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(c. 815 - 897) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Greek scholar; wrote an encyclopedia, Myrobiblion. Chief secretary of state, captain of the Life Guard.

Patriarch of Constantinople 857 after Ignatius was deposed; precipitated a schism between the Eastern and Western churches. He was deposed in 867, reinstated in 878, deposedand banished in 886

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 74; 1576, p. 50; 1583, p. 50.

1459 [1435]

Queene Mary. Disputation of Doct. Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury at Oxford.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. Aprill.shew forth to thee in earth.

The body of Christ is worthy highest honor.

Ergo, he sheweth forth the body of Christ here in earth.

Cran. That is shewed forth here on the earth which may be seene, which may be touched, and which may be eaten, but these things be not true of the body. MarginaliaThe body of Christ is shewed forth to vs here in earth diuers wayes: as in reading of the Scriptures, somtymes in hearing Sermons, & also in Sacramentes, and yet neither the Scriptures nor Sermōs, nor Sacraments are to be worshiped.

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Cole. Why should not these thyngs be true of the bodye of Christ.

Cran. The Maior out of Chrysostome is true, meaning of the Sacrament. For in the Sacrament the true body of Christ, and not the figuratiue body is set forth.

Weston. Shewe me somewhat in earth woorthy greatest honour.

Cran. I cannot, but in the sacrament onely.

West. Ergo, the Sacrament is worthy greatest honor.

Cran. So it is.

Iudges. Let it be written.

Cran. I pray you let my aunswer be written likewyse: I affirme that the body of Christ is shewed forth vnto vs. It is our fayth that seeth Christ.

West. Ostendo tibi. i. I shew it to thee, sayth Chrysostome, not to thy fayth.

Cran. He speaketh sacramentally.

West. Ergo, Chrysostome lyeth. For he speaking of shewing, saith: Ego Chrysostomus ostendo. i. I Chrysostome doe shew. But he can shew nothing sacramentally.

Ched. By force of argument we are brought to this poynt that the body of Christ is prooued to be on earth, not onely sacramentally, but in very deed also, by this reason, that it is worthy highest honour. The reason is indissoluble.

Cran. I neuer heard a more vayne argument, & it is most vayne: also it hath myne answer vnto it.

Ched. Wil you affirme that it is absurd which Chrysostom sayth, that the body of Christ is touched?

MarginaliaThe argument of Chedsey is not formall.I touch the body of Christ in the Sacrament, as Thomas touched Christ.

Thomas touched Christ, and said Dominus meus, Deus meus, my Lord, my God:

Ergo, that which he touched, was Lord God.


Commentary  *  Close

Foxe took one of Chedsey's arguments and rewrote it as a formal syllogism (see textual variant 51). Throughout the 1570 edition, Foxe almost compulsively rewrote theological arguments as syllogisms.

¶ This Argument as I receyued it out of the notaries booke, is not formall: but rather he should conclude in the third figure thus:

As Thomas touched the body of Christ, so we touch
it in the sacrament.
ti-Thomas touched the body of Christ corporally:
Ergo, we touch the body of Christ corporally in the sa-

Cran. I deny your Argument. MarginaliaGod cannot be touched.He touched not God, but him which was God. Neither is it sound doctrine to affirme that God is touched.

Ched. This is because of the vnion: so that God is sayd to be touched, 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe changed Chedsey's phrase 'that God is said to be touched, it happened through the union' (1563, p. 947), to 'this is because of the union, so that God is sayd to be touched' (1570, p. 1599; 1576, p. 1364; 1583, p. 1435).

when Christ which is both God and man, is touched.

MarginaliaTertull. De resurrectione carnis.Tertullian De carnis resurrectione, sayth: Videamus de propria Christiani hominis forma, quanta huic substantiæ friuolæ & sordidæ apud deum prærogatiua sit. Etsi sufficeret illi quod nulla omnino anima salutem posset adipisci nisi dum est in carne, crediderit: adeò caro salutis cardo est, de qua cum anima deo alligatur, ipsa est quæ efficit, vt anima alligari possit: sed & caro abluitur, vt anima emaculetur: caro inungitur, vt anima consecretur: signatur, vt anima muniatur: caro manus impositione adumbratur, vt anima spiritu illuminetur, caro corpore & sanguine Christi vescitur, vt anima de deo saginetur. MarginaliaQuod symbolorum est, rei attribuitur.

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That is to say.

Let vs consider as concerning the proper forme of the christian man, what great prerogatiue this vaine & foule substaunce of ours hath with God. Although it were sufficient to it, that no soule could euer get saluation, vnlesse it beleeue while it is in the flesh: so much the flesh auayleth to saluation, by the which flesh it commeth, that where as the soule so is linked vnto god, it is the sayd flesh that causeth the soule to be linked: yet the flesh moreouer is washed, that the soule may be cleansed: the flesh is annoynted that the soule may be consecrated, the flesh is signed that the soule may be defended, the fleshe is shadowed by the imposition of hands, that the soule may be illuminated with the spirit: the flesh doth eate the body and bloud of Christ, that the soule may be fed of God. Wherupon I gather this argument.

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MarginaliaArgument.The flesh eateth the body of Christ.

Ergo, the body of Christ is eaten with the mouth.

Item Phocïus 1. ad Cor. cap. 11. vpon these words: Reus erit corporis & sanguinis, &c.

Phoceus. 1. Cor. cap. 11.

Commentary  *  Close

'Phocius' (1563, pp. 947-48) or 'Phoceus' (1570, pp. 1599-1600; 1576, pp. 1364-65; 1583, pp. 1435-36) is Photius (c.820 - 891), a Byzantine theologian and patriarch of Constantinople.

alleaged by Chedsey.Ὁ ἔνοχος τοῦ σὼματος καὶ τοῦ αἳματος, τοῦτο δηλοῖ, ὅτι καθάπερ παρέδωκε μὲν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἴουδας, παρώνησαν εἰς αὔτον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, οὕτως ἀτιμάζουσι ἀκαθάρτοις δεξόμενοι, ὡς Ἰουδαῖοι κρατοῦντες αὔτον τότε καὶ καταράτω προσφέροντες στόματι· διὰ δὲ τὸ εἰπεῖν πολλάκις τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου, δηλοῖ ὅτι οὐκ ἄνθρωπος ψιλὸς ὁ θυόμενος, ἄλλα αὔτος ὁ κύριος ὁ ποιητὴς πάντων, ὡς δῆθεν διὰ τοῦτων ἐκφοβων αὐτοὺς. i. Quod ait, reus corporis & sanguinis, istud declarat quod sicuti Iudas ipsum quidem tradidit, Iudæi contumeliosè in ipsum insaniebant: sic ipsum inhonorant qui sanctissimum ipsius corpus impuris manibus suscipiunt, tanquam Iudæi ipsi tenent & execrabili ore recipiunt. Quòd crebro mentionem facit corporis & sanguinis Domini, manifestat quòd non sit simplex homo qui sacrificatur, sed ipse Dominus omnium factor, tanquam per hæc quidem ipsos perterrefaciens. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 455, fn 2

[This passage will be found "Apud Œcumen." tom. i. p. 532. Paris, 1631. Jenkyns. - ED.]

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That is to say.

Where as he sayth: Is guilty of the body and bloud: this he declareth, that like as Iudas betraied him, & the Iews were fierce and spitefull agaynst hym: so do they dishonor him which receiue his holy body with their impure hands and as the Iewes did hold him then, do now receyue hym with vnpure mouthes. And where as hee often maketh mention of the body & bloud of the Lord, he declareth that it is not simply man that is sacrificed, but euen the Lord hymself, being the maker of all things, hereby (as it were) makyng them afrayd.

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Ergo (as it is hereby gathered) the body of Christ is touched with the hands.

Cranmer. You vouche two authors agaynst me vpon sundry thyngs. First I must aunswer Tertullian, and then the other.

Ched. They tend both to one meanyng.

Cran. MarginaliaAunswere to Tertullianus.Vnto Tertullian I answer (because our disputatiō is wandring and vncertayne) that he calleth that the flesh which is the Sacrament. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe also reworded a statement Cranmer made: 'unto Tertulliane I aunswere (for as much as the disputation is uncertain, what he calleth fleshe and what he calleth the Sacrament)' (1563, p. 947). This became: 'unto Tertullaine I aunswer (because our disputation is wandryng and uncertayne) that he calleth the flesh which is the Sacrament' (1570, p. 1599; 1576, p. 1365; 1583, p. 1435). This transforms an observation that Tertullian's Eucharistic formulas were ambiguous into an affirmation by Cranmer that Tertullian called the sacrament the flesh.

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For although God worke all thyngs in vs invuisibly beyond mans reach: yet they are so manifest, that they may be seene, and perceyued of euery sense. Therfore he setteth forth Baptisme, vnction, and last of all the supper of the Lord vnto vs, which he gaue to signify his operation in vs. The flesh liueth by the bread, but the soule is inwardly fed by Christ.

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Weston. MarginaliaD. Weston vrgeth him with the wordes of Tertullian.Sticke to those wordes of Tertullian: Corpus vescitur vt anima saginetur, id est, The body eateth that the soul may be fed.

Ched. The fleshe eateth the body of Christ, that the soule may be fed therewith.

West. Here you see two kyndes of foode: of the soule and of the body.

Ched. He sayeth, that not onely the soule, but the fleshe is also fed.

Cran. The soule is fed with the body of Christ, the bodye with the sacrament.

Ched. Is the soule fed with the body of Christ, & not with the sacrament?

Cran. Read that which followeth, and you shall perceyue that by thyngs externall, an operation internall is vnderstood. MarginaliaInwardly we eate the body: outwardely the Sacrament.Inwardly we eat Christes body, and outwardly we eat the sacrament. So one thing is done outwardly, an other inwardly. Like as in Baptisme the external element wherby the body is washed, is one: so the internal thyng wherby the soule is clensed, is another.

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Ched. The soule is fed by that which the body eateth.

But the soule is fed by the flesh of Christ:

Ergo the body eateth the flesh of Christ.

Cran. We eat not one thing outwardly and inwardly. Inwardly we eate Christes body: Outwardly we eate the Sacrament.

Ched. I will repeate the Argument.

Marginalia* The forme of this argument which he repeateth, stood better before: for the fourme of this connexion answereth to none of the three figures of Sillogismes.* The flesh eateth Christes body, that the soule may be fed therewith.

The soule is not fedde with the Sacrament, but with Christes body.

Ergo, the flesh eateth the body of Christ.

Cran. The Sacrament is one thing, the matter of the Sacrament is another. Outwardly we receyue the Sacrament: Inwardly we eate the body of Christ.

Ched. I prooue that we receyue that outwardly wherwith the soule is fed.

The soule is fed with the body of Christ.

MarginaliaConsequence.Ergo, we eate the body of Christ outwardly.

The flesh eateth Christ his body.

MarginaliaConsequence.Ergo, the soule is fed therewith.

Cranmer. MarginaliaAunswere.The flesh (I say) eateth the Sacrament. It eateth not Christes body. For Tertullian speaketh of the Sacrament: and the place hath not [inde] thereof, but [de deo] of God.

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