Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Gilbert Bourne

(d. 1569)

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford (1531). Prebend of Worcester (1541). Bishop of Bath and Wells (1554 - 1560) [DNB]

Bourne preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This so enraged his auditors that a dagger was thrown at him. At the request of Bourne's brother, Bradford quieted the mob; Bradford and John Rogers later escorted Bourne to safety. (Rerum, pp. 464 - 65; 1563, pp. 904 - 5; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 (recte 1409)).

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Bourne's sermon is briefly mentioned later by Foxe (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was created bishop of Bath and Wells (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He visited Walter Mantell repeatedly before his execution and unsuccessfully attempted to convert him to catholic teachings on confession and the Sacrament (1570, p. 1638; 1576, pp. 1397-98; 1583, p. 1468).

Together with Edmund Bonner and Henry Morgan, Gilbert Bourne condemned Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. Before condemning Tomkins, Bourne exhorted him to recant. (1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535).

On 17 February 1555 Bonner, Bourne and others urged Thomas Higbed and Thomas Causton to recant. (1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539).

On 13 August 1553 John Bradford saved Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1604.

During Bourne's sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, he had a dagger thrown at him from the crowd. 1563, p. 1173. The dagger touched Bradford's sleeve. 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610. John Bradford took over from him in the pulpit and the crowd's wrath subsided. Bradford then protected him when they left the pulpit. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

John Philpot's final examination, on 16 December 1555, was before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield. 1563, p. 1442, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

The certificate for Richard Lush's condemnation was discovered by Foxe in Gilbert Bourne's register (Bath and Wells). 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Robert Farrer's examination was before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Bourne was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2063.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hunt

Hunt was an old man, commanded by Anthony Browne to imprison Robert Hunter in the stocks. 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

 
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John Feckenham

(1518? - 1585)

Dean of St Paul's. Last abbot of Westminster. [DNB]

Feckenham was made dean of St Paul's on Midsummer's Day, 1554. 1563, p. 1151; 1570, pp. 1636 and 1760; 1576, pp. 1396 and 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1467 and 1587

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554 trying to persuade him to recant. 1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583, pp. 1588-89

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference was made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Feckenham traveled to Colchester with Bishop Bonner to try to win Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed back to catholicism. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He tried to persuade Hooper to recant after he was condemned on 29 January 1555. The effort was unsuccessful but false rumors spread that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

Feckenham was one of those who presided over an examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was one of those who examined first Thomas Causton, and then Thomas Higbed, in Bonner's palace on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He wrote a ballad, Caveat emptor , on the subject of the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1497; 1583, p. 1559.

Feckenham received a letter from William Paulet. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He discussed eucharistic doctrine with Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

Feckenham claimed that Green was converted by Peter Martyr's lectures and that Zwingli, Luther, Oecolampadius and Carolostadius could never agree doctrine. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26,, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Bartlett Green told John Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A letter by the thirteen prisoners reproaching Feckenham for his slander dated Feckenham's sermon as 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of John Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Causton

(d. 1555)

Gentleman. Of Hornden on the Hill, Essex. Martyr.

Robert Drakes was presented to the benefice of Thundersley by Lord Rich, at the suit of Master Causton and Master Treheron. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Causton was denounced to Bishop Bonner and detained with Thomas Higbed. Bonner and John Feckenham came to Colchester to try to convert them. When these efforts failed Causton and Higbed were transported to London. 1563, pp. 1103-4; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was examined by Bonner on 17 February 1555. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, pp. 1716-17; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was examined by Bonner on 18 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1104 and 1108-9; 1570, p. 1717; 1576, pp. 1465-66; 1583, pp. 1539-40 [The 1563 edition gives the date as 'xxviii Feb.', this was probably a misprint].

He was examined by Bonner on 1 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1104-5; 1570, pp. 1717-18; 1576, pp. 1465-66; 1583, p. 1540.

He was examined by Bonner on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He was examined and condemned by Bonner on 9 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1105-7; 1570, pp. 1718-19; 1576, pp. 1476-78; 1583, pp. 1541-42.

Causton was sent to Newgate and then taken to Raylegh, Essex, for execution on 26 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1107-8; 1570, pp. 1719-20; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1542.

[Foxe sometimes refers to him as 'Causon' or 'Cawson'.]

 
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Thomas Higbed

(d. 1555)

Gentleman, martyr

Thomas Higbed was denounced to Bonner and detained at Colchester together with Thomas Causton and Henry Wye. Bishop Bonner and John Feckenham came to Colchester to attempt to convert them. When these efforts failed, Causton and Higbed were transported to London. 1563, pp. 1103-4; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

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Higbed was examined by Bonner on 17 February 1555. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, pp. 1716-17; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was examined by Bonner on 18 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1104 and 1108-09; 1570, p. 1717; 1576, pp. 1465-66; 1583, pp. 1539-40. [The date is given as 'xxviii Feb.' in the 1563 edition; this is probably a misprint.]

He was again examined by Bonner on 1 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1104-05; 1570, pp. 1717-18; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He was further examined by Bonner on 8 March 1555 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

Higbed was examined and condemned by Bonner on 9 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1105-07; 1570, pp. 1718-19; 1576, pp. 1466-68; 1583, pp. 1541-42.

Higbed was sent to Newgate and was later taken, together with William Hunter, to Brentwood. He was detained there with Hunter, before being sent to execution at nearby Horndon-on-Hill, Essex. Higbed comforted William Hunter's mother. He was executed on 26 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1107-08; 1570, pp. 1715 and 1719-20; 1576, pp. 1464 and 1468; 1583, pp. 1538 and 1542.

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[Foxe sometimes refers to him as 'Higbee'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Tomkins

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr

Thomas Tomkins' godly life and character are recounted. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Thomas Tomkins was mistreated (notably by having his beard forcibly shaven and his hand burned in a candle flame) while in Bonner's custody. 1563, pp. 1101-2 and 1733; 1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, pp. 1459-60; 1583, pp. 1533-34.

Foxe mentions that Tomkins was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555, and condemned on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

He was examined on 8 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, pp. 1102-3; 1570, p. 1711; 1576, pp. 1460-61; 1583, pp. 1534-35.

He was examined on 9 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, pp. 1711-12; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was condemned by Bishops Edmund Bonner, Gilbert Bourne and Henry Morgan on 9 February 1555. 1563, p. 1101; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535.

Tomkins was executed on 16 March 1555. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1535 [Foxe says 15 March in 1563, but corrects this in subsequent editions].

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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[NB: Although Foxe does not mention it, Tomkins was a member of a heretical conventicle which was detected in London in January 1545 (See Brigden, London , p. 388)].

[Not to be confused with the composer Thomas Tomkins.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Hunter

(d. 1555)

Weaver's apprentice and martyr

William Hunter refused to attend mass in London in 1553; he returned home to Brentwood, Essex. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

He was denounced to Thomas Wood, the vicar of South Weald, for reading scriptures in English. He was examined by Wood, who denounced William Hunter to Anthony Browne. 1570, p. 1713; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

Hunter was brought before Browne and interrogated; Hunter was then sent to Bonner by Browne. 1570, pp. 1713-14; 1576, pp. 1462-63; 1583, pp. 1536-37.

William Hunter was examined by Bonner and condemned. 1563, p. 1110. [NB: This account of Hunter's examinations, based on Bonner's registers, was replaced in subsequent editions by a more detailed account of Bonner's treatment of Hunter.]

Hunter was detained by Bonner for nine months, during which time the bishop tried both harsh and lenient treatment to persuade him to recant. Finally he condemned Hunter. 1570, pp. 1714-15; 1576, pp. 1463-64; 1583, pp. 1537-38.

Foxe mentions that Hunter was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bishop Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

William Hunter was sent to Brentwood to be burned. Hunter refused pressure at his execution to recant and died constantly on 26 March 1555. 1563, p. 1110; 1570, pp. 1715-16; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, pp. 1538-39. [NB: The date of Hunter's execution is given as 25 March in the 1563 edition; this is corrected in subsequent editions.]

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Hunter wrote a short letter to his mother shortly before his martyrdom. 1583, p. 2149.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Horndon-on-the-Hill
NGR: TQ 669 833

A parish in the hundred of Barnstaple, county of Essex. 16.5miles south by west from Chelmsford. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Essex, Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thunderest, Thunderli [Thundersley]
NGR: TQ 783 886

A parish partly in the hundred of Rochford, but chiefly in the hundred of Barnstaple, county of Essex. 2.25 miles south-west by west from Rayleigh. The living is a discharged rectory in the Archdeaconry of Essex, Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1563 [1539]

Queene Mary. The story of M. Higbed and M. Causton with articles obiected to them.

Marginalia Anno. 1555. February. Then was there a Gentleman whiche sayde, I praye God haue mercy vpon his soule. The people sayd: Amen, Amen, Immediatly fire was made.

Then William cast his Psalter right into his brothers hande, who sayde: MarginaliaHunter comforted by his brother Robert. William thinke on the holy Passion of Christ, and be not afraid of death.

And William aunsweared: I am not afraid. Then lifte he vp his handes to heauen, and sayd, Lorde, Lorde, Lord, receiue my spirit, and casting downe hys head againe into the smothering smoke, he yelded vp his life for the truthe, sealing it with hys bloud, to the praise of God.

Nowe, by and by after, M. Browne commaunded one old Hunt to take his brother Robert Hunter, & lay him in the MarginaliaRob. Hunter set in the stocks. stockes till he returned from the burning of Higbed at Hornden on the hill, the same day. Which thing olde Hunt did. Then maister Browne (when MarginaliaRob. Hunter had before M. Browne. Robert Hunter came before him) asked if he would doe as his brother had done. But Robert Hunter answered: if I do as my brother hath done, I shall haue as he hath had. Mary (quoth M. Browne) thou mayest be sure of it.

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Then M. Browne sayde, I maruell, that thy brother stoode so to hys tackling: and moreouer, asked Robert if Williams Maister of London  

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This was Thomas Taylor, the silk weaver to whom William Hunter had been apprenticed. Obviously Brown suspected, rightly or wrongly, that Taylor had fostered William Hunter's evangelical convictions and he was trying to force Robert Hunter to implicate Taylor.

were not at hys burnynge. But Roberte sayde that hee was not there: but Mayster Browne bare hym in hande that his master was there, and howe that he did see him there, but Robert denied it. Then master Browne commaunded the Constable and Robert Hunter to goe theyr wayes home, and so had no further talke wyth them. MarginaliaRob. Hunter by Gods prouidēce deliuered.

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Here followeth the hystorie of master Higbed, and master Causton, two worthy Gentlemen of Essex, which for the syncere confession of theyr faith vnder Boner B. of London, were Martyred and burned in Essex. An. 1555. Marche 26.  
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The Martyrdoms of Causton and Higbed

The Rerum contains an account of Causton and Higbed being taken toLondon and prints the confession of faith Causton and Higbed made in Consistory Court (Rerum, pp. 426 and 428-31). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition. Foxe also added accounts of their sessions in the Consistory Court of St Pauls, the articles presented against them with their answers and their condemnation, all drawn from Bishop Bonner's official records. A description of their condemnation may have been taken from the description of a spectator. In the second edition Foxe added nothing, but he arranged the material in chronological order. He also eliminated material from this narrative, and more unusually rewrote it. The account of Causton and Higbed remained unchanged in the third and the fourth editions.

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Higbed and Causton

Starting with a gloss recording the date of their martyrdoms (as appears to be Foxe's standard practice at the beginning of the lives of his martyrs), the glosses in this section serve the usual purpose of marking the events leading up to execution: interrogation, imprisonment, preparation for the end. The gloss 'Also sir Edmund Boner priest before the death of Cromwell, seemed to be of the opinion and was sworne twise agaynst the Pope' makes the point that Bonner's conduct under an earlier monarch cannot be reconciled with his actions under Mary, sustaining the all-important charge of hypocrisy. Foxe parodies the form of the article in calling Bonner 'sir Edmund Boner priest'. The glosses 'M. Causton and M. Higbed constant to death in their confession' and 'The constāt Martirdome of M. Thomas Caustō, and Maister Higbed Martyrs' emphasise the constancy of the martyrs, a virtue as important to the portrayal of the martyrs as hypocrisy was to that of their persecutors. The glosses relating to the confession of faith illustrate a common difference between 1563 and later editions. 1563 uses the most perfunctory form of annotation (numbers) while the later editions include the numbers in the text and have full glosses. The restrained, factual tone of the gloss 'M. Causton appealeth to the Cardinall' probably reflects Foxe feeling torn between the desire to expose procedural injustice with the tacit endorsement of Pole's, and therefore the pope's, authority that such an appeal implied. Several of the glosses (especially at the start of the 'confession' section) are badly placed, no more commonly in one edition than another.

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MarginaliaMarke. 26. The story of M. Higbed and M. Causton Martirs. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 729, middle

Foxe has this short introduction, in his first edition, to the account of Masters Causton and Higbed, pp. 1103, 4: - "Although hitherto there hath bene no parte or diocese in England (whereof there are many, and they large, within thys Reame) altogether cleare and free from this persecution (very fewe except), yet among all the rest there is none in my judgment, that hath bene more frutefull of godly martyrs, then hath Essex; from whence (as there were many other of whom in theyr tyme mencion shall be made) so there came two amonges the rest, that were notable, being descended of worshipfull stocke, the one," &c.

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Although the cōdemnation of maister Higbed, and master Causton followed after the condemning of those other Martyrs, which were condemned with Tomkyns and Hunter aboue mentioned, yet because the time of their execution was before the burning of the foresaid four martyrs, for so muche as they suffered the same day that William Hunter did, which was the 26. of Marche, I thoughte therefore next after the storie of the sayde William Hunter, folowing the order of time, here to place the same.

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This maister Higbed, and maister Causton, two worshipfull Gentlemen in the Countie of Essex,  

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Praise of Essex as the county most fruitful in producing martyrs follows in the 1563 edition. This was dropped in subsequent editions, probably because Foxe became more aware of the contributions of the counties of Kent and Sussex. (Kent has the dubious distinction of being the countywith the most martyrs executed).

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the one at Hornden of the hill, the other of the parishe of Thunderli, being zealous and religious in the true seruice of God, as they could not dissemble with the Lord their God, not flatter with the world, so in time of blind superstition & wretched idolatrie, they could not long lie hidde and obscure in such a number of malignant aduersaries, accusers, and seruaunts of thys worlde, but at length they were perceaued and MarginaliaM. Higbed and M. Causton detected to Boner. detected to the foresayde Edmund Boner Bishoppe of London, peraduenture not without the same organ which sent vp William Hunter, as is aboue declared.  
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In effect, Foxe is saying that he does not know how Causton and Higbed came to be arrested. Despite their relative social prominence, the backgrounds of Causton and Higbed remain surprisingly obscure.

By reason whereof, by commaundement they were committed to the officers of Colchester to be safely kept, and with them also a seruant of Thomas Causton,  
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This was Henry Wye, who would later be martyred himself.

who in this praise of Christian godlines, was nothing inferior to his maister.

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Boner the forsayd Byshop, perceiuing these 2. Gentlemen to be of worshipful estate, & of great estimation in that countrey, least any tumult shoulde thereby arise, came MarginaliaB. Boner commeth himselfe to Colchester. thether himselfe, accompanied with M. Fecknam and certaine other, thinking to reclaim them to his faction and fashion:  

Commentary  *  Close

A description of Feckenham trying to convert Higbed and Causton was printed in the 1563 edition and subsequently dropped. It does appear that Foxe was trying to shorten this narrative in the 1570 edition; perhaps this concern was related to a shortage of paper for this edition (see Evenden and Freeman, pp.37-39).

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so that great labour & diligence was taken therein, as wel by terrors and threatnings, as by large promises and flatteringe, and all faire meanes, to reduce them againe to the vnitie (as they termed it) of the mother church.

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In fine, when nothing coulde preuaile to make them assent to theyr doings, at length they came to thys poynte, that they required certaine respite to consulte with themselues what were best to doe. Whych time of deliberation being expired, and they remaining still constant and vnmooueable in their professed doctrine, and setting oute also their confession in wryting, the bishop seeing no good to be done in tarying any longer there, departed thence & caried them bothe with hym to MarginaliaM. Higbed and M. Causton caryed to London. London,  

Commentary  *  Close

A description of Bonner riding in triumph through London, which was here in 1563, was subsequently dropped. It has been hypothesized that Foxe toned down his rhetoric in the the 1570 edition (see Alaister Fox) and this would appear to supply confirmation of this theory.

and wyth them certaine other prisonners also, which about the same time in those quarters were apprehended.

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It was not long after thys, but these prisonners being at London committed to strait prison, and there attempted sundrye wise by the bishop and his Chapleines to reuoke their opiniōs: at length, when no persuasions wold serue, Marginaliathe first dayes Session. they were brought forth to open examination at the Consistorie in Paules, the 17. daye of Februarie. An. 1555.  

Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of the sessions in Consistory Court, together with the articles charged againt Causton and Higbed, and their answers, are taken from Bishop Bonner's official records, probably a court book which has now been lost.

Where

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they were demaunded aswell by the said bishop, as also by the Bishop of Bathe & others, whether they would recant their errors & peruerse doctrine (as they termed it,) and so come to þe vnitie of the Popish Church. Which when they refused to doe, the Byshop assigned them likewise the next day to appeare againe, being the 18. of Februarie. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 730, middle

{Cattley/Pratt alters 17th and 18th of February in the text to 27th and 28th.} The editor has corrected "17th" and "18th" into "27th," "28th;" the 17th of February, 1555, was a Sunday, when it was not likely they would make their first appearance. The first edition (p. 1104) reads in the second instance "xxviii." The next page also says, at top, "Upon that day, being the first day of March;" where the first edition says, "The next day, being Friday, and the first day of March," which concurrents agree with Nicolas's Tables: observe also the subsequent dates.

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MarginaliaThe second dayes Session. On the whych daye, among many other thinges there sayd and passed, he read vnto them seuerally certaine Articles, and gaue them respite vntill the next day, to aunswer vnto the same, & so committed them againe to prisone. The copie of which Articles here vnder foloweth.

Articles obiected and ministred by Boner B. of London, seuerally against Tho. Causton, & Thomas Higbed of Essex.

MarginaliaArticles laid by B. Boner to M. Higbed and Causton.FIrst, that thou Thomas Causton (or Thomas Higbed) hast bene and arte of the Diocesse of London, and also of the iurisdiction now of me Edmund Bishop of London.

Item, that thou was in time past, according to the order of the Church of England, baptised and christened.

Item, that thou haddest Godfathers and Godmother, according to the said order.

Item, that the said Godfaters and Godmothers did thē promise for thee, and in thy name, the faith and religion, that then was vsed in the realme of England.

Item, that that faith and Religion, which they did professe, & make for thee, was accompted and taken to be the faith and Religion of the Churche, and of the Christian people: and so was it in very deede.

Item, thou comming to the age of discretion, that is to saye, to the age of xiiij. yeares, diddest not mislike nor disallowe that faith, that Religion, or promise then vsed and approued, and promised by the said Godfathers and Godmother, but for a time diddest continue in it, as other (taking themselues for Chisten people) did likewise.

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Item, that at that time, and also before, it was taken for a doctrine of the Churche, Catholicke and true, and euerye where in Chistendom then allowed for Catholicke and true, and to be the profession of a Christen man, to beleeue that in the Sacrament of the aultare, vnder the formes of breade and wine, after the consecration, there was and is, by the omnipotent power and will of almighty God, and his woorde, without any substance of breade and wine there remaining, the true and naturall body and bloude of our Sauiour Iesus Christ in substance, which was borne of the virgine Marie, and suffered vppon the Crosse, really, truely, and in very deede. MarginaliaThe reall presence.

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Item that at that time thy father and mother, all thine auncestors, all thy kindred, acquaintance and frends, and they sayd Godfathers and Godmother did then so beleeue, and thinke in all the same, as the sayd Church did therein beleeue.

Item, that thy selfe hast had no iust cause or lawfull grounde, to departe or swarue from the sayde Religion or faith, nor no occasion at all, except thou wilt followe and beleeue the erroneous opinion or beliefe, that hath ben against the common order of the Church, brought in by certaine disordred persons of late, and at the vttermost within these 30. or 40. yeares last past.

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Item, that thou doest knowe, or credibly hast heard and doest beleue that D. Robert Barnes, Iohn Frith, Tho. Garrerd, Hierome, Lassels, Anne Askew, Iohn Hooper, late Bishop of Gloucester, sir Laurence Saunders Priest, Iohn Bradford, sir Iohn Rogers Priest, sir Rowland Taylour Priest, sir Iohn Laurence Priest, William Pygot, Steuen Knight, William Hunter, Thomas Tomkyns, & Thomas Hawkes haue bene heretofore reputed, taken, and accompted as heretickes, and also condemned as heretickes, and so pronounced openly and manifestly: specially in holding & beleuing certaine damnable opinions, against the veritie of Christes body and bloud in the Sacrament of the aultar, MarginaliaAlso sir Edmund Boner priest before the death of Cromwell, seemed to be of the opinion and was sworne twise agaynst the Pope.& all the same persons, sauing Iohn Bradford, sir Iohn Laurence, William Pygot, Steuen Knight, William Hunter, Thomas Tomkins, and Thomas Hawkes, haue suffered paines of death by fire, for the maintenance and defence of their said opinions and misbeliefe.

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Item, that thou doest knowe, or credibly hast heard and doest beleeue that Thomas Cranmer late Archbishoppe of Canterbury, and Nicholas Ridley, naming himselfe Bishop of London, Robert Ferrar late Bishop of S. Dauies, and Hugh Latimer, sometime Bishop of Worcester, haue bene, and are at this present reputed, accompted and taken as heretickes, and misbeleeuers in maintaining and holding certaine damnable opinions, against the MarginaliaVerity taken for heresy of misbeleuing heretickes. verity of Christes body and bloud in the Sacrament of the aultar.

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Item, that thou hast commended and praised all the sayd persons,  

Commentary  *  Close

This charge suggests that Causton and Higbed came to the attention of the authorities for publically praising Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer and Ferrar.

so erring and beleuing (or at the least wise some of them) secretely, and also openly, taking and beleeuing them to be faithfull and Catholicke people, and their sayde opinions to be good and true, and the same to the best & vttermost of thy power thou hast allowed, maintained, and defended at sundrie times.

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Item, that thou, hauing heard, knowen, and vnderstanded all the premisses, thus to be as is aforesayde, haste not regarded al or

any
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