Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1568)

Evangelist, Bible translator, Bishop of Exeter (1551 - 1553) (DNB)

Miles Coverdale associated with John Rogers and William Tyndale in translating the Bible (1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He was ordered to attend the Privy Council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Coverdale appeared before the Privy Council and on the next day was commanded to await their pleasure (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

According to Foxe, he wrote a confutation of Weston's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 October 1553. Foxe claimed that he possessed a copy of Coverdale's confutation; it has not survived (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Coverdale was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41 [Coverdale's signature is on p. 1642]; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; and 1583, p. 1469-71.

Coverdale sent Rowland Taylor a cap to wear at his execution (1570, p. 1704; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1557).

Throughout 1554, Christian III of Denmark repeatedly requested that Mary release Coverdale from custody and send him to Denmark. Although Mary was reluctant to grant the request, eventually she agreed, sending Coverdale to Denmark in February 1555 (1563, pp. 1081-83; 1570, pp. 1706-7; 1576, pp. 1456-57; 1583, pp. 1529-31).

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Robert Bracher

(fl. 1554 - 1566)

Collated vicar of Aveley, Essex in 1552, deprived as a married priest in early 1554 [Guildhall Library MS 9531/12, fols. 213r and 462r].

He was inducted into the benefices of Kettlebaston and Wenham Combust in 1555 and Stradbrooke in 1566 [R. Freeman Bullen, 'Catalogue of Beneficed Clergy in Suffolk, 1551-1631,' Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History 22 (1936), p. 297].

Bracher was one of those responsible for ejecting Rowland Taylor's family from his house after his execution. A 'false pretensed Protestant' under Edward VI, a catholic under Mary and a protestant in Elizabeth's reign, Bracher preached in Hadleigh in 1554 against justification by faith and in defence of transubstantiation and auricular confession. His preaching drew a letter of rebuttal from the imprisoned Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-4; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527.

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He swore the oath of supremacy at South Weald, Essex [LPL Cart. Misc. XIII/2/57, fol. 3v].

[NB: In the 1570 edition, Foxe also stated that Bracher now called himself Henry Bradshaw and served first in St Denis in Fenchurch Street and then in the queen's chapel. 1570, pp. 1703-04. Foxe did not repeat this statement in the 1576 or 1583 editions].

 
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Robert King

(d. 1557)

Bishop of Oxford. Second son of William King of Tame. (DNB)

Robert King died before Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

 
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Walter Clerke

(d. 1554)

Clothier, JP and bailiff of Hadleigh; brother of John Clerke [See Diarmaid MacCulloch, Suffolk and the Tudors (Oxford, 1986), pp. 233 and 430; also see John Craig, 'Reformers, conflict and revisionism: the Reformation in sixteenth-century Hadleigh', Historical Journal 42 (1999), pp. 17 and 19-20].

Walter Clerk was an enemy of Thomas Rose in Hadleigh and resorted to have him removed. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Walter Clerk and John Clerk complained to the council about Rose, and the sergeant-at-arms, Cartwright, subsequently arrested Rose. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Foxe describes Walter Clerke as 'Gods great enemy'. Robert Bracher, a friend of Walter Clerke, preached catholic doctrine at his funeral. 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527.

[Brother of John Clerk. Father-in-law to Sir Roger Appleton.]

 
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Warwick

Of Hadleigh

Warwick had an ear cut off, for seditious talk, during 'the commotion time in king Edwardes dayes' [presumably Kett's rebellion]. He heaped faggots around Rowland Taylor at the stake. He struck Taylor in the face with a faggot. 1563, p. 1079; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, pp. 1453-54; 1583, p. 1527.

 
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Warwick

OS grid ref: SP 285 655

Historic county town of Warwickshire

1551 [1527]

Queene Mary. The Martyrdome of D. Rouland Taylor Martyr.

Marginalia Anno 1555. February. his vertues fit to be a hang man,  

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 699, line 26

for "hangman" the first edition reads "hanged man."

MarginaliaThe tormentours. Warwicke a cruell tormentour.and Soice a very dronkard, and Warwicke, who in the commotion time in king Edwardes dayes, lost one of his eares for his sedicious talke, amongest whō was also one Robert King 
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Notice how the account of King's activities changes in each edition of the Acts and Monuments. Clearly King was trying to exonerate himself, and equally clearly, he had accusers who were trying to see that he did not. As so often in the account of Taylor, the divisions in Hadleigh become readily apparent.

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MarginaliaThis king was also one of them which went with his halbert to bring them to death which were burnt at Bery.a deuiser of Enterludes, who albeit was there present & had doyng there with the gunnepouder, what he ment and did therin (he himselfe sayth he did it for the best, and for quicke dispatch) the Lord knoweth which shal iudge al, more of this I haue not to say.

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These foure were appoynted to set vp the Fagots and to make the fire, which they most diligently did: and this Warwicke cruelly cast a Fagot at him, which lyght vpon his head, and brake his face, that the bloud ran downe his visage. Then sayd Doctour Taylour: Oh frend, I haue harme enough, what needed that. MarginaliaD. Taylour is pacient.

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Furthermore Sir Iohn Shelton 

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This denunciation of Sir John Shelton was added in the 1570 edition. It is another indication of the bitter feelings aroused by Taylor's execution.

there standing by

as Doct. Taylour was speaking and saying the Psalme Miserere 

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Psalm 51. It was customary for condemned people to recite this psalm at their executions.

in Englishe, stroke him on the lippes: ye knaue, sayd MarginaliaSyr Iohn Shelton. he, speake Latine, I will make thee. At the last they set to fire: and Doctour Taylour holding vppe both hys handes, called vpō God, and sayd: Marginalia D. Taylors last wordes. Mercifull father of heauen, for Iesus Christ my Sauiours sake, receiue my soule into thy handes. So stood he still without either crying or mouing, with his handes folded together, till Marginalia Soyce striketh him downe with an Holbard. Soice with an Halberd stroke him on þe head that the braynes fell out, and the dead corpes fell downe into the fire.

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Thus rendred the man of God his blessed soule into the handes of his mercifull father, and to his most deare and certeine Sauiour Iesus Christ, whome he most entyrelye loued, faithfully and earnestly preached obediently folowed in liuing, and constantly glorified in death.

They that wer present and familiarlye conuersaunt

The Martyrdome of Doctour Taylour, burned at Hadley for the testimony of the Gospell. February. 9. Anno. 1555.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The parish of Hadleigh in Suffolk, with its history of reforming support, lauded by Foxe as this 'universitie of the learned', was severely affected by the death of its rector, Rowland Taylor. The image is concentrated on this forceful martyr with his 'reverend and ancient face, with a long white beard' and shock of perhaps also white hair, which had been lopped when Bonner clipped it to give him a fool's head. The cutters of the woodblock doing justice to this head, framed by the readied faggots, have given it an almost haloed appearance. Although the fire is shown unlit Taylor is represented at the moment he uttered his last words, holding up both hands. John Nowell, who succeeded Taylor as rector of Hadleigh, preached there the day after Taylor's burning and tried to minimise the impact of his death, saying that 'to persevere is a develishe thynge ffor it moveth many mindes to see an heretyke constante and to dye'. While, as Foxe himself admitted in his first edition, the faithful in Hadleigh were cowed and many left after this event, Nowell's words seem to indicate that Taylor's stand in the fire, watched here by an impassive crowd, was itself brave and unflinching. The blank banderole below Taylor's, empty in all four editions, appears from its placing as if it was intended to contain words of the mounted sheriff, though the last official address to Taylor reported in the text came from Sir John Shelton 'there standing by.' Taylor's last words went from gothic type 1563, to italic 1570, to Roman 1576, and (with minor spelling difference) 1583.

with this Doctour Tailour, reported of him, that they neuer did see in him any feare of death, but especially & aboue all the rest which besides him suffered at the same time, Marginalia An example of singular courage in D. Taylor. alwayes shewed himselfe mery and cherefull in tyme of hys imprisonment, as well before his condēnation as after: he kept one countenaunce and like behauiour. Whereunto he was the rather confirmed by the company and presence of maister Iohn Bradford, who then was in prison & chamber with him. 

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Once again Foxe is emphasizing the stoicism of one of the Marian martyrs. (On the polemical importance of this see Collinson [1983] and Freeman [1997]).

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The same morning, when he was called vp by the shiriffe to goe to his burning (about three of the clocke in the morning) being sodenly awaked out of his sound sleepe he sat vp in his bed, and putting on his shyrt, had these wordes (speaking somewhat thicke after his accustomed maner:) Ah horson theeues, ah horson theues, robbe God of his honor, robbe God of his honor? Afterward being risen and tying his poyntes, hee cast his armes about a balke  

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 700, middle

"Balk" means a "cross-beam" or "rafter." See Boucher's Glossary and Todd's Johnson.

whiche was in the chamber betwene Mayster Bradfordes bed & his: and there hanging by the handes, sayde to M. Bradford: MarginaliaD. Taylor careles of his death. O Maister Bradford (quoth he) what a notable sway should I geue if I were hanged, meaning for that he was a corpulent and bigge man. These thinges I thought good here to note: to set forth and declare to those that shall read this history, what a notable and singuler gift of spirit and courage God had geuen to this godly and blessed martyr.

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At what time Doctour Taylour was depriued of hys benefice of Hadley, there was one called Syr Robert Bracher, 

Commentary  *  Close

The denunciation of Robert Bracher as a religious turncoat who mistreated Taylor's family first appeared in Letters of the Martyrs (p. 641) as a marginal note accompanying aletter from Taylor to his wife. It is likely that both the letter and the denunciation came from Taylor's widow.

a false pretensed Protestant in king Edwardes

dayes, and afterward a deadly enemy to the same Religiō: who was also one of them that so vnmercifully thrust Doctor Taylors wife and children out of the dores, as she her selfe yet can testify: & notwithstanding the same, now since became a Protestant agayne.

MarginaliaSyr Robert Brachers cōming to Hadley. This Syr Robert Bracher aforesayde, comming to Hadley to the buriall of a certayne frend of his and Gods great enemy one Walter Clarke, albeit he came somewhat to late to the market (as he sayd) yet desirous to vtter such Popishe pelfe and packeware as he brought with him, hee opened there his baggage of pestilent doctrine, MarginaliaA popishe Sermon of Syr Robert Bracher. preaching in the same towne of Hadley  

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 700, line 8 from the bottom

Strype, in his Memorials of Cranmer, p. 421, has preserved the heads of a sermon preached at Hadley the day after Taylor's burning by his successor Newall, "patched up of ignorance, malice, uncharitableness, lies and improbabilities."

agaynst iustification of fayth, of the corporall presence, of praying for the dead, and Auricular confession. Whereof Doctour Taylour hauing vnderstanding by Letters, writeth agayn to them of Hadley directing his Letter to his wife in confutation of the sayde Popish poysoned Sermon: the Copy of which Letter we thought not vnworthy here in the ende of this story to bee annexed, as vnder foloweth.

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¶ A Letter of Doctor Taylour of Hadley, written to his wife. 
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This letter was printed in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 641-45 and then reprinted in all subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

DEare wife, I pray God be euer with vs through Christ our onely Mediator. Amen.

MarginaliaThis cap was a roūd cap sent by M Couerdale to D. Taylor by his wyfe.I thanke you for my cap: I am something proud of it: for it is one steppe from the Clergy in these dayes. I thanke God, my hart is cleane deuided from theyr proceedinges: for I knowe that no

man
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