Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Brocket

(1490/91 - 1558/69)

JP, MP and Sheriff of Essex and Herts. (1547 - 1548 and 1554 - 1555) [Bindoff, Commons]

Brocket escorted Rowland Taylor across Essex on Taylor's journey to Hadleigh for execution. He threatened Arthur Faysie with imprisonment when Faysie attempted to speak with Taylor and called Taylor 'a true man'. Brocket forced Taylor to wear a hood after this encounter. At a dinner on the journey, Brocket tried to persuade Taylor to recant but Taylor put him off with a jest. 1563, p. 1077; 1570, p. 1701; 1576, p. 1452; 1583, pp. 1525-26.

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He supervised the burning of William Hunter. 1570, p. 1715; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, p. 1538.

He conveyed Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed to their executions. 1563, p. 1108; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1542.

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Richard Pond

A bailiff of Brentwood

Richard Pond fastened William Hunter to the stake with a chain. 1570, p. 1715; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, p. 1538.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Higbed

(d. 1555)

Gentleman, martyr

Thomas Higbed was denounced to Bonner and detained at Colchester together with Thomas Causton and Henry Wye. Bishop Bonner and John Feckenham came to Colchester to attempt to convert them. When these efforts failed, Causton and Higbed were transported to London. 1563, pp. 1103-4; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

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Higbed was examined by Bonner on 17 February 1555. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, pp. 1716-17; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was examined by Bonner on 18 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1104 and 1108-09; 1570, p. 1717; 1576, pp. 1465-66; 1583, pp. 1539-40. [The date is given as 'xxviii Feb.' in the 1563 edition; this is probably a misprint.]

He was again examined by Bonner on 1 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1104-05; 1570, pp. 1717-18; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He was further examined by Bonner on 8 March 1555 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

Higbed was examined and condemned by Bonner on 9 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1105-07; 1570, pp. 1718-19; 1576, pp. 1466-68; 1583, pp. 1541-42.

Higbed was sent to Newgate and was later taken, together with William Hunter, to Brentwood. He was detained there with Hunter, before being sent to execution at nearby Horndon-on-Hill, Essex. Higbed comforted William Hunter's mother. He was executed on 26 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1107-08; 1570, pp. 1715 and 1719-20; 1576, pp. 1464 and 1468; 1583, pp. 1538 and 1542.

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[Foxe sometimes refers to him as 'Higbee'.]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Tyrell

At William Hunter's execution, William Tyrell reprimanded Hunter for reciting Psalm 51 in Latin rather than English. 1570, p. 1715; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, p. 1538.

1562 [1538]

Queene Mary. The examination condemnation and Martyrdome of William Hunter Martyr.

MarginaliaThe large offers of B. Boner to W. Hunter. MarginaliaAnno 1555. February. perswaded with him, saying: if thou wilt yet recant, I wil make thee a free man in the Citie,  

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., a freeman in the City of London, which would confer certain rights on Hunter, notably the right to vote for the lord mayor and alderman. Normally, Hunter would have to have lived in the city for a considerable period of time to obtain this privilege.

& geue thee 40. pound in good money to sette vp thine occupation withall: or I will make thee Steward of my house and set thee in office, for I like thee well,  
Commentary  *  Close

This is an astonishingly generous offer by Bonner and it may well be exaggerated by Robert Hunter; the refusal of the martyr to succumb to spectacular offers of worldly advancement was a common feature of hagiography. But Bonner was shrewd enough to see that no good would come from William Hunter's execution and he would go - as he went with John Philpot - to considerable lengths to try to secure a recantation.

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thou hast witte inough, and I will preferre thee, if thou recant.

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But William aunswered, I thanke you for your great offers: notwithstanding, my Lorde, sayd he, if you can not perswade my conscience with Scriptures: I can not finde in my hart to turne from God for the loue of the MarginaliaW. Hunter refuseth to come from Christ for the loue of rht world. worlde: for I count all things worldly, but losse and donge, in respect of the loue of Christ.

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Then sayd the Byshop, if thou diest in this minde, thou art condemned for euer. William aunsweared: God iudgeth righteously, and iustifieth them whom man condemneth vniustly.

Thus William and the Byshoppe departed, William and the rest to Newgate, where they remained aboute a moneth, which afterwarde were sent downe, MarginaliaWilliam Hunter sent downe to burntwood to be burnt. William to Burntwoode, and the others into diuers places of þe countrey. Now, when Williā was come downe to Burntwood which was the Saterdaye before the Annunciation of the virgin Mary that folowed on the Monday after, William remained till the Tuesday after, because they woulde not put him to death, then for the holinesse of the day.

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MarginaliaHis father and mother come to cōfort him. In the meane time Williams father and mother came to him, and desired hartly of God that he might continue to the ende in that good way which God had begon, and hys mother sayd to him, that she was glad that euer she was so happy to beare such a childe, which could finde in his heart to loose his life for Christes names sake.

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Then William sayde to his mother: for my little paine whych I shall suffer, whych is but a shorte brayde,  

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I.e., a pain of short duration.

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 727, line 16 from the bottom

"Braid" means a sudden blow or assault, soon ended. See Halliwell in voc.; and Prompt. Parv. p. 49.

Christe hath promised me, mother sayd he, a crown of ioy: may you not be glad of that mother? MarginaliaHis father & mother exhort him to be constant. With that, hys mother kneeled downe on her knees, saying: I pray God strengthen thee my sonne, to the ende. Yea, I thinke thee as wel bestowed as any childe that euer I bare.

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At the which woordes maister Higbed  

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This is the martyr Thomas Higbed, who is being transported with William Hunter into Essex to be executed.

tooke her in hys armes, saying: I reioyce (and so sayd the others) to see you in thys minde, and you haue a good cause to reioyce. And his father and mother both said, that they were neuer of other minde, but praied for him, that as he had begon to confesse Christ before men, he likewise might so continue to the ende. Williams father saide: I was afraide of nothing, but that my sonne should haue ben killed in the prison for hunger and cold, the Bishop was so hard to him. MarginaliaMarke here whether Boner did nothing but by the law. But William confessed, after a moneth that his father was charged wyth his boorde, that he lacked nothing, but had meat & clothing inough, yea euē out of þe court, both money, meat, cloathes, woode and coales, and all things necessary.

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Thus they continued in their Inne, being the Swan in Burntwoode, in a Parlor, whether resorted many people of the countrey to see those good men which were there: and many of Williams acquaintaunce came to hym, and reasoned with hym, and hee with them, exhorting them to come away from the abhomination of Popish superstition and idolatrie.

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MarginaliaA notable thing concerning W. Hunters dreame. Thus passing away saterday, Sonday, and Monday, on monday at night it hapned that William had a dreame about 2. of the clocke in the morning, which was this: how þt he was at the place where the stake was pight, where he shuld be burned, which (as he thought in his dreame) was at the townes ende where the buts stoode: which was so in deede. And also he dreamed that he met with his father as he went to the stake, and also that there was a priest at the stake, which went about to haue him recant.

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To whom he sayd (as he thought in his dreame) howe that he bad him away false prophet, and how that he exhorted the people to beware of him, and such as he was: which things came to passe in deede. It happened that William made a noise to hym selfe in his dreame, which caused M. Higbed and the others to awake hym out of his sleepe, to knowe what he lacked. When he awaked, he told them his dreame in order, as is sayd.

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MarginaliaW. Hunter led to the place of Matirdome. Nowe when it was day, the shiriffe M. Brocket called on to set forward to the burning of William Hūter. MarginaliaThe Shriffes sonne geueth comfortable wordes to W. Hunter. Then came the Sheriffes sonne to William Hunter, and embraced him in his right arme, saying: William, be not afraid of these men which are here present with bowes, bils, & weapons ready prepared to bring you to the place where you shall be burned. To whom William aunswered: I thanke God I am not afraide, for I haue cast my coumpt what it wil cost me already. Then the sheriffes sonne could speake no more to him for weeping.

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Then William Hunter plucked vp his gowne, & stepped ouer the Parlour grounsel, and went forward chearefully, the sheriffes seruaunt taking him by the arme, and I

his brother by an other, and thus going in the way, met wt his father according to his MarginaliaW. Hunters dreame verefied. dreame, & he spake to his sonne, weeping and saying, God be with thee sonne William, and William sayd, MarginaliaHis wordes to his father. God be with you father, & be of a good comfort, for I hope we shall meete againe when we shalbe mery. His father said, I hope so William and so departed. So W. went to the place where the stake stoode, euen according to hys dreame, whereas all thinges were very vnready. Then William tooke a wet broome fagot, & kneeled downe thereon, and red the 51. Psalme,  

Commentary  *  Close

It was traditional for those condemned to death to recite this psalm at their execution.

till he came to these words, the sacrifice of God is a contrite spirite, a contrite and a broken heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.

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MarginaliaM. William Tyrell of the Beaches carpeth where he hath no cause. Then sayd M. Tirrel of the Beaches, called W. Tirel, thou lyest (sayd he) thou readest false, for the wordes are an humble spirit. But W. said, the translation sayth a contrite heart. Yea, quoth M. Tirel, the translation is fals, ye translate bokes as ye list your selues, like hereticks. Wel, quoth William, there is no great difference in those words. Then sayd the sheriffe, heere is a letter from the Queene. If thou wilt recant thou shalt liue, if not thou shalt be burned. MarginaliaW. Hunter refuseth the Quenes pardon. No, quoth W. I will not recante, God willing. Then W. roase and went to the stake, and stoode vpright to it. Then came one Richard Ponde a Bailiffe, and made fast the chaine about William.

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The burning of William Hunter Martyr. MarginaliaThe end and martirdome of W. Hunter. Anno. 1555. March. 26.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This example of the small woodcuts added in 1570 (Type 2) is among those that were not put to repeated use. Allowance should be made for the possibility (as with the small cut (d) of Raulins White) that this woodcut was tailored to Foxe's account of the martyr, in this case the teenage apprentice who lifted up his hands to heaven immediately before he died.

Then sayde M. Browne, here is not woode enought to burne a legge of him. Then said William: good people pray for me: and make speede and dispatch quickly: and pray for me while ye see me aliue, good people, and I praye for you likewise.

MarginaliaA dogged saying of M. Browne. Now quoth M. Browne, pray for thee? I will pray no more for thee, then I wil pray for a dogge. To whom William aunsweared M. Browne: now you haue that whych you sought for, & I pray God it be not laid to your charge in the last day: howbeit I forgeue you. Then sayde maister Browne, I aske no forgeuenes of thee. Wel sayd William, if God forgeue you not, I shall require my bloude at your handes.

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Then said William: Sonne of God shine vppon mee, and MarginaliaAn externall shew of Christs fauour vpon W. Hunter. immediately the sunne in the element shone oute of a darke cloude, so full in his face, that he was constrayned to looke an other way: whereat the people mused, because it was so darke a little time afore.  

Commentary  *  Close

This could have happened, but the sun shining on a martyr out of a cloudy sky occurs commonly in hagiography; e.g., the description of the clouds parting and the sun shining on John Fisher as he mounted the streps to the scaffold (Fr. van Ortroy, 'Vie du bienheureux martyr Jean Fisher,' Analecta Bollandiana 12 [1893], p. 194. This life of Fisher was written in an attempt to secure the canonization of the martyred cardinal).

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Then William tooke vppe a fagot of broome, and embraced it in his armes.

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Then this Priest which William MarginaliaWilliams dreame verified. dreamed of, came to his brother Robert with a popish booke to carye to William, that he might recant, which booke his brother woulde not meddle withall.

Then William seeing the priest, and perceiuing how he woulde haue shewed hym the booke, sayd: MarginaliaHunters wordes to a Popish Priest. away, thou false prophet. Beware of them good people, & come awaye from their abominatiōs, lestþt you be partakers of their plagues. Then, quoth the Priest, looke howe thou burnest heere, so shalt thou burne in hel. William answered, thou liest, thou false prophet: away thou false prophet, away.

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