Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Alfonso y Castro

(1495 - 1558)

Franciscan theologian and preacher, confessor to Philip II. [DNB].

On 10 February 1555, Castro preached a sermon before Philip II criticising the recent burnings of heretics. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

A copy of his Adversus haereses was given to George Marsh in an effort to induce him to recant. 1570, p. 1734; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonso de Castro. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-99, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse, which stated that all heretics should suffer death. 1570, p. 1803, 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539 , 1583, p. 1622.

[Alias Friar Fonse or Aphonso de Castro.]

 
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Christian III

(1503 - 1559)

King of Denmark and Norway (1534 - 1559) [Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand (4 vols., Oxford, 1996).]

Throughout 1554, Christian III repeatedly requested that Mary release Miles Coverdale and send him to Denmark. Coverdale was released and deported to Denmark in February 1555. 1563, pp. 1081-83; 1570, pp. 1706-7; 1576, pp. 1456-57; 1583, pp. 1529-31.

 
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John Barnes

Mercer

Stephen Gardiner accused him of vandalising the statue of Becket which stood over the Mercers' chapel in Cheapside. 1563, p. 1081; 1570, pp. 1705-06; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

 
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John Laurence

(d. 1555)

Former Dominican; at Sudbury Convent when it was dissolved in 1538 [Emden, 1501-40].

Foxe mentions that John Laurence was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Articles objected against John Laurence on 8 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1111-12; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, pp. 1468-69; 1583, p. 1542.

Laurence was examined, formally and informally, by Bonner on 9 February 1555. He declared to Bonner that he had been ordained as a priest eighteen years previously, that he had been a Dominican and that he was engaged to be married. He also denied the Real Presence, declaring that the eucharist was a remembrance of Christ's body. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

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He was condemned and degraded on 9 February 1555 and sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

John Laurence was executed in Colchester on 29 March 1555. Because of physical infirmity, he was carried to the stake in a chair. Children shouted encouragement to him as he was burning. 1563, p. 1113; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, pp. 1469-70; 1583, p. 1543.

 
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John MacAlpine

(alias) Johannes Machabeus (d. 1557)

Chaplain to Christian III of Denmark; related by marriage to Miles Coverdale. [DNB]

MacAlpine persuaded Christian III to try (successfully) to secure Miles Coverdale's release and deportation to Denmark. 1570, p. 1706; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

[Foxe calls him 'Machabeus.']

 
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Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1568)

Evangelist, Bible translator, Bishop of Exeter (1551 - 1553) (DNB)

Miles Coverdale associated with John Rogers and William Tyndale in translating the Bible (1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He was ordered to attend the Privy Council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Coverdale appeared before the Privy Council and on the next day was commanded to await their pleasure (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

According to Foxe, he wrote a confutation of Weston's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 October 1553. Foxe claimed that he possessed a copy of Coverdale's confutation; it has not survived (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Coverdale was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41 [Coverdale's signature is on p. 1642]; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; and 1583, p. 1469-71.

Coverdale sent Rowland Taylor a cap to wear at his execution (1570, p. 1704; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1557).

Throughout 1554, Christian III of Denmark repeatedly requested that Mary release Coverdale from custody and send him to Denmark. Although Mary was reluctant to grant the request, eventually she agreed, sending Coverdale to Denmark in February 1555 (1563, pp. 1081-83; 1570, pp. 1706-7; 1576, pp. 1456-57; 1583, pp. 1529-31).

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Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

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Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

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Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

 
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Stephen Knight

(d. 1555)

Barber; martyr

Foxe mentions that Stephen Knight was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Articles were objected against Knight on 8 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1111-12; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, pp. 1468-69; 1583, p. 1542. Answers to these articles: 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, pp. 1542-43.

Knight, examined by Bonner on 9 February 1555, refused to recant. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, pp. 1720-21; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543. He was condemned by Bonner on 9 February and sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

He was taken to Malden, Essex, and executed there on 28 March 1555. He said a prayer at the stake which Foxe reprints. 1563, pp. 1112-13; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Bonner asked Thomas Hawkes if he knew Stephen Knight or William Pygot; Hawkes replied that he knew Knight but not Pygot (1563, p. 1148; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1500 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1586).

 
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Thomas Hawkes

(d. 1555)

Gentleman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Thomas Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Hawkes sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Foxe describes Hawkes' life and character; Hawkes served in the household of the earl of Oxford (1563, p. 1161; 1570, p. 1758; 1576,pp. 1501-1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes refused to allow his infant son to be baptized in a catholic service. The earl of Oxford reported this to Bishop Bonner (1563, p. 1162; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes was examined informally by Bonner (1563, pp. 1148-51; 1570, pp. 1758-60; 1576, pp. 1550 [recte 1502]-1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1585-87).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and and John Harpsfield (1563, pp. 1151-52; 1570, pp. 1760-1; 1576, pp. 1551 [recte 1503]-1504; 1583, pp. 1587-88).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and John Bird (1563, pp. 1152-53; 1570, pp. 1761-62; 1576, pp. 1504-05;1583, p. 1588).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Feckenham (1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583,pp. 1588-89).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and William Chedsey (1563, pp. 1154-55; 1570, pp. 1763-64; 1576, pp. 1505-06; 1583, pp. 1589-90).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 29 June 1554 (1563, pp. 1155-56; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, p. 1506; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 30 June 1554 (1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 1 July 1554 (1563, pp. 1156-57; 1570, pp. 1764-65; 1583, p. 1590).

A formal examination of Hawkes was held on 3 September 1554 (1563, pp. 1157-58; 1570, pp. 1765-66; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, pp. 1590-91).

Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555 and condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555 (1570, pp. 1705 and 1766; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1508; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1591-92).

Hawkes dined and prayed with Thomas Wattes and other Marian martyrs on the night of 9 June 1555, when they were all detained at an inn at Chelmsford, awaiting execution (1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p.1513; 1583, p. 1596).

Foxe describes the martyrdom of Hawkes (1563, p. 1162; 1570, pp. 1766-67; 1576, pp. 1508-09; 1583, pp. 1592-93).

Hawkes sent a letter to a congregation (1563, pp. 1558-59; 1570, pp. 1767-68; 1576, pp. 1509-10; 1583, p. 1593).

Hawkes sent a Letter to his wife (1563, pp. 1159-60; 1570, pp. 1768-69; 1576, p. 1510; 1583, pp. 1593-94).

Hawkes sent a letter to Clement Throgmorton (1570, p. 1769; 1576, pp. 1510-11; 1583, p. 1594).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Tomkins

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr

Thomas Tomkins' godly life and character are recounted. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Thomas Tomkins was mistreated (notably by having his beard forcibly shaven and his hand burned in a candle flame) while in Bonner's custody. 1563, pp. 1101-2 and 1733; 1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, pp. 1459-60; 1583, pp. 1533-34.

Foxe mentions that Tomkins was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555, and condemned on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

He was examined on 8 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, pp. 1102-3; 1570, p. 1711; 1576, pp. 1460-61; 1583, pp. 1534-35.

He was examined on 9 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, pp. 1711-12; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was condemned by Bishops Edmund Bonner, Gilbert Bourne and Henry Morgan on 9 February 1555. 1563, p. 1101; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535.

Tomkins was executed on 16 March 1555. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1535 [Foxe says 15 March in 1563, but corrects this in subsequent editions].

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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[NB: Although Foxe does not mention it, Tomkins was a member of a heretical conventicle which was detected in London in January 1545 (See Brigden, London , p. 388)].

[Not to be confused with the composer Thomas Tomkins.]

 
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William Hunter

(d. 1555)

Weaver's apprentice and martyr

William Hunter refused to attend mass in London in 1553; he returned home to Brentwood, Essex. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

He was denounced to Thomas Wood, the vicar of South Weald, for reading scriptures in English. He was examined by Wood, who denounced William Hunter to Anthony Browne. 1570, p. 1713; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

Hunter was brought before Browne and interrogated; Hunter was then sent to Bonner by Browne. 1570, pp. 1713-14; 1576, pp. 1462-63; 1583, pp. 1536-37.

William Hunter was examined by Bonner and condemned. 1563, p. 1110. [NB: This account of Hunter's examinations, based on Bonner's registers, was replaced in subsequent editions by a more detailed account of Bonner's treatment of Hunter.]

Hunter was detained by Bonner for nine months, during which time the bishop tried both harsh and lenient treatment to persuade him to recant. Finally he condemned Hunter. 1570, pp. 1714-15; 1576, pp. 1463-64; 1583, pp. 1537-38.

Foxe mentions that Hunter was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bishop Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

William Hunter was sent to Brentwood to be burned. Hunter refused pressure at his execution to recant and died constantly on 26 March 1555. 1563, p. 1110; 1570, pp. 1715-16; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, pp. 1538-39. [NB: The date of Hunter's execution is given as 25 March in the 1563 edition; this is corrected in subsequent editions.]

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Hunter wrote a short letter to his mother shortly before his martyrdom. 1583, p. 2149.

 
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William Pygot

(d. 1555)

Butcher and martyr

Foxe mentions that Pygot was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Articles were objected against Pygot on 8 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1111-12; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, pp. 1468-69; 1583, p. 1542. Answers to these articles: 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, pp. 1542-43.

Pygot was examined by Bonner on 9 February 1555; he refused to recant. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, pp. 1720-21; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

He was condemned by Bonner on 9 February and sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

He was taken to Braintree, Essex, and executed there on 28 March 1555. He said a prayer at the stake which Foxe presents. 1563, pp. 1112-13; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

On 3 May 1555, the Privy Council ordered the arrest of two men who were carrying Pygot's bones through the Essex countryside and displaying them to people (1583, p. 1577).

Bonner asked Thomas Hawkes if he knew either Stephen Knight or Pygot; Hawkes responded that he knew Knight but not Pygot (1563, p. 1148; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1586).

 
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St David's (Tyddewi; Mynyw; Menevia)

[Meneuia]

Pembrokeshire, Wales

OS grid ref: SM 755 255

Cathedral city

1553 [1529]

Queene Mary. Certayne condemned. Alphonsus agaynst the burning of men. Beckets Image.

Marginalia Anno 1555. February.let it surely looke after many and wonderfull plagues of God shortly. Though another haue the Benefice, yet as God knoweth, I cannot but be carefull for my deare MarginaliaThe carefull zeale of Doctor Taylour for Hadley.Hadley. And therefore as I could not but speake, after the first abhominable Masse begun there, I beyng present, no more I can not but write now beyng absent, hearyng of the wicked prophanation of my late pulpit, by such a wily Wolfe. Gods loue, mercy, goodnes and fauour hath bene vnspeakable, in teachyng vs the right way of saluation and iustification: Let vs all haue some zeale, some care how to serue him accordyng to his good will written. The God of loue and peace be euer in Hadley, through Christ our onely aduocate. Amen.

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Rowland Taylor.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Becket's Image and Other Events

The glosses in this section (1570, 1576, 1580) for the most part act as pointers to the narrative.

MarginaliaThe proceedings of the Popes catholickes in maintayning their religion. After that Steuen Gardiner Bish. of Winchester,had got the lawes, and the secular arme on his side (as ye haue heard) with full power and authoritie to raigne and rule as he listed, and had brought these godly bishops and reuerend preachers aforesayd vnder foote, namely the Archbishop of Cant. D. Ridley B. of London, M. Latimer, M. Hooper B. of Worcester and Gloucester, M. Rogers, M. Saunders, D. Taylor, and M. Bradford, all which he had now presently condemned, and some also burned, he supposed now all had bene cocke sure, and that Christ had bene conquered for euer, so that the people beyng terrified with example of these great learned men condemned, neuer would ne durst once route against their violent religion: not much vnlike in this behalfe, to the manner of the MarginaliaThe maner of proceeding like in the Catholickes, & in the Turkes. Turkes, who when they cannot maintaine their sect by good learnyng and truth of Gods word, thinke by violēce of sword to force whome they can to their beliefe, and that done, afterward make lawes, no man vnder payne of heresie to dispute or once to call in question any of their proceedyngs. Euen so St. Gardiner and his fellowes, when they see they cannot preuaile by triall of Gods word, and discourse of learnyng, neither are disposed simply to seeke for truth where it is to be found, they take exceptions agaynst Gods word to bee intricate, obscure, and insufficient to bee his owne iudge, and therefore that of necessitie must be iudged by the Popes Church, and so hauyng Kyngs and Queenes of theyr side, they seeke not to perswade by the worde of God, nor to winne by charitie, but in stead of the law of God, they vse (as the Prouerb saith) Marginaliaνόμος τῶν χείρων Prouerb. τῶ νόμω χείρων, compelling men by death, fire, and sworde, (as the Turkes do) to beleue that in very deed they think not. And in deed after flesh and bloud this seemeth to bee a sure way. Neither peraduenture are they ignoraunt how gaily this way thriueth with the Turkes, and therefore thinke they to practise the same, at least wise so they do, vpon what example so euer they doe it. And thus condemned they these godly learned preachers and bishops aforesayd, supposing (as I said) that all the rest would soone be quailed by their example. But they were deceiued, for wtin 8. or 9. dayes after that Ste. Gardiner had geuen sentence against M. Hooper, M. Rogers, M. Saunders, D. Taylor, and M. Bradford, being the MarginaliaFebruary. 8. 8. of Febru. sixe other good men wer brought likewyse before the bishops for the same cause of religion, to be examined, Marginalia6. Men conuented before B. Boner for heresie. whose names were W. Pigot butcher, St. Knight Barber, Th. Tomkins Weauer, Th. Hawkes gentleman, Ioh. Laurence priest, Will. Hunter prentise.

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St. Gardiner seyng thus his deuise disappointed, and that cruelty in this case would not serue to his expectation gaue ouer the matter as vtterly discouraged, & from that day medled no more in such kinde of condemnations,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 704, line 26

Bonner takes up the work, of which Gardiner seems to have long since been weary, and convinced of its inefficacy.

MarginaliaSte. Gardiner geueth ouer his murthering office to B. Boner. but referred the whole doyng therof to Boner B. of London:  
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This is an interesting admission that, after the initial condemnations of Rogers, Saunders, Hooper, Taylor and others in late January 1555, Gardiner withdrew from an active role in persecuting protestants. Bonner would take charge of the persecution, even when, as in the case of Philpot, the accused was technically not under the jurisdiction of the bishop of London.

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who supplied that part right doughtily, as in the further processe of this hystory hereafter euidently and too muche may appeare. Thus B. Boner taking the matter in hand, called before him in his Consistory at Paules, the L. Maior and certaine Aldermen sitting with him, the 6. persons aforenamed, vpon the 8. day of Febr. in the yere aforesaid, and in the next day beyng the MarginaliaFebruary 9. Ex Regist. Boneri Lond. 9. of Febr. red the sentence of condemnation vpon them, as appeareth in Boners own registers. Such quicke speed these men could make in dispatcing their busines at once. Notwithstandyng, because the death of these Marginalia6. Men condēned by B. Boner. condemned martyrs did not folow incontinently before the next month of March, I wyll deferre the prosecuting of their matter, til I come by þe grace of the Lord, to the tyme and day of their suffering.

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In the meane tyme, what was the cause that their execution was so long deferred after their condemnation, I haue not precisely to say, vnlesse peraduenture the sermon of Alphonsus, the Spanish Frier,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 704, line 8 from the bottom

This very singular act admits of an easy solution. Sharon Turner, in his History of Mary (c. xvi.), relates from Llorente's History of the Inquisition (French edit. tom. ii. p. 175), whose authority is Cabrera's Philip II., that this same Philip was at the time in dread of a papal excomunication. He writes to his sister, regent in Spain, that he had learnt his holiness's intention to that effect, and to put his state under an interdict, accusing his holiness at the same time of ingratitude for his own merits in pursuing and punishing here without ceasing. These merits Philip repeated two years afterwards in his own country. There is a remarkable confirmation of this view in the continuation of Baronius's Annals by Raynaldi (ad an. 1557, ¶ 5). "Paulus Neapolitani proregis armis lacessitus ... adversus Carolum V. et Philippum citerioris Siciliæ et Angliæ regem erecto novo tribunali, selectis ex omni ordinum genere viris doctiss., legum severitatem distringere decrevit, pontificiosque omnes administros, qui in Cæsaris et regis Philippi regnis agebant, revocavit; necnon feria quinta majoris hebdomadæ defixit anathemate invasores Urbium ditionis ecclesiasticæ, tum omnes, qui consilio vel auxilio studiisve iis adhærerent," &c.

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and the kings Confessor did some good. For so I find, that when these sixe persons aforesaid, were cast vpon saterday the 9. of Febr. vpō sonday following, which was the x. of February, the sayd Alphonsus a Gray Frier, preached before the king, in which

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sermon he did earnestly inuey against the bishops for burning of men, saying plainly that they learned it not in scripture to burne any for his conscience: but the cōtrary, that they should lyue & be conuerted, MarginaliaFebruary 10 MarginaliaAlphonsus K. Phillips confessor preaching agaynst the burning of heretickes, with many other things more to the same purport. But touchyng the lingeryng of these mens death, as I haue not certainly to affirme, so I let it passe.

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MarginaliaFebruary. 14. Vpon the 14. of February, M. Rob. Ferrar B. of S. Dauids, was sent toward S. Dauids, there to be cōdemned and executed. Touching whose martyrdome, for so much as it fell not before the month of March, we wil deferre the history thereof till we come to the day and tyme of his suffering.

Furthermore, this foresaid 14. day of February, the L. Chauncellor & other his felow Bishops, caused the MarginaliaTho. Beckets Image set vp at Mercers chappell. image of Thomas Becket, that olde Romish traitor, to be set vp ouer the Mercers Chappell dore in Chepeside in Londō, in the forme and shape of a bishop, with Miter and Crosier. 

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Becket's Image

This account of the repeated iconoclasm against the statue of Becker first appears in the 1563 edition and was reprinted without alteration in all subsequent editions. Foxe was certainly drawing on oral sources for this, very probably John Barnes or a member of his family or household. Foxe presents Barnes's grievances in the matter sympathetically, and in some detail. The repeated attacks on the statue are widely reported in other sources (see Brigden, p. 593).

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Howbeit within MarginaliaFebruary. 17. two dayes after his erection, his two blessing fingers were first broken away, and on the nexte day (beyng the 17. of February) his head also was striken of: wherupon arose great trouble, and many were suspected: among whom one MarginaliaM. Iohn Barnes troubled for Beckets Image. M. Ioh. Barnes Mercer, dwellyng ouer agaynst the same Chappel, was vehemently by the Lord Chauncellour charged withall, as the doer therof & the rather, for that he was a professour of truth. Wherefore he and three of his seruauntes were committed to pryson: and at his deliuery (although it coulde not be prooued vpon him) he was bound in a great summe of money, as well to build it vp agayne as often as it should be broken downe, as also to watch and keepe the same. And therfore at this his compelled charges, the MarginaliaBeckets Image. Image was agayne set vp the secōd day of March, then next ensuing, but (for lack belike of carefull watching) the 14. day of the same moneth in the night, the head of that daungerous beast (ouer whō there was suche a charge geuen) MarginaliaBeckets Image agayne broken downe. was agayne the seconde tyme broken of: which thing was so heynously taken, that the next day (being the 15. day) there was a Proclamation made in London, that who soeuer woulde tell who did strike of his head (though he were of counsayle, and not the principall doer) he shoulde haue not onely his pardon, but also one hundreth crownes of gold, with harty thāks. But it was not knowne who did it.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters

The glosses in this section (1570, 1576, 1580) are mainly functional, making clear the authorship of each letter.

MarginaliaFebruary. 18. MarginaliaQ. Mary aunswereth to the K. of Denmarkes letters touching M. Couerdale. The 18. day of February, Queene Mary at length after long delaye, made full aunswere to the kinge of Denmarkes letters, who had written before two letters to the sayd Queene, in þe behalfe of M. Couerdale, for his deliueraunce, 
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Miles Coverdale's Release

This account of Miles Coverdale's release from prison and the correspondence between Christian III of Denmark and Mary on this matter first appear in the 1563 edition. All of this material was reprinted in the subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments without significant alteration. This was not the first or last time that Foxe would have drawn on the official correspondence of Mary's reign. These documents were clearly procured through the good offices of someone at court, very probably William Cecil.

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Christian III was, as Foxe observes, acting at the behest of John MacBriar (or Johannes Machabeus), who was Coverdale's brother-in-law and Christian's chaplain. The Marian government, as is apparent from Foxe, was deeply reluctant to release Coverdale; he had been the bishop of Exeter in the previous reign and, along with Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, Barlow, Hooper and Ferrar he was among the members of the Edwardian episcopate targeted by the new regime. But Christian was in a position to apply pressure and he clearly did so. Although he was a pious Lutheran, Christian was also a valued ally of Charles V, the father-in-law of the English queen, and, at this time, England's most important ally. Mary delayed as long as she could, but released Coverdale and gave him a passport in February 1555. Had Christian not intervened, Coverdale would almost certainly have been one of the Marian martyrs.

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who at that time went vnder sureties, and was in great danger, had he not bene rescued by the great suite & letters of the sayd K. of Denmarke.

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The matter and copy of which his sute and letters, as they came to our hands, we haue here set forth and exprest where by the singular loue of this good king towards the truth of Gods word and the professors thereof might the better appeare to the world.

First this vertuous and godly king Christianus, hearyng of the captiuitie of MarginaliaM. Couerdale. Myles Couerdale, of whome hee had had some knowledge before (being there in Denmark in King Henry the eight his tyme) and lamentyng hys daungerous case, and partly thorough the intercession of M. Machabeus Superintendent in Denmarke, who was partly of * Marginalia* This M. Machabeus and M. Couerdale maryed two sisters. kinne to Maister Couerdales wife,  

Commentary  *  Close

Coverdale had married Elizabeth Macheson; MacBriar was married to her sister Agnes.

made intercession by letters to Queene Mary, desiring and requestyng the sayd Myles Couerdale to be sent vnto hym. The date of which hys first letters, was about the Calends of May. An. Dom. 1554. The copy whereof here followeth.

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¶ Christianus Dei gratia, Daniæ, Noruegiæ, &c. Rex. &c. eadem gratia Serenissimæ ac potentissimæ principi D. Mariæ, Angliæ, Galliæ, & Hyberniæ Reginæ, consanguineæ nostræ chariss. salutem.

MarginaliaThe epistle of the K. of Denmarke to Q. Mary, for the deliuerance of M. Couerdale. SErenissima princeps, consanguinea charissima pro necessitudine mutua ac coniunctione, non solum regij nominis inter nos, sed etiam sanguinis, maximè vero vtrinque inter hæc regna nostra à vetustissimis vsque temporibus propagata ac seruata, nō modo commertiorum, sed omnium officiorum vicissitudine & fide, facere non potuimuis quin pietatis & doctrinæ excellentis commendatione, verè reuerendi viri Ioannis Machabæi, sacræ Theologiæ doctoris & professoris præstantiss subditi ac Ministri nostri imprimis delecti, supplicibus grauissimisque precibus cōmoti, ad serenitatem vestram has literas daremus. Exposuit is nobis, in hac recenti perturbatione ac motu regni Angliæ (quem ex animo euenisse dolemus, & nunc indies in melius verti speramus) quendam nomine Milonem Couerdalum, nuper diœcesis Exoniensis, piæ laudatissimæque memoriæ proximi Regis Serenitatis vestræ fratris, consanguinei itidem nostir chariss. autho-

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