Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Joan Saunders

Wife of Laurence Saunders (1) and Robert Harrington (2)

Joan Saunders brought her young son to visit Laurence Saunders in prison. 1563, p. 1045; 1570, p. 1669; 1576, p. 1425; 1583, p. 1497.

Laurence Saunders sent letters to her from prison. 1563, pp. 1043-44 and 1047; 1570, pp 1667-69 and 1672-74; 1576, pp. 1422-24 and 1426-28; 1583, pp. 1496-1502.

She fled overseas to Frankfurt, with her son, and lived in the household of Robert and Lucy Harrington. After Lucy Harrington's death she married Robert, by June 1556. [Garrett, Marian Exiles, sub 'Harrington, Robert'].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Philpot

(1516 - 1555)

Archdeacon of Winchester and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe records Philpot's formative years and character. 1563, p. 1388, 1570, p. 1961, 1576, p. 1688 , 1583, p. 1795.

Philpot was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Philpot was also one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for an opportunity to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Philpot's account of the debate over transubstantiation was reprinted by Foxe [cf. John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hows at London the XXVIII daye of Octobre MDLIIII (Emden, 1554). STC 19890, with 1563, pp. 906-16; 1570, pp. 1571-78; 1576, pp. 1340-47; 1583, pp. 1410-17). In Philpot's version of events, he plays the lead role among the six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, Richard Cheyney, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - in refuting the catholic arguments.

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John Philpot was made archdeacon of Winchester under Ponet. 1563, p. 1388, 1570, p. 1961, 1576, p. 1688, 1583, p. 1795.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

In Philpot's first examination, Story claimed that Philpot was guilty of heresy for speaking against the mass. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

During Philpot's second examination, Story demanded that Philpot be taken to Lollard's Tower, after which he was imprisoned in Bonner's coal house. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

Bonner sent Johnson the registrar to speak to Philpot when he was imprisoned in the coal house. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

Thomas Whittle was imprisoned in the coal house with Philpot. Bonner was so violent with Whittle's beard that he plucked much of it away and made his face black and blue. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

Philpot met with Bonner the second night of his imprisonment in the coal house (his third examination). 1563, pp. 1392-93, 1570, pp. 1964-65, 1576, pp. 1691-92, 1583, pp. 1798-99.

Philpot spoke briefly with Cosin, Bonner's chaplain, before returning to his imprisonment in Bonner's coal house. 1563, p. 1393, 1570, p. 1965, 1576, p. 1692, 1583, p. 1799.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

During Philpot's fourth examination, John Harpsfield brought a book by Irenaeus to Philpot's examiners, who then discussed the Roman church with Philpot. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

During his fifth examination, Philpot asked his examiners which of them could answer Calvin's Institutions, to which Saverson replied that the Genevan church had fragmented and that Calvin had fled. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Philpot's sixth examination was before the lord chamberlain to Queen Mary, Ferrars, Lord Rich, Lord St John, Lord Windsor, Lord Shandoys, Sir John Bridges, Chadsey and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

During his sixth examination, Philpot stated that Joan of Kent was a heretic. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot stated that Cheyney and Rochester could testify to what he had said under his examination. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Chamberlain was present during Philpot's sixth examination and questioned him on the real presence. 1563, pp. 1405-1412, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner, Rochester, chancellor of Lichfield, Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

In Philpot's seventh examination, John Dee is referred to as Master Dee in 1563 and 1570 and then as Doctor Dee in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Johnson the registrar was present during Philpot's seventh examination. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Three private conferences took place between Philpot and Bonner. (The first involved his keeper; the second, his fellow prisoners and his keeper; and the third only Bonner and Philpot.) 1563, pp. 1416-19, 1570, pp. 1980-82, 1576, pp. 1706-07, 1583, pp. 1812-14.

Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

Johnson the registrar was present at Philpot's eighth examination. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Philpot's ninth examintion was before Bonner and his chaplains, including Cosin. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session to examine Philpot, and Chadsey, who had, however, left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's tenth examination was before Bonner, Johnson and others. 1563, pp. 1424-25, 1570, pp. 1985-86, 1576, pp. 1709-10, 1583, pp. 1816-17.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

In Philpot's eleventh examination, John Dee is referred to as a 'great conjurer' in 1563 and 1570. The reference is removed in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

The bishop of Coventry and Lichfield spoke with Philpot about the nature of the true church. 1563, p. 1444, 1583, p. 1818.

Philpot's twelfth examination on 4 December 1555 was before Bonner, Worcester and Bangor. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

One of Bonner's chaplains (probably Cosin) was present during Philpot's twelfth examination. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day as his twelfth examination. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, pp. 1717, 1583, p. 1823-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York, Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, p. 1824-26.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

The judgement of Philpot took place in the consistory court of St Paul's on 13 and 14 of December, at which Bonner and others were present. 1570, p. 1997, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1826.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield.. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

Foxe includes Bonner's exhortation to Philpot. 1563, p. 1443, 1570, p. 1998, 1576, p. 1710, 1583, pp. 1827-28.

A letter was exhibited by Bonner, concerning the handling of Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, p. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference is made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Philpot was mentioned in letter sent by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Lady Fane wrote a letter to Bonner. 1563, p. 1445, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, p. 1724, 1583, pp. 1828-29.

John Hooper sent Philpot and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor, a letter dated 6 May 1554 discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Philpot and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Green wrote a letter to John Philpot which was not delivered. According to Foxe it was either not delivered because Philpot died or because the jailor prevented its delivery. 1563, pp. 1459-60, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, pp. 1852-53.

Stokesley said a Latin prayer before the condemnation of Philpot. 1570, p. 2000, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, pp. 1827, 1829.

Philpot had a talk with his keeper, Alexander, during which Philpot refused to recant. 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, p. 1829.

The mayor (Macham) heard of the treatment of Philpot in prison and ordered Philpot's irons to be removed. 1563, p. 1443, 1570, p. 2001, 1576, p. 1998, 1583, p. 1830.

Wittrence, the steward of the house, carried the manacled Philpot. 1570, p. 2001, 1576, p. 1998, 1583, p. 1830.

Foxe records Philpot's behaviour prior to his death, when the sheriffs came to collect him. 1563, p. 1447, 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1722-23, 1583, p. 1830.

A prayer was said by Philpot at the stake. He was burned on 18 December 1555. 1563, pp. 1448-49, 1570, p. 2002, 1576, p. 1724, 1583, pp. 1830-31.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1444-50, 1570, pp. 2002-14,1576, pp. 1721-35, 1583, pp. 1829-43.

Philpot wrote a letter to John Careless. 1563, pp. 1535-38.

Careless replied to the letter from John Philpot. 1563, pp. 1536-37, 1570, pp. 2103-04,1576, pp. 1814-15, 1583, p. 1921.

Whittle sent a letter to John Careless in prison, in which he says he has heard reports of Philpot's stoutness in going to his death and asking for a copy of Philpot's nine examinations for a friend. 1570, p. 1457, 1570, pp. 2018-19, 1576, pp. 1739-40, 1583, pp. 1847-48.

[Also referred to as 'Fylpot'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Laurence Saunders

(d. 1555) [DNB]

Martyr.

Saunders' life and career are described. 1563; pp. 1037-38; 1570, pp. 1664-65; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, pp. 1493-94.

Laurence Saunders preached in Northampton, soon after Mary's accession, denouncing 'Antichrist's errors'. He was arrested and released. He came to London, despite warnings to the contrary. 1563, pp. 1038-39; 1570, p. 1665; 1576, pp. 1420-21; 1583, p. 1494.

On 15 October 1553, Saunders preached at Allhallows, Bread Street, denouncing the mass as an abomination. On the same day he was summoned by Bonner, interrogated, and committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466; also 1563, p. 1039; 1570, p.1665; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, pp. 1494-95.

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He was interrogated by Gardiner and imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583; p. 1495.

It was rumoured in May 1554 that he, along with Bradford and John Rogers, would participate in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Saunders was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Saunders was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters and examinations: 1563, pp. 1040-47; 1570, pp. 1666-70; 1576, pp. 1421-25; 1583, pp. 1495-98.

Saunders was excommunicated at 6am on 23 January 1555. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Saunders was examined and condemned by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555. 1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

He was degraded, conveyed to Coventry and executed there. 1563, pp. 1047-48; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, p. 1495.

Saunders is contrasted with Henry Pendleton. 1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1671; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, pp. 1499-1500.

Additional letters: 1570, pp. 1671-74; 1576, pp. 1426-29; 1583, pp. 1500-2.

Lawrence Saunders was imprisoned in the Marshalsea at the same time as Bradford was imprisoned [in the King's Bench] and often met with Bradford at the back of the prison. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

His martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

He received a letter from Bradford. 1563, p. 1194, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, pp. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

He received another letter from Bradford. 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Saunders was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote the letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Letter to evangelicals in Lichfield [BL, Harley 416, fos.13v-16r. Printed in LM, pp. 182-88.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lucy Harrington

Wife of Robert Harrington. Leader, with her husband, of the 'sustainers' of protestants under Mary [Fines]

Laurence Saunders sent Lucy Harrington several letters from prison. 1570, pp. 1672-73; 1576, pp. 1427-28; 1583, pp. 1500-01.

Laurence Saunders asked her to take care of his wife after his execution. 1570, p. 1675; 1576, p. 1427; 1583, p. 1501.

Lucy Harrington received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, pp. 1836-37, 1576, pp. 1571-72, 1583, p. 1653.

Lucy Harrington was thanked in a letter to her husband from John Philpot. She and Robert had both sent tokens to Philpot, and he was sending her token to her husband. 1570, p. 2008; 1576, p. 1730; 1583, p. 1837.

She fled overseas with her husband and Joan Saunders to Frankfurt, where she died in 1556 [Garrett, Marian Exiles, sub 'Robert Harrington'].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

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Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

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Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

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The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

1524 [1500]

Queene Mary. Letters of M. Laurance Saunders Martyr.

ther some, seeme they neuer so stoute, stand they neuer so much in theyr owne conceites. MarginaliaHe that standeth let him take heede he fall not. Rom. 13.Wherefore let him that standeth take heed he fall not, and let vs pray continually to almighty God though we haue fayth, that he will helpe and encrease our faith, that in him it may be made strōg, which of it selfe is so weake, that it is soone ouerthrowne. MarginaliaAnno 1555. February.

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This blessed man of God enduring long time in prisō, did not passe all his time in vnfruitfull idlenes, but still frō time to time did visite his frendes (as is sayd) and especially his wife,  

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Saunders' letters

The glosses mainly offer support in this section, giving scriptural references and identifying the recipients of the letters. An effect of this is to give a kind of outline of the ties which bound the Marian protestants together: the lessons and comforts of scripture were grafted on to the various patterns of association highlighted in the glosses naming the recipients of the letters: ties between pastor and flock, ties within the godly family, ties of friendship and comfort. Some of the glosses help to characterise Saunders in the scriptural terms which dominate the section: the gloss 'To this his flocke the parish of Alhallowes in Bredstreate. He wrote also a fruitefull letter, exhorting and charging them to beware of the Romish religiō and constantly to sticke to the truth which they had confessed' notes Saunders addressing his 'flock'; 'What it is to follow Christ' and 'The true badge of Christ. Iohn 13' highlight the link between suffering and following Christ). The only variation from this supprtive work can be found in the glosses next to Saunders' brother's letters urging him to return to Catholicism ('Iustice sayth. Audi Alteram partem'; 'He meaneth peraduenture when the Sanctus is singing for then the Organs pipe merely and that may giue some Comfort').

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There are various references which are badly positioned: the gloss 'Iosephes handling of his brethrē applyed to Christ' is well positioned in 1570 and 1576, but badly in 1583; in all the other cases 1570 has accurately placed references while 1576 and 1583 do not. A scriptural reference given correctly as '2. Cor. 4.' in 1570 appears as '1. Cor. 4.' in both 1576 and 1583.

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MarginaliaM. Saunders diligēt in writing letters out of prison.with many letters full of godly instruction & consolatiō.  
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Laurence Saunders' Letters

Almost all of these letters first appeared in Bull's Letters of the Martyrs and were only added in 1570. This is a striking tribute to the extent of Bull's research and Foxe's indebtedness to it. With this additional material, the Rerum format of a martyr's life interspersed with a martyr's letters comes closer to the pattern of the Acts and Monuments: a martyr's life, followed by his letters.

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All which letters it shall not be greatly needful here to insert, partly because they are to be found in the MarginaliaRead the booke of letters of the Martyrs.booke of letters, 
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Bull's Letters of the Martyrs.

partly because we entēd also (if God will) to prosecute the same more at large.  
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A reference to Foxe's plan, which was never realised, to include a separate volume reprinting all the writings of all the martyrs. (See Evenden and Freeman, p. 37).

In the meane time it shall not be out of place here presētly to cōprehend certein of them, as in order foloweth.

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¶ A letter sent to M. Farrar, Bishop of S. Dauids, Doctor Tailor, M. Bradford, and M. Philpot. 
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First in Letters of the Martyrs, p. 211.

MarginaliaA letter of M. Saunders sent to B. Farrar, D. Taylor, M. Bradford and M. Philpot.GRace, mercy and peace, in Iesus Christ our Lord. &c. Good fathers and deare brethren, be thankefull vnto our most gracious God, which hath preserued vs, and shall (I doubt not) from blaspheming his blessed name: yea not onely that, but also ex ore Infantium & Lactentium perficiet laudem. &c. i. MarginaliaPsal. 8.Out of the mouthes of very babes and sucklinges shall be set forth his praise. They offer vs (forsooth) our liberty & pardon, so that we will rise with them vnto that faith which we with them were fallen from. Yea or no, must be answered in hast. They will not admit any needfull circumstances, but all (as heretofore) most detestable & abhominable. Rise with them we must vnto the vnity. And pardon (say I) of me must not be so dearely purchased. A pardon I desire, for to liue with an vnclogged cōscience. The Donatists (say they) sought for such singularitye, but they were not meete to liue in a common wealth, no more be you, as you shall shortly vnderstand. Wherefore away with him, yea the time was named within thys seuennight. There be 12. houres in the day. MarginaliaIohn. 11.Death shall be wellcome (say I) as being looked for long since, and yet do iustice ye were best, for Abels bloud cryed ye wot what. The spirite of God be vpon you, & God saue your honors. Thus departed I from thē. Pray, pray. Ah, ah, puer sum nescio loqui. i. I am a childe, I cannot speake. My brother P. shall shew you more herein. By him send me word what you haue done. Fare ye well, and pray, pray I woulde gladly meet with my good brother Bradford, on the backeside about 11. of the clock. Before that time I cannot start out, we haue such outwalkers, but then will they be at dinner.

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Yours as you know, Lau-
rence Saunders.

¶ A Letter which L. Saunders did write to his wife, and others of the faythfull, after his condemnation to the fire, written the last of Ianua. 1555. out of the Counter in Breadstreete. 
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First in Rerum, pp. 415-17, then in 1563; Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 204-06 and subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments. ECL 260, fo. 254r-v and ECL 262, fos. 167r-169r are copies of this letter.

MarginaliaA comfortable letter of M. Sanders to his wyfe & other of the faythfull flocke.THe grace of Christ, wt the cōsolation of the holy Ghost, to the keeping of fayth and a good conscience, cōfirme & keep you for euer vessels to Gods glory. Amen.

Oh what worthy thanks can be geuē to our gracious God for his vnmeasurable mercies plētifully poured vpō vs? And I most vnworthy wretch cannot but poure forth at this present, euē from the bottom of my hart, the bewayling of my great ingratitude and vnkindnes towardes so gracious a good God and louing father. I beseech you all, as for my other many sinnes, so especially for that sinne of my vnthankefulnesse, craue pardon for me in your earnest prayers, commendyng me to Goddes greate mercyes in Christ.

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To number these mercies in particular, where to number the drops of water which are in the Sea, the sandes on the shore, the starres in the skie, O my deare wife & ye the rest of my frends, reioyce with me, I say reioyce wt thanksgeuing for this my present promotion, in that I am made worthy to magnifye my God, not onely in my life by my slow mouth & vncircūcised lips, bearing witnes vnto hys truth, but also by my bloud to seale the same, to the glory of my God, and confirming of his true church. MarginaliaThe sweete comfort of Chryst taketh away the feare of death from Saunders. Cant. 2.And as yet I testify vnto you, that the comfort of my sweete Christ doth driue from my phantasy the feare of death. But if my deare husband Christ doe for my triall, leaue me alone a little to my selfe, alas I know in what case I shalbe thē: but if for my proofe he do so, yet am I sure he will not be long or far from me. Though he stand behind the wal & hide himselfe (as Salomō saith in his mistical ballet) yet will he peep in by a crest to see how I do. MarginaliaIosephes handling of his brethrē applyed to Christ.He is a very tender-harted Ioseph: though he speak roughly to his brethren & handle thē hardly, yea & threatē greuous bondage to his best beloued

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brother Beniamin: yet can he not conteyne hymselfe from weeping with vs & vpon vs, with falling on our neckes, and sweetly kissing vs. MarginaliaChrist a sweete brother vnto vs.Such, such a brother is our Christ vnto vs all. Wherfore hasten to go vnto him as Iacob did with his Sonnes and family, leauing theyr country and acquayntaunce. Yea this our Ioseph hath obteined for vs, that Pharao the Infidell shall minister vnto vs chariots, wherein at ease we may be caryed to come vnto him: as we haue experience how our very aduersaries do help vs vnto our euerlasting blisse by theyr spedy dispatch, yea & how all thinges haue bene helpinges hereunto: blessed be our God. Be not afrayde of fraybugges  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 631, fn 2

"Fray-bug," or "fraybuggarde" (1st Edition), an imaginary monster. - ED.

which lye in the way. Feare rather the euerlasting fire: feare the Serpent which hath that deadly sting of which by bodely death they shall be brought to taste which are not grafted in Christ, wanting fayth and a good conscience, and so are not acquaynted with Christ the killer of death. But oh my deare wyfe and frends, we, we whom God hath deliuered from the power of darcknes, and hath translated vs into the kingdom of his deare sonne, by putting of the old man, & by fayth putting on the newe, euen our Lord Iesus Christ, his wisedome, holines, righteousnes, & redēption, we I say haue to triumph agaynst the terrible spitefull Serpent the Deuill, sinne, hell, death & damnation. For Christ our brasen Serpent hath pulled away the MarginaliaThe sting of death pluckt out.sting of this serpēt, so that now we may boldly in beholding it spoyled of his sting, triūph & with our Christ & al his elect say: Death, where is thy sting? Hell, where is thy victory? Thankes be to God, who hath geuen vs [Vs] the victory through our Lord Iesus Christ. Marginalia1. Cor. 15.

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Wherfore be mery my deare wife, & all my deare felow heyres of the euerlasting kingdome, alwayes remēber the Lord, Reioyce in hope, be pacient in tribulation, continue in prayer, & pray for vs now appoynted to the slaughter þt we may be vnto our heauenly father, a fat offering, and an acceptable sacrifice. I may hardlye write to you. Wherfore let these few words be a witnes of commendations to you and all them which loue vs in fayth, and namely vnto my flocke, MarginaliaTo this his flocke the parish of Alhallowes in Bredstreate. He wrote also a fruitefull letter, exhorting and charging them to beware of the Romish religiō and constantly to sticke to the truth which they had confessed. among whom I am resident by Gods prouidence, but as a prisoner.

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And although I am not so amōg them, as I haue bene to preach to them out of a pulpit, yet doth god now preach vnto them by me, by this my imprisonment and captiuity which now I suffer among them for Christes Gospelles sake, bidding them to beware of the Romish Antichristian religion and kingdome, requiring and charging them to abide in the trueth of Christ, which is shortly to be sealed wt the bloud of theyr Pastor: who though he be vnworthy of such a ministery, yet Christ there high pastor is to be regarded, whose truth hath bene taught thē by me, is witnessed by my chaynes, & shall be by my death, through the power of that hye pastor. Be not carefull good wife, cast your care on the Lord, & commend me vnto him in repentant praier, as I do you and our Samuell: whom euen at the stake, I will offer as my selfe vnto God. Fare ye wel all in Christ, in hope to be ioyned wt you in ioy euerlasting. This hope is put vp in my bosome, Amen, Amen, Amen, Pray, pray.

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An other Letter to Maystres Lucy Harington, a Godly Gentlewoman, and frendly to him in his troubles. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 632

There is another letter of Saunders to this Mrs. Harrington, in the Emmanuel MSS. 2. 2. 15, No. 17, dated from the Marshalsea, 21 Nov. 1553.

 
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First in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 212-15. ECL 260, fos. 42r-43v is a copy of this letter.

MarginaliaAn other comfortable letter of M. Saunders.YOur most gentle commendations, whereof this messenger made remembraunce vnto me, was for two causes very comfortable. First, for that thereby I vnderstood of the state of your health & bodely welfare, for the which I geue thankes vnto god, who graunt the long continuaunce thereof to his honour and fatherly good will, whereunto I will dayly say, Amen. And farther I was refreshed by the expressing of your mindefull frendship towardes me farre vnworthy thereof. Wherein I take occasion of much reioysing in our so gracious a God and mercifull Father, who as he hath in his vnmeasurable mercy by fayth handfasted vs his chosen childrē vnto his deare sonne our Christ, as the spirituall spouse of such an heauēly husband: so he linketh vs by loue one vnto an other, being by that bond cōpact together with charitable readines to doe good one vnto another: so th at first to the glory of our God & his Christ, thē to our owne ioying in the testimony of a good cōscience, and last of all to the stopping of the mouthes and confusiō of our aduersaries, we beare the badge as the right spouse of our Christ, which himselfe noted in this saying: Herein shall all men know that ye be my Disciples, if ye loue one another. MarginaliaThe true badge of Christ. Iohn 13.Then farther, by this bond of mutuall loue, is sette forth the fatherly prouidence of God towardes vs his children, that though it be he that careth for vs, in whome we liue, mooue and be, who feedeth all flesh with bodely sustenaunce; yet hath he appoynted vs in these present necessities, to stand in his sted one vnto another. Wherein is not onelye sette forth our dignitye, but also that vnspeakeable accorde and vnitye among vs the many members in his mysticall body. And though that ei-

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ther
SSSsij.
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