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James Calfhill [or Calfield]
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James Calfhill [or Calfield]

(1530? - 1570)

DD (1565) Ordained deacon (1559) and then priest (1560). Canon of Christ Church (1560). Canon of St Paul's (1562). Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity at Oxford (1564). Archdeacon of Colchester (1565 - 1570) (DNB)

Foxe prints Latin verses responding to John White's Latin verses in praise of Philip and Mary's marriage. In 1563, Foxe credits these verses to 'James Caufield' (1563, p. 1005). In later editions, they are merely credited to 'I.C.' (1570, pp. 1642-43; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1472).

[The records do not reveal a James Caufield or Caulfield for this period. But Foster (under 'Calfhill, James') states that his name was given in the records as Calfill, Calfield or Calfide. Calfhill would make eminent sense as the author of these verses having the protestant zeal, learning and ties to Foxe.]

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Calfhill is described by Foxe as the sub-dean of Corpus Christi College. 1563, p. 1559, 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

He requested that Peter Martyr's wife's bones be rehoused in their original resting place, along with those of Frideswide. 1563, p. 1559, 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

[Foxe refers to James Calfield as James Calfhill. Also referred to as James 'Caufield']

1496 [1472]

Queene Mary. Certeine verses aunswering M. White his verses, mariage of Q. Mary read in Paules.

MarginaliaAnn. 1554. Aprill.
Vult grex Pontificum, stirps Caypha, turba bicornis,
Non vult sanctorum sed pia turba patrum.
Nolunt octo, quibus sunt vincla iugalia curæ,
Quinque cathenati Dæmonis arte volunt.
Hoc neque tu prorsus Dudlæ animose volebas:
Inuitum regni Consilium voluit.
Dedecus hoc non vult fortissimus ille Viatus,
Inuitus populus, sic proceresque volent.
Vos vultis, quoniam semper mala cuncta voletis:
Non vult Graius Dux, nec pia turba volet.
Quot tulit Hispanus rex ergò commoda secum,
Reginæ socias cum dedit ille manus?

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¶ Another aunswere by the sayd Author.

HIspano nubat Maria vt regina Philippo,
Extirpetur stirps vt quoque Nobilium:
Vult pater id vester disturbans omnia Dæmon,
Non vult Anglorum sed pater Altitonans.
Non vult bellipotens Gallus, non vult Scotus acer,
Vult Cæsar, Flandrus, Papicolæque volunt.
Grex mitratorum vult, Cayphæ ipsa propago:
Non vult sanctorum sed pius ordo patrum.
Nolut octo, pios qui iure colunt hymenæos,
Quinque cathenati pro impietate volunt.
Dudlæus minimè voluit Northumbrius Heros:
Cui sua perchara est patria, nemo volet.
Libertatis amans non vult bonus ille Viatus,
Non proceres, non plebs, nec pia turba volet.
Vos vultis, pietas qui vultis vt exulet omnis,
Non Graius sed nec Cantia turba volet.
Ergò magis clarus quĵ fit (rogo) sanguis auitus,
Quando iugalis sit iunctus vterque thoro?

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¶ Other Verses aunswering to Byshop White, made by I.C.  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 556, line 17 from the bottom

"J. C." is "James Caufield" in the first edition.

QVamlibet Anglorum stirps ementita Philippo,
Et Maria Hispana degenetrice fuit:
Vt tamen Hispano, confusi sanguinis Angla
Nuberet in gentis dedecus atque patris,
Noluit Anglorum priscæ virtutis amator,
Sed Deus in nostram perniciem voluit.
Noluit in nostram, nisi conspirata, salutem
Turba: quid ad nos si gens inimica volet?
Pontifices fati, quasi Cayphas, omina dantes
Nolebant: at grex cacolucos voluit.

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 556, line 7 from the bottom

The word "cacolucus" is intended for a play, by contrast, upon the catholicus of the Romish versifier, Maister White. See too Davanzati's Schisma d'Inghilterra, p. 60, ed. Venezia, 1756.

Elegere pij connubia talia nolle:
Velle quidem demens hæresis illa fuit.
Consilium multo præstantius octo mariti,
Quinque cathenatis ob malefacta, dabant.
Noluit hos iungi thalamos Northumbrius heros.
O consultores, qui voluere, malos.
Noluit haud æquo confligens marte Viatus,
Solaque quæ voluit, turba Papalis erat.
Nolebat Graius, neque terra Britanna volebat:
Nos, quoniam Dominus sic voluit, tulimus.
Sed tulimus pariter fata infœlicia, quando
Infœlix Maria est nupta Philippe tibi.

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Other verses aunswering likewise.  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 557: Appendix: ref page 557, line 7

The first edition reads here, "Other verses also answering to the former verses of the Byshop of Lincolne, made by J. F."

NVbat vt Hispano Regina Maria Philippo
Dic age Whyte mihi, quos voluisse vides?
Noluit aut voluit quid inanis turba, refert nil,
Velle & nolle Dei est: quid volet ille, refert.
Hoc quoniam voluit (inquis) Dominus, voluistis:
Quid voluit, quoniam nescis inepte, scias.
Scilicet hoc voluit, vates vt vanus & augur,
Et mendax Whitus pseudopropheta foret.
Regi non regi nupsit, non nupserat, Angla est,
Nō Angla est, grauida est, nō grauida est, grauius est.
Parturit atque parit, sic vos voluistis ouantes,
Nil tamen illa parit: hoc voluit Dominus.
Duxerat ad paucos menses, mox deserit idem:
Sponsa est, mox vidua est: hoc voluit Dominus.
Irrita frustrentur semper sic vota malorum,
Perniciem patriæ qui voluere suæ.

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Sit nomen Domini benedictum.

MarginaliaK. Phillip commeth to Windsore. The Armes of England taken down and the Armes of Spayne set vp.After the consummation of which mariage, they both remoued frō Winchester to sondry other places, and by easy iourneyes came to Windsore Castle, where he was stalled in the order of the Garter, vppon Sonday, being the xij. of August. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 557, fn 1

Stow says, they went to Richmond on the 11th, and rose through Southwark and London on the 12th; thus antedating the pageant of the 18th of August. - ED.

At which tyme an Herald tooke downe the armes of England at Windsore, and in the place of them woulde haue set the armes of Spaine, but he was commaunded to set them vp againe by certayne Lordes. From thence, they

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both remoued to Richmond, MarginaliaK. Phillip commeth to London.and frō thence by water came to London, and landed at þe Bishop of Winchesters house through which they passed both into Southwark parke, & so to Southwarke house called Suffolk place, where they lay that night being the 18. of August.

MarginaliaAugust. 19.And þe next day, being Saterday, and the xix. of August 

Commentary  *  Close

In the 1570 edition, Foxe followed the verses with a description of Philip's progress from Winchester to London and his entry into London. The account of Philip's entry into London may have been taken from John Elder's A copie of a letter sente unto Scotland (London, 1555), STC 7552, sigs. B5r-C4v. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that Foxe would draw other material in the Acts and Monuments from Elder's book. But on closer examination, this looks unlikely. Some important portions of Foxe's account of Philip's entry into London, notably the story of Gardiner painting out a picture of Henry VIII holding a Bible, are not in Elder. (A brief version of this story is in Foxe's papers but it lacks much of the detail of Foxe's account; cf. BL Harley MS 419, fol. 131r with 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1472). Another objection to Elder as Foxe's source is that other material Foxe drew from Elder first appeared in 1563; Philip's entry did not appear until the 1570 edition. Most likely, Foxe drew this account of Philip's entry from an eyewitness, possibly augmented by a chronicle or chronicles.

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the king and Queenes maiesties rode from Suffolk place (accompanied with a great number, as wel of noble men as gentlemen) through the City of London to White Hall and at Londō bridge as he entred at the draw bridge, was a vayne great spectacle set vp, MarginaliaVayne pageants of London.two Images representyng 2. Gyantes, one named Corineus, and the other Gogmagoge 
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The images of the two giants, 'Corineus' and 'Gogmagog' which Foxe describes (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1472) were images of Corineus Brittanus and Gogmagog Albionus, both characters in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Britons. For the significance of these images in this entry, see Sydney Anglo, Spectacle, Pageantry and Early Tudor Policy, 2nd edition (Oxford, 1997) pp. 327-29.

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holding betweene them certaine Latin verses, which for the vayne ostentation of flattery, I ouerpasse.

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And as they passed ouer the bridge, there was a number of ordinaunce shot at the Tower, such as by old mens report the like hath not bene heard or seene these hundreth yeares.

From London Bridge they passed to the Conduit in Gracious streete whiche was finely painted, and among other thinges, the ix. worthies, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 557, line 4 from the bottom

These were, Joshua, David, and Judas Maccabæus; Hector of Troy, Alexander the Great, and Julius Cæsar; and Arthur of Britain, Charlemagne of France, and Godfrey of Bouillon.

whereof king Henry the 8. was one. He was paynted in harnesse hauing in one hand a sworde, and in the other hand a booke, wherupon was written Verbum Dei, deliuering the same booke (as it were) to his sonne king Edward, who was paynted in a corner by him.

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MarginaliaWinchester cannot abide the booke called Verbum Dei.But hereupon was no small matter made, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 558, line 3

This incident is related in the Chronicle of Queen Jane and Q. Mary, p. 78, where see Mr. Nichols's note.

for the Bishop of winchester Lord Chauncellour, sēt for the painter MarginaliaThe paynter sent for to the B. of Winchester.and not onely called him knaue for paynting a booke in K. Henries hand, and specially for writing therupon Verbum Dei, but also rancke Traytour and Villaine, saying to hym that he should rather haue put the book into the Queenes hand (who was also paynted there) for that she had reformed the church and religion, with other things according to the pure and sincere word of God in deede.

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MarginaliaThe paynters aunswere.The Paynter answered and sayd, that if he had knowē that that had bene the matter wherfore his Lordship sent for him, he coulde haue remedied it, and not haue troubled his Lordship.

The bishop answered & said, that it was the Queenes maiesties will and commaundement that he shoulde send for him: and so commaunding him to wype out the booke and Verbum Dei too: he sent him home. So the Paynter departed, but fearing least he should leaue some parte eyther of the booke, or of Verbum Dei, in king Henries hand: hee wiped away a piece of his fingers withall.

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Here I passe ouer and cut of other gaudes & Pageantes of pastime shewed vnto him in passing through London, with the flattering verses set vp in Latine, wherein were blased out in one place the fiue philips, as the fiue worthies of the worlde, MarginaliaV. Phillips.Philip of Macedonia Philip þe Emperor, Philippus Audax, Philippus Bonus, Philip Prince of Spayne and king of England.

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In an other Poetry K. Philip was resembled by an Image representing Orpheus, and all Englishe people resembled to brute & sauage beastes following after Orpheus harpe, and daunsing after king Philips pipe. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's interpretation of the pageant of Orpheus (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1472) is tendentious; other comtemporary observers (e.g., Elder, Copie of a letter, sigs. B8v-C1v) did not perceive the alleged insult to the English.

Not that I reprehend the arte of the Latine verses, which was fine and cunning, but that I passe ouer þe matter, hauing other grauer thinges in hand, and therefore passe ouer also the sight at Paules church side of him that came downe vpon a rope tyed to the batilmentes with his head before, neyther staying himselfe with hand or foote: which shortly after cost him his life.  
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's mention of a man who plunged headfirst from St. Paul's (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1472) refers to an acrobat who performed the sixteenth-century equivalent of bungee-jumping to celebrate the occasion (see Anglo, Spectacle, pp. 336-37). Foxe's concluding comment suggests that the acrobat performed this stunt once too often.

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But one thing by the way I cannot let passe touchyng the young florishing Roode newly set vp agaynst this present time to welcome king Phillip into Paules Churche. 

Commentary  *  Close

The story of the 'merry fellow' who mocked the newly-erected rood in St. Paul's originally appeared in an appendix to the 1563 edition and was moved to its proper chronological place in the 1570 edition. It is unquestionably an oral anecdote related to Foxe as the printing of the 1563 edition neared completion.

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The setting vp of which Roode was this, and may make as good a Pageant as the best.

MarginaliaThe erecting vp of the Roode at Paules. An 2. Mariæ Boner in his royaltie, and all his Prebendaries about him in Paules Quiere, the Roode layde a long vpon the pauement, and also all the doores of Paules being shut, the Bishop with other, sayde and song diuers prayers by the Rood: that being done they annoynted the Roode with oyle in diuers places, and after the annoynting crept vnto it and kissed it.

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After that they tooke the sayd Roode and weyed hym vppe and set him in his olde accustomed place, and all the while they were doing thereof, MarginaliaB. Boners God the Roode of Paules set vp with Te Deum.the whole Quiere sang Te Deum, and when that was ended, they rang the Belles, not only for ioy, but also for the notable and great fact they had done therein.

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Not long after this, a mery fellow came into Paules and spyed the Roode with Mary and Iohn new set vppe whereto (among a great sorte of people) he made low curtesie and sayd: MarginaliaSalutation to the Roode of Paules.sir, your Maistership is welcome to towne. I had thought to haue talked with your Maistership, but that ye be here clothed in the Queenes colours. I

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