time, a fellow of Trinity and an outspoken religious conservative. Alexander Nowell was, at this time, the headmaster of Westminster School and an evangelical.

. Whereof the sayd M. Wilkes thus recordeth, speaking in his owne person and his owne wordes as followeth.

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A note of the communication 
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This note was given to Seres by William Cecil. (For the provenance of this note, see A reporte of Maister Doctor Redman's answers…(London, 1571), STC 20827, sig. A2v). Seres printed the communication (see A reporte, sigs. A6v-B3v). Cecil's possession of this communication strongly suggests that there was a systematic effort made by the Edwardian authorities to collect testimony about Redman's final days. This in turn suggests that Seres's account was carefully orchestrated propaganda and not, as Seres suggests, the result of happenstance and casual interest..

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that I Richard Wilkes had with maister Doctor Redman being sicke at Westminster, but of good memory 2. Nouemb. 1551. in the presence of M. Yong & an other, whō I did not know 
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This was probably Alexander Nowell, the headmaster of Westminster School, although it might have been Edward Cratford, under master of Westminster School, who was also present.

, and 2. of M. Doct. Redmans seruants, the one called Elias, and the other vnknowne. 
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The servants who were present were Ellis Lomas, Richard Elithorne, Richard Burton and John Wryght.

MarginaliaThe communication and confession of D. Redman in his deathbed.I The foresayd Richard Wilkes comming to Doct. Redman lying sicke at Westminster, and first saluting him after my ordinary duetye, wished him health both in soule & body, not doubting moreoner, but he did practise the godly counsaile in himselfe, which he was wont to geue to other being in his case: and thankes be to God (said I) who had geuen him stuffe of knowledge to comfort himself wtall. To whom he answering again, said in this wise: God of all comfort geue me grace to haue comfort in hym, and to haue my mind wholy fixed in him. M. Yong & I sayd, Amen. Thē I cōmoned wt him of his sickenes, & the weaknes of his body, and said þt though he were brought neuer so low, yet he, if it were his pleasure that raised vp Lazarus, could restore him to health agayne. No, no saith he,

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