Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Pendleton

(d. 1557)

Chaplain to Bishop Bonner. Catholic controversialist [DNB]

In Edward VI's reign, Henry Pendleton boasted of the constancy of his protestant convictions to Laurence Saunders, but re-converted to catholicism in Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1670; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, pp. 1499-1500.

He witnessed Bishop Bonner burning Thomas Tomkins' hand with a candle. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p. 1534.

In Bradford's final examination, the bishop of London refers to Bradford's letter to M Pendleton as proof of Bradford's heresy. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

On 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton about why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford told Pendleton that he would receive the same answer as Weston had received: that Bradford would not change his position on transubstantiation. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk between Bradford and Pendleton about 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n]s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Pendleton, with Bonner and Feckenham among others, examined Bartlet Green. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26,, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

Dr Pendleton took part in the examination of William Tyms, Robert Drakes, Thomas Spurge, Richard Spurge, John Cavel and George Ambrose. 1570, pp. 2076-77, 1576, p. 1791, 1583, pp. 1896-97.

Henry Pendleton repented at his death. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
James Hinse

Thomas Tomkins repeated to James Hinse that he had felt no pain whilst Bonner had burned his hand with a candle. 1570, p. 1711; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p. 1534.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Harpsfield

(1516 - 1578)

Chaplain to Bishop Bonner. Archdeacon of London (1554 - 1559); dean of Norwich (1558 - 1559). Brother of Nicholas Harpsfield. [DNB; Fasti]

Harpsfield preached a sermon at the commencement of the 1553 convocation (1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

He sparred with Philpot in the debates at the 1553 convocation. (See 1563, pp. 909, 912 and 914-15; 1570, pp. 1573-74 and 1576-78; 1576, pp. 1342 and 1345-46 and 1583, pp. 1412 and 1416-17).

He was one of the catholic disputants at the Oxford disputations of 1554; he debated with Cranmer and Ridley (1563, pp. 932-34, 938, 955, 967-69 and 978; 1570, pp. 1591-93 and 1605-6; 1576, pp. 1358-59 and 1370-71; 1583, pp. 1428, 1430 and 1440-41).

Harpsfield disputed on the eucharist for his D.D. on 19 April 1554; Cranmer disputed with him (1563, pp. 986-91; 1570, pp. 1627-32; 1576, pp. 1389-92; 1583, pp. 1459-63).

He gave a Latin oration in St Paul's before King Philip (1570, p. 1643; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He witnessed Bonner's burning Tomkins' hand with a candle, and he urged Bonner to cease the torture (1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p.1534).

Together with William Chedsey and John Feckenham, Harpsfield attempted to persuade John Hooper to recant after his condemnation on 29 January 1555. The attempt was unsuccessful but it caused false rumors of Hooper's recantation to spread (1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507).

Harpsfield witnessed the degradation of John Rogers and John Hooper on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508).

He was one of those who presided over the examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555 (1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535).

Harpsfield was one of those who examined Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed on 18 February 1555 (1563, p. 1104). Bonner ordered him to deliver a rebuttal to the confession of faith of Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed (1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541).

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554, arguing the necessity of infant baptism. 1563, pp. 1151-52;1570, pp. 1760-61; 1576, p. 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1587-88

He escorted Thomas Hawkes to the Gatehouse at Westminster on 1 July 1554. 1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1765;1576, p. 1765; 1583, p. 1590

John Harpsfield conferred with the bishop of Durham about John Bradford. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

Smith was examined by Bonner and Harpsfield, among others, met with Harwood in the garden, and was re-examined. Smith was then left in the garden until Harwood was examined, after which Smith was examined again. 1563, pp. 1252-55, 1570, pp. 1870-72, 1576, pp. 1601-03, 1583, pp. 1691-92.

Robert Smith was examined by John Dee, Harpsfield and Bonner on eucharistic doctrine. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Green told Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. Dr Dale, Master George Mordant and Master Dee were also there. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

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Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session to examine Philpot, and Chadsey, who had however left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

John Harpsfield urged Thomas Whittle to recant and composed a bill of submission for Whittle to sign. 1563, pp. 1454-55, 1570, p. 2017, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, pp. 1845-46.

John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's suscription. It mentioned one of Penbroke's men who wanted license to erect a school. Harpsfield hoped for Penbroke's sake that it be requested, and he and M Johnson (Register) were working to that effect. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47. [In all editions after 1563, the heading incorrectly gives the author of the letter as Nicholas Harpsfield.]

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Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2097.

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Bonner sent Thomas Hinshaw before John Harpsfield and Henry Cole. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Bonner attended evensong with John Harpsfield prior to causing several boys to be beaten in 1558. 1563, p. 1692, 1570, p. 2264, 1576, p. 1955, 1583, p. 2061.

Bonner and Harpsfield laughed at and mocked Edward Benet for his beliefs. 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Harpsfield was committed to the Fleet after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Willanton

Chaplain to Edmund Bonner, bishop of London. Deprived under Elizabeth. [DNB sub 'Edmund Bonner']

Robert Willanton witnessed the degradation of John Rogers and John Hooper on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

Willanton witnessed Bishop Bonner's burning Thomas Tomkins' hand with a candle. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p. 1534.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed each to write down his own arguments about transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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[Foxe also refers to him as 'Willerton' or 'Wyllerton'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Chedsey

(1510 - 1574?)

Of Somersetshire. Chaplain to Bishop Bonner. Archdeacon of Middlesex (1554 - 1559). President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford (1558 - 1559). [DNB; Fasti; Foster]

After the death of Edward VI Chedsey recanted and mutated his doctrine to his own purpose, as in his dispute with Peter Martyr.

Chedsey preached at Paul's Cross on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He argued with John Philpot in defence of transubstantiation in the 1553 convocation (1563, pp. 910-11; 1570, pp. 1574-75; 1576, p. 1342-3; and 1583, pp. 1413-14).

He was one of the catholic disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554. He debated with Cranmer on the morning of Monday 16 April (1563, pp. 932-33, 939-43, 946-48, 951 and 954-55; 1570, pp. 1594-96, 1599-1600, 1602 and 1604-5; 1576, pp 1360-62, 1364-65, 1367 and 1369-70; 1583, pp. 1430-32, 1435-1436, 1437 and 1439-40).

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When Chedsey addressed the lord mayor of London, he mentioned two letters- one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsberye, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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He published a declaration at Paul's Cross in May 1555. 1563, p. , 1570, p. , 1576, p. , 1583, p. .

Chedsey tried to persuade Hooper to recant after his condemnation on 29 January 1555. He was unsuccessful but false rumors circulated that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

He witnessed Bishop Bonner's burning Thomas Tomkins' hand with a candle. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p. 1534.

In late June 1554, Chedsey discussed vernacular services and the adoration of the cross with Thomas Hawkes. The next day Chedsey preached in Bonner's chapel, extolling the saving power of the eucharist. 1563, pp. 1154-55; 1570, pp. 1763-64; 1576, p. 1506; 1583, p. 1589

Philpot's sixth examination was before the Lord Chamberlain to Queen Mary, Ferrars, Lord Rich, Lord St John, Lord Windsor, Lord Shandoys, Sir John Bridges, Chadsey and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner, Rochester, chancellor of Lichfield, Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session, to examine Philpot and Chadsey, who had however left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day as his twelfth examination. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, p. 1717, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before Bonner and other bishops, including York, Chichester, Bath, John Harpsfield, Chadsey, Bonner, into which entered William Garret, knight, the lord mayor and the sheriff (Thomas Leigh) of London and Sir Martin Bowes, knight. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

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Chedsey testified in the presence of Master Moseley and the lieutenant of the Tower that Bartlett Green had denied transubstantiation. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. 1563, p. 1217.

Benold was examined before Chedsey, John Kingston, John Boswell, the two bailiffs of Colchester (Robert Brown and Robert Mainard) and several others on 23 June 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

Elizabeth Folkes was examined before Chedsey, John Kingston, John Boswell, the two bailiffs of Colchester (Robert Brown and Robert Mainard) and several others on 23 June 1557. Chedsey wept when the sentence of condemnation was read against her. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

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When Alexander Wimshurst arrived at St Paul's, he saw Chedsey, his old acquaintance at Oxford, and said to him that he would rather be examined by Martin than by anyone else. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

William Wood was examined by Chedsey, Kenall and Robinson on 19 October 1554 in St Nicholas's church, Rochester. 1570, p. 2281, 1576, pp. 1969-70, 1583, p. 2077.

Chedsey was committed to the Fleet after the death of Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

He sent a letter to Bonner dated 21 April 1558 [BL, Ms. Harley 416, fos.74r-v. Foxe describes the letter on 1570, p. 2301 et seq.]

[Foxe frequently refers to him as 'Chadsey'.]

1558 [1534]

Queene Mary. The storie of Tho. Tomkins. The burning of his hand by Boner.
The burning of Thomas Tomkins hand by Bishop Boner, who not long after burnt also his body.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This illustration, which is one of those in the first edition that were too wide for the page format, spilling in the margin, is of interest in showing how Foxe's rewriting could undermine the accuracy of his illustrators in translating his words into visual form. The woodcut that accompanies this example of 'bloody' Bonner's remorseless cruelty both adds implied readings to Foxe's text and also ignores one detail, probably owing to additions Foxe was able to make to his text after the cutting of the woodblock. The setting is the hall of the bishop's palace at Fulham, whose character is conveyed by the fine chairs, swag of curtain and covered table. Bonner is labelled, though his fat features became recognisable in the course of the book. In 1570 and later editions, the passage preceding this act of trial by fire (ostensibly to win over the accused through fear of fire) included exchanges between Bonner and Tomkins that resulted in the bishop having Tomkins' beard shaved. The fact that he is depicted here with a beard is presumably due to the fact that Foxe discovered this anecdote too late to be incorporated in the text, and added it to an appendix in the 1563 edition. The actual burning carefully represents the text, showing the bishop holding the candle in his left hand while he pinions Tomkins fingers in the flame with his right. The attitude of the four clergy seems to suggest that it was not only Harpsfield (standing next Bonner) who had reservations about this action, when Tomkins' burnt hand spurted into his face. That was another detail which could not have been represented in 1563 since it was only included in the 1570 edition. At the other end of the table an arresting hand is raised, two heads confer together and the servant turns away. The change of heading to this illustration from 'The sharpe burnyng of Thomas Tomkyns hand, by cruel Boner hym selfe who not long after burnt also hys body' (1563) to 'The burning of Thomas Tomkins hand by Bishop Boner ' (1570) surely reflects some editorial decision rather than any change of heart on Foxe's part. Bonner died between the two editions, on 5 September 1569.

MarginaliaThe notable constācie in a true Christian Souldiour.The rage of this bishop was not so great against him, but the constancie of the partie was much greater with pacience to beare it: who although he had not the learning as other haue, yet hee was so endued with Gods mighty spirite, and so constantly planted in the perfect knowledge of Gods truth, that by no meanes he could be remooued from the confession of truth, to impietie and error. Whereuppon Boner the Byshop being greatly vexed agaynste the poore man, when he sawe that by no perswasions he coulde preuaile with him, deuised an other practise not so straunge as cruel, further to try his constancie, to the intent, that seeing he could not otherwise conuince him by doctrine of Scriptures, yet he might ouerthrow him by some forefeeling and terror of death. So hauing with him M. Harpsfielde, M. Pendleton, Doctor Chedsey, maister Willerton, and other standing by, hee called for Thomas Tomkins, who comming before the Bishop, and standing as he was woont in defence of his faith, the bishop fel from beating to burning. MarginaliaB. Boner playeth K. Porsenna burning the hand of Scæuola.Who hauing there a taper or waxe candle of three or foure wikes standing vpon the table, thought there to represent vnto vs, as it were, the olde Image of king Porsenna. 

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This is Lars Porsenna, an Etruscan king, who was said to have besieged Rome in an attempt to restore the deposed king Tarquinus Superbus.

For as he burned the hand of Scæuola,  
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This is Caius Mucius Scaevola, a legendary Roman hero, who attemped to kill Lars Porsenna. Captured and threatened with torture, he thrust his hand into the flame until it was consumed, in order to demonstrate his disdain for the threat.

so this Catholike bishop  
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 718, line 9 from the bottom

The edition of 1563 goes on: "commanded a burning candle to be brought forth before him; which being speedily done by his servants, 'Come on,' quod he, 'naughty knave: if thou likest the torment of the fire so well, I will make thee feel in this flame, what it is to be burned; and then if thou be wise, thou wilt change thy mind:' and so saying commanded his right hand to be put into the burning flame." (p. 1102.)

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tooke Tomkins by the fingers, and held his hand directly ouer the flame, supposing that by the smart and pain of the fire being terrified, he wold leaue off the defence of his doctrine, which he had receiued. MarginaliaTomkins compared to Scæuola.

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Tomkins thinking no otherwise, but there presently to die, began to commend him self vnto the Lord, saying: O Lorde into thy handes I commend my spirite. &c. In the time that hys hand was in burning, the sayde Tomkins afterwarde reported to one Iames Hinse, that hys spirite was so rapte vp, that he fealt no paine.  

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Once again, Foxe is eager to emphasize the stoicism of the Marian martyrs when subjected to agonizing pain. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs, see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

In the whiche burning he neuer shronke, till the vaines shronke, and the sinewes braste, and the water did spirte into maister Harpsfieldes face: In so much that the sayd maister Harpsfield mooued wyth pitie, desired the Byshop to stay, saying, that he had tried hym enough. This burning was in the Hall at Fulham.

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And where the Byshoppe thought by that meanes to driue him from his opinions, it prooued muche otherwise: for this Christian Scæuola, so valiauntly did despise, abide, and endure that burning, that we haue lesse cause heereafter to meruaile at the manfulnesse of that Romaine Scæuola: MarginaliaBoner more cruell then Porsenna the Hetruscan.I would to God the other had as well followed the example of that Hetruscan Tyrant. For he, after the left hand of Scæuola was halfe burned, either satisfied with his punishment, or ouercome by his manhoode, or driuen away

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by feare, sent hym home safe vnto his people: wheras Boner hitherto not contented with the burning of hys hande, rested not vntill he had consumed his whole body into ashes, at London in Smithfield.

But before we come to his suffering, we will firste entreat of some parte of his examination & articles, with hys answeres and confession thereunto annexed, as it is credibly in the Register recorded.

The first examination of Thomas Tomkins.  
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This document is reprinted from Bonner's official records, probably from a court book now lost.

MarginaliaThe first examination of Thomas Tomkins before Boner B of London.THis faithfull and valiaunt souldiers of God Thomas Tomkins, after he had remained the space (as is sayde) of halfe a yere in prison, about the 8. day of Februarye, was broughte with certaine other before Boner sitting in hys Consistorie, to be examined. To whome first was brought foorth a certaine bill or schedule subscribed (as it appeared) with his owne hande, the fifte day of the same moneth laste before, conteining these wordes folowing.

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MarginaliaThe confession of Tomkins subscribed with his owne hand.Thomas Tomkins of Shordiche, and of the Dioces of London, hath beleeued and doth beleeue, that in the sacrament of the aultare, vnder the formes of breade and wine, there is not the very body and bloud of our sauiour Iesus Christ in substaunce, but only a token and remembraunce thereof, the very body and bloude of Christ onely being in heauen and no where els.

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By me Thomas Tomkins.

Wherupon he was asked whether he did acknowledge the same subscription to be of his own hand. To the which he graūted, MarginaliaTomkins constāt in his fayth.confessing it so to be. This being done, the Byshop went about to persuade him, (wt wordes, rather then wt reasons) to relinquish his opinions, & to returne againe to the vnity of the catholicke church, promising if he would so do, to remit all that was past: but he constantly denied so to do. When the Bishop saw he could not so conuince him, he brought forth and read to him an other wryting containing Articles and Interrogatories whereunto he shoulde come the next day and answere: in the meane time he shuld deliberate vnto himself what to do, & so the next day, being the 9. day of March, at 8. of the clocke in the morning, to be present in the same place againe, to geue his determinate answer what he would do in the premisses, and then either to reuoke and reclaime himself, or els in the after noone the same day to come againe & haue iustice (as he called it) ministred vnto him: the copy of which articles here foloweth.

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Articles
XXXx.j.
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