Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
George Day

(1501? - 1556)

Bishop of Chichester (1543 - 1551, 1553 - 1556) [DNB]

George Day was delivered from the Fleet 4 August 1553; he preached at Edward VI's funeral, 8 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1456).

He preached at Mary's coronation, 1 October 1553 (1570; p. 1635, 1576; p. 1395; 1583; p. 1466).

He was one of the commissioners who presided over the deprivation of John Hooper. 1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1506.

Hooper wrote a letter to Day which Foxe mentions, but did not print. 1563, p. 1063; 1570, p. 1686; 1576, p. 1439; 1583, p. 1512.

Day sought to persuade Sir James Hales to submit to Gardiner and abjure his actions, if not his religious convictions. 1563, p. 1116; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p.1458; 1583, p. 1532.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with John Bradford. They talked for three hours. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

John Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that had done Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

Day visited Gardiner in prison. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York, Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, p. 1824-26.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before Bonner and other bishops, including York, Chichester, Bath, John Harpsfield, Chadsey, Bonner, into which entered William Garret, knight, the lord mayor and the sheriff (Thomas Leigh) of London, Sir Martin Bowes, knight,. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

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George Day died before Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

[No relation to John Day the printer or Richard Day the martyr.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir James Hales

(d. 1554)

Judge of the Common Pleas (1547 - 1553). Of Canterbury. [DNB] Father-in-law of Joyce Hales.

Sir James Hales is mentioned as opposing the act proclaiming Lady Jane Grey as heir to Edward VI and is characterised as both 'favouringe true religion' and 'as upright a Iudge as any was in this realme' (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1336; and 1583, p. 1406).

Hales' exemplary character and piety are described (1563, pp. 1113-14).

Foxe gives a brief account of how Hales upheld the statutes passed in Edward's reign against the establishing of altars and the mass, was imprisoned and attempted suicide (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, pp. 1339-40; and 1583, p. 1410; also see 1563, p. 1114).

After Hales had enforced the Edwardian statues in Kent in the summer of 1553, he came to Westminster at the beginning of the legal term in October 1553 to be sworn in as a justice. Lord Chancellor Stephen Gardiner refused to administer the oath to him unless he abjured. Hales refused. He was arrested soon after. While imprisoned, George Day, William Portman and one Foster sought to persuade him to recant. 1563, pp. 1114-15; 1570, pp. 1708-9; 1576, p. 1458; 1583, p. 1532.

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Sir James Hales received a letter from John Bradford when he was a prisoner in the Counter in Bread Street. 1570, pp. 1818-19, 1576, pp. 1554-56, 1584, p. 1636.

A notice that Hales was committed to the Marshalsea appears in 1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Hales attempted to commit suicide in prison. Afterward, in April 1554, he was released 1563, p. 1115; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Ridley reported, in a letter to Cranmer, written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that John Moreman had persuaded Sir James Hales to recant (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

Hales succeeded in killing himself 1563, p. 1115; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Foxe defends Hales' character and suicide 1563, pp. 1116-17; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Hales drowned himself. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1991. 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir William Portman

(1498? - 1557)

Chief Justice of King's and Queen's Bench; JP (nine counties) 1555 [SP11/5, no. 6, Bindoff, Commons]

Sir William Portman sought to persuade Sir James Hales to submit to Gardiner and abjure his actions, if not his religious convictions. 1563, p. 1116; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1458; 1583, p. 1532.

1556 [1532]

Q. Mary. The pitifull history of Iudge Hales.

Marginalia Anno 1555. February. in the yere of our Lord God, after the computation of the church of England, 1554. and of my translation, the 16.

The forme of absolution, to be kept by the Pastors and Curates, in priuate confessions, concernyng this reconciliation.

MarginaliaThe absolution of B. Boner to be vsed in his Dioces. OVr Lord Iesus Christ absolue you, and by the Apostolike authoritie to me graunted and committed, I absolue you from the sentences of excommunication, and from all other censures and paynes, into the which you be fallen by reason of heresie, or schisme, or any other wayes: and I restore you vnto the vnity of our holy mother the Churche, and the Communion of all Sacramentes, dispensing with you for all manner of irregularitie: and by the same authoritie, I absolue you from all your sinnes, In the name of the father, and of the sonne, and of the holy Ghost. Amen.

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¶ The lamentable history of Maister Iames Hales, Iudge.  
Commentary  *  Close
Judge Hales

In the Rerum, Foxe praised Sir James Hales's prudence, gravity, and excellence as a justice. He also extolled Hales's devotion to the gospel, describing the justices daily scripture readings to his household. The Rerum goes on to relate that Hales insisted on enforcing the Edwardian statutes which prohibited the celebration of mass and because of this he was summoned before Stephen Gardiner, the lord chancellor (Rerum, pp. 261-62). The Rerum then reprinted, in its entirety, a translation of a contemporary protestant pamphlet relating the interview between Hales and Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 262-63, cf. The communication betwene my lordchauncelor and judge Hales in Westminster hall. M. D. Liii. V. of October [London? 1553]). The Rerum continues by relating that Hales was imprisoned and worn downby the catholics and reduced to despair. (Foxe blamed, in some detail, a gentleman of Hampshire named Forster, Bishop Day of Chichester and Sir William Portman, Chief Justice of the King's and Queen's Bench, for putting pressure on Hales). Eventually Hales tried to kill himself with a penknife. (Foxe maintained that this demonstrated that Hales was not in his right mind). Hearing of this, Gardiner publicly denounced protestantism as a 'doctrine of desperation'. Hales was released and returned home where he drowned himself, either from remorse, insanity or to prevent his being forced to attend mass. Foxe disapproved of the suicide, but added that if Hales was out of his wits when he killed himself, then he deserved pity. Foxe also maintained that Hales was not necessarily damned. Foxe claimed that not all suicides were consigned to hell, citing the examples of virgins who killed themselves rather than lose their chastity, including some female Christians praised for this by the great church historian Eusebius (Rerum, pp. 264-65). Foxe also added a poem which he wrote himself, praising Hales (Rerum, p. 265).

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In the first edition of the Acts and Monuments, all of this material was reprinted without change, except that two lines were added to the poem, expressing the hope that Hales's soul, no matter how blemished, might be cleansed and blessed through divine mercy.

In 1566, Nicholas Harpsfield, Foxe's most important contemporary critic, attacked Foxe's account of Hales. Harpsfield criticized Foxe for praising Hales as a martyr. In particular, Harpsfield criticized Foxe for maintaining that Hales might not be damned and for comparing Hales with early Christian martyrs who killed themselves rather than be forced to surrender their chastity and worship idols (DS, pp. 748-49).

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In his second edition, Foxe responded by eliminating the discussion of Hales's background and virtues from his narrative on the judge. He replaced this with a denunciation of the illegality of the arrest of Hales and of other allegedly illegal catholic persecutions of protestants. The interview between Hales and Gardiner was reprinted without change. But the long discussion of Hales's cruel treatment in prison is replaced by a terse declaration that 'it is thought' that Day and Portman subjectedHales to pressure. (Foxe may have been under some pressure himself about his accusations of Portman and Forster; the latter is not mentioned in this edition). The description of Hales's attempted suicide is repeated, as is Gardiner's denunciation of protestantism. Foxe also repeats his claim that Hales deserved pity if he was out of his wits and his citation of suicides by early Christians. However, Foxe added a sentence to this edition refusing to excuse 'the hainous fact' of Hales's suicide. Foxe also changed the last four lines of his poem praising Hales; the new lines are more guarded about the fate of Hales's soul, praying that on the Day of Judgement, when no one will be without sin, Hales's sins will not weigh too heavily against him.

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In his second edition, Foxe was concerned to arrange events in chronological order and the account of Hales was moved accordingly. The account of Hales in the second edition of the Acts and Monuments was repeated without change in the third and fourth editions.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Judge Hales

Several glosses reflect the apposite theme of the injustice/illegality of the papists ('The Catholickes proued to doe agaynst the law in Q. Maryes tyme'; 'Iustice Hales for Iustice sake troubled'). The gloss 'Winchester quarelleth with M. Hales religion' perhaps reveals something about Foxe's priorities here: it takes Gardiner's point that Hales's actions were motivated not by legal rigour but by religious bias and uses it in a general attack on Hales's religion, leaving out the legal issue. This has the effect of leaving intact Hales's reputation for commitment to the law whatever the political consequences, and makes the contrast between his legality and catholic illegality all the stronger. The gloss 'Winchester might rather haue sayd how their cruell dealing worketh desperation' implicitly accepts that Hales fell prey to desperation, although the reason for the desperation is laid upon the papists. Later glosses ('The cause of Iudge Hales drowning considered'; 'The case of Iudge Hales drowning considered') reveal Foxe's non-judgemental response to the question of Hales's spiritual destination.

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MarginaliaThe history of Iudge Hales. IN the history of M. Hooper mention was touched a little before of Iudge Hales, wherefore somethyng would be sayd more in this place touching that matter. But because the story of that man and of his ende is sufficiently comprehended in our first booke of Acts and Monumēts,  
Commentary  *  Close

Note the difference between the versions of Hales's imprisonment in the 1563 edition and in the subsequent editions. The detailed and lengthy account in 1563 is replaced by a terse notice. In the later editions, 'it is merely thought' that Chief Justice Portman tried to undermine Hales's resolve and there is no mention of Forster. It is quite possible that pressure was placed on Foxe to modify his account of Portman or Forster or both.

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we shall not greatly need to stand vpon rehersall of euery perticular matter touching the whole, but only taking the chiefest, and leauyng the rest, we will report somewhat of the communication betwene the B. of Winchester & hym: declaring withal how false and vntrue the excuse is of our aduersaries, which so precisely by the law defend thēselues and say, that in all their doyngs they did nothing but by þe Law, to beare them out. MarginaliaThe Catholickes proued to doe agaynst the law in Q. Maryes tyme. Which if it be so, how did they thē to Anne Askew? What law had they when they had condemned her first for a dead woman, then afterward to rack her? By what law did they cal vp M. Hooper & prison him for the Queenes debt, when the Queene in very deede did owe hym foure score pounds, and kept hym a yeare and a halfe in prison, and gaue hym neuer a penny? pag. 1577. By what law did B. Boner condemn and burn Richard Mekins, a lad of xv. yeares, when the first Iurie had quit hym, and at the stake reuoked all heresies, and praised the sayd Boner to be a good man: and also hauing him in prison, would not suffer his father and mother to come to hym, to comfort their owne chylde? pag. 1168. What lawe had they to put Maister Rogers in prison, when hee dyd neyther preache nor reade Lecture after the tyme of the Queenes inhibition, and when they had kept hym in his owne house halfe a yeare, beyng not depriued of anye liuyng, yet would not let hym haue a halfepeny of his owne liuyngs to relieue him, his wyfe, and xj. childrē? pag. 1574. By what law was Thomas Tomkins hand burnt, and afterward his body consumed to ashes? What good law or honestie was there to burne the 3. poore womē at Garnsey, with the infant chyld fallyng out of the mothers wōbe when as they all before theyr death recanted their wordes and opinions, and were neuer abiured before? So here likwyse in this case, what order or right of law did Steuen Gardiner follow in troublyng & imprisoning Iudge Hales, when he had done nothyng neither agaynst Gods law, nor mans law, in proceeding by order of law against certayne presumptuous persones, which both before the law, and agaynst the law then in force, tooke vppon them to say their Masse? as ye shall heare in these his answers and communication had with Steuen Gardiner here vnder ensuyng.

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¶ The communication betwene the Lord Chauncellour and Iudge Hales, beyng there among other Iudges, to take his oth in Westminster hall. An. 1553. October. 6.  
Commentary  *  Close

This first appeared in Rerum (pp. 262-63) and is an accurate and completereprinting of a small tract: The communication betwene my lord chauncelor and judge Hales in Westminster hall. M. D. Liii. Vi of October (STC 11583). It is now known that this tract was printed on the illegal 'Michael Wood' press, operated in Stamford (Lincs) by John Day. (See Evenden).

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 712, fn 2

This communication was published, at the time of the transaction taking place, in a small tract of three leaves (including the title) at "Roan;" and, from a copy which produced 4l. 6s. at the sale of Mr. Neunburg, Dr. Dibdin has reprinted it in his "Library Companion," pp. 115 - 118. Edit. 1824. - ED.

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Lord Chauncellour. I. Hales.

MarginaliaCommunication betweene Iudge Hales and the B. of Winchester. MAister Hales ye shall vnderstand, that lyke as the Queenes highnes hath heretofore conceiued good opinion of you, especially for that ye stood both faithfully & lawfully in her cause of iust succession, refusing to set your hand to the booke among others þt were against her grace in that behalfe:  

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., to sign the privy council act in 1553 barring Mary from the throne.

so now, through your owne late desertes against certaine her highnes doings, ye stand not well in her graces fauor: and therfore, before ye take any othe,  
Commentary  *  Close

Hales had come, at the beginning of Michaelmas term, to take his oath of office as a justice of the Common Pleas.

it shall be necessary for you to make your purgation.

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Hales. I pray you my L. what is the cause?

Chaunc. Information is geuen, that he haue indited certaine priests in Kent, for saying masse. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 713, line 8

The copy in Dr. Dibdin's Library Companion reads, "of mass."

Hales. My L. it is not so, I indited none, but in deed cer-

taine inditements of like matter were brought before me at þe last assises there holden, & I gaue order therin as the law required. For I haue professed þe law, against which, in cases of iustice, I wil neuer (God willing) proceede, nor in any wise dissemble, but wt the same shew forth my cōscience, & if it wer to do again, I would do no lesse thē I did.

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Chanc. Yea, M. Hales, your conscience is knowen well enough. I know ye lacke no conscience.

Hales. My L. ye may do well to search your owne conscience, for myne is better known to my selfe, then to you: & to be plaine, I did as wel vse iustice in your said masse case by my conscience, as by lawe, wherein I am fully bent to stand in trial to the vttermost that can be obiected. And if I haue therin done any iniury or wrong, let me be iudged by the law, for I will seeke no better defence, consideryng chiefly that it is my profession.

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MarginaliaIustice Hales for Iustice sake troubled.Chaunc. Why M. Hales although you had the rigor of the lawe on your side, yet ye might haue had regarde to the Queenes highnes present doyngs in that case. And further, although ye seeme to be more then precise in the law, yet I thinke ye would be very loth to yeld to the extremitie of such aduantage as might be gathered agaynst your proceedings in the law, as ye haue sometyme taken vpon you in place of iustice, and if it were well tried, I beleue ye should not be well able to stand honestly therto.

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Hales. My L. I am not so perfect, but I may erre for lacke of knowledge. But both in conscience and such knowledge of the law as God hath geuen me, I will doe nothing but I will maintaine it, & abide in it: and if my goods and all that I haue be not able to counterpeise the case, my bodye shalbe redy to serue the turne, for they be all at þe Queenes highnes pleasure.

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MarginaliaWinchester quarelleth with M. Hales religion. Chanc. Ah sir, ye be very quicke & stout in your aunswers, But as it should seeme, that which you did was more of a will, fauouring the opinion of your religion agaynst the seruice now vsed, then for any occasion or zeale of Iustice, seyng the Queens highnes doth set it foorth as yet, wishing all her faithfull subiects to embrace it accordingly: & where you offer both body & goods in your triall, there is no such matter required at your hands, and yet ye shal not haue your owne will neither.

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Hales. My L. I seeke not wilfull wil, but to shew my selfe as I am bound in loue to God, & obedience to þe Queenes maiestie, in whose cause willingly for iustice sake, all other respects set apart, I did of late (as your Lordship knoweth) aduenture as much as I had. And as for my religion, I trust it be such as pleaseth God, wherein I am ready to aduenture as well my life, as my substance, if I be called therunto. And so in lacke of myne owne power and wyll, the Lords will be fulfilled.

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Chanc. Seeyng ye be at this point M. Hales, I wyll presently make an ende with you. The Queenes hyghnesse shall be informrd of your opinion and declaration. And as her grace shall thereupon determine, ye shall haue knowledge. Vntil which time ye may depart as ye came, without your oth: for as it appeareth, ye are scarse worthy the place appoynted. 

Commentary  *  Close

Gardiner was refusing to let Hales take his oath and was, in effect, suspending him from office.

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Hales. I thanke your Lordship, and as for my vocation, beyng doth a burthen and a charge more then euer I desired to take vppon me: when so euer it shall please the Queenes highnes to ease me thereof, I shall most humbly with due contentation obey the same:and so hee departed from the barre.

MarginaliaM. Hales committed to the Kings Bench. Not many dayes after this communication or colloquie in Westminster hall, which was October 6. An. 1553. Maister Hales at the commaundement of the Bish. was committed to the Kynges Benche, where hee remayned constant vntill Lent: then was remooued to the Counter in Breadstreet, and afterward from thence was caried to the Fleete.

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Beyng in the Fleete,  

Commentary  *  Close

Note the difference between the versions of Hales's imprisonment in the 1563 edition and in the subsequent editions. The detailed and lengthy account in 1563 is replaced by a terse notice. In the later editions, 'it is merely thought' that Chief Justice Portman tried to undermine Hales's resolve and there is no mention of Forster. It is quite possible that pressure was placed on Foxe to modify his account of Portman or Forster or both.

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what it was that he had granted vnto the Byshops by their fraudulent assaults and perswasions, namely, of D. Day bishop of Chichester, and of Iudge Portman (as it is thought) ouercome at last, I haue not to say.

MarginaliaM. Hales about to kill himselfe in prison.This is certaine, that shortly after callyng hymselfe better to remembraunce, he was brought to great repentaunce and terror of conscience. In so much, that for very anguish of hart, he was redy with his penknife to kil him selfe there in the prison, and had (no doubt) so done, had not the mercifull prouidence of the Lord, rescued hym miraculously, as ye shall heare.

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It hapned when supper tyme came that he should be called downe, M. Hales hauing little mynd either to eate or drink, gate him straight way to bed, where he lay al the night sobbing & groning, & tooke (God knoweth) litle rest or sleepe. At length when morning came, about sixe of the clock, he sent his seruant for a cup of beere, vnder pretence

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