Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
David Woodruff

Sheriff of London (1554 - 1555) (DNB, sub 'Sir William Chester').

Together with fellow sheriff Sir William Chester, David Woodruff escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, pp. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507.

After Rogers and Hooper were degraded, they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

Chester and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

Woodruff urged John Rogers, at his execution, to recant his 'abhominable doctrine'. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, p. 1493.

Together with William Chester, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Woodruff taunted Bradford at his burning and ordered Bradford's hands to be tied when he would not cease praying. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804 [with cross-ref to p. 1664], 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

He called John Rogers a heretic at his burning and said that he would never pray for him, although Rogers prayed for the sheriff. 1563, p. 1215, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In 1555 he was sheriff with William Chester. Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

Along with Bonner, Woodruff cried for Robert Smith to be taken away at his last examination. 1563, p. 1259, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, p. 1605, 1583, p. 1694.

David Woodruff insisted that Carman's head be broken for getting his cart in the way when Woodruff's children were being brought to him. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Woodruff was afflicted with a deadening of one side, which stayed with him for seven or eight years until he died. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[For further evidence of Woodruff's catholic sympathies, see Brigden, London, p. 554].

[Foxe also refers to him by the variants: 'Woodriff', 'Woodrofe', 'Wodroffe' and 'Wodriffe'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

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The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Chester

(1509? - 1595?)

Draper. Lord mayor, alderman and merchant of London. (DNB)

Sheriff with David Woodruff in 1555.

Together with his fellow sheriff David Woodruff, Chester escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during the process of their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, p. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507. After Hooper and Rogers were degraded they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p.1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508. He and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1036; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

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Chester escorted Rowland Taylor out of London on the first leg of Taylor's journey to Hadleigh for execution. Chester gave Taylor permission to speak with his wife and daughters and wept as Taylor said farewell to them. He 'gently' refused to let Taylor's wife speak further with her husband while Taylor was being detained in an inn, awaiting the arrival of the sheriff of Essex. Chester provided Margaret Taylor with an escort to her mother's house. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1700; 1576, pp. 1451-52; 1583, p. 1525.

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Together with David Woodruff, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

On 30 May 1555, John Cardmaker and John Warne were committed to Chester and Woodruff's custody for execution. At the stake, Chester and Woodruff called Cardmaker aside and talked with him secretly for a long time. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1751; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, p. 1579.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans are altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In a letter to Augustine Bernher, Bradford asked Bernher to ask Mrs Pierrpoint to ask Sheriff Chester what was planned for him. 1570, p. 1837, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1654.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

William Chester was persecuted during Mary's reign for his protestant beliefs. 1563, p. 1737.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Brankestrey, Branckstrey (Braintree)
NGR: TL 765 235

A parish in the hundred of Hinckford, county of Essex. 11 miles north by east from Chelmsford, and 40 miles north-east from London. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Middlesex, Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Maldon
NGR: TL 845 075

A borough, port and market town having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Dengie, county of Essex. 10 miles east from Chelmsford, 38 miles east-north-east from London. The borough comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Peter and St Mary, the first two in the Archdeaconry of Essex, diocese of London, the third a royal peculiar in the jurisdiction of the Dean and Canons of Westminster. The living of All Saints is a vicarage, with which that of St Peter is united. The living of St Mary is a perpetual curacy in the patronage of the Dean and Canons.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1567 [1543]

Queene Mary. Examinations, and condemnation of Pigot, Knight, and Laurence.

Marginalia Anno 1555. March. To the fourth, they say, that they haue heretofore beleued as is conteined in the said article, but now they do not so beleue.

To the fift, they say, that if they so beleue, they are deceiued.

To the sixt, they beleue the same to be true.

To the seuenth, they answere and beleue the contents of the same to be true.

To the eight, they aunswere, that they can no whyt confourme themselues to the fayth and doctrine contayned and specified in this article, vntill it be proued by Scripture.

To the ninth, they say, that they haue no grounde to mainteine their sayd opinions, but þe truth, which (as they say) hath bene perswaded by learned men, as D. Taylour of Hadley, and such other.

These aunsweres being made and exhibited, they were commaunded to appeare agayne the next daye, at eight of the clocke in the morning, and in the meane while to bethinke themselues what they would do.

An other appearaunce of the sayd prisoners before Boner.  
Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of the appearances of Pygot, Knight and Laurence before the Consistory Court of St Paul's as well as the articles put to them, together with their answers, are all taken from Bishop Bonner's records, probably from a court book which is now lost.

MarginaliaAn other appearaunce. THe next daye in the morning, being the 9. daye of February, before their open appearaunce, the Bishop sent for William Pigot, and Stephen Knight, into his great chamber in his Pallace, where he perswaded with them to recant: and deny their former profession.

Who answered, that they were not perswaded in their consciences to returne and abiure theyr opinions, whereunto they had subscribed. Within a while after, they were all three) with Thomas Tomkins, and William Hunter afore named) brought openly into the Consistorye, the ix. day of February aforesayd, and there had the same articles propoūded vnto them, which were before propoūded vnto the foresayde Thomas Tomkins (as appeareth in the discourse of his historye) and therto also subscribed these wordes: I do so beleue.

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MarginaliaTalke betweene Boner and Iohn Laurence Priest. Iohn Laurence sometymes a Fryer. The Bishop also vsed certayne talke vnto Iohn Laurence onely. Whereunto he aunswered in this manner: That hee was a Priest, and was consecrated and made a Priest about eightene yeares past, and that he was sometime a Blacke Fryer professed: that also hee was assured vnto a mayd, whome he intended to haue maryed.

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And being agayne demaunded his opinion vppon the Sacrament, he said, that it was a remembraunce of Chrystes body, and that many haue bene deceiued in the beleeuing the true body of Christ to be in the Sacrament of the Aultar, and that all such as doe not beleue as he doth, doe erre. After this talke and other fayre wordes and threatninges, they were all of thē commaunded to appeare again at after noone.

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The third and last appearaunce.  
Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of the appearances of Pygot, Knight and Laurence before the Consistory Court of St Paul's as well as the articles put to them, together with their answers, are all taken from Bishop Bonner's records, probably from a court book which is now lost.

MarginaliaThe third and last appearance.AT the which houre they came thyther agayne, & there after the accustomed manner, were exhorted to recant and reuoke their doctrine, and receiue the fayth. To the whiche they constantly aunswered, they woulde not, but would sticke to that fayth that they had declared and subscribed vnto, for that they did beleeue þt it was no errour whiche they beleued: but that the contrary therof was very heresy.

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MarginaliaSteuen Knight, William Pigot, & Iohn Laurēce condemned. Iohn Laurence disgraded. When the Bishop sawe that neither his fayre flatteringes, nor yet his cruell threatnings would preuayle, he gaue them seuerally their iudgementes. And because Ioh. Laurence had bene one of theyr annoynted priestes, hee was by the bishop there (according to their order) solemnly disgraded, the maner whereof you may see in the history of Maister Hooper afore passed, pag. 1435.

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MarginaliaSteuen Knight burned at Mauldon, W. Pigot at Braintree. March. 28.Their sentence of condemnation, & this degradation once ended, they were committed vnto the custodye of the Sherrifes of London, who sent thē vnto Newgate, where they remayned with ioy together, vntill they were caryed downe into Essex, and there the 28. daye of March, the sayd William Pigot was burned at Brayntree: and Stephen Knight at Mauldon, who at the stake kneeling vpon the ground, sayd this prayer which here followeth.

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The Prayer that Stephen Knight sayd at hys death vpon his knees, being at the stake, at Mauldon.  
Commentary  *  Close

Judging from the number of surviving manuscript copies of this prayer and the fact that it made its way overseas where Foxe first printed in the Rerum (p. 423), it enjoyed considerable popularity among Marian protestants. The manuscript copies are: BL, Harley 416, fol. 17v; BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 185v-186r and ECL 260, fol. 250r.

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O Lord Iesu Christe, for whose loue I leaue willingly this life, and desire rather the bitter death of his Crosse with the losse

MarginaliaA godly prayer of Ste. Knight at his Martyrdome.of all earthly thinges, then to abide the blasphemye of thy moste holy name, or to obey men in breaking thy holye Commaundement: thou seest O Lorde, that where I might liue in worldlye wealth to worship a false God, and honour thine enemy, I chose rather the torment of the body, and the losse of this my lyfe, and haue counted all thinges but vile, duste, and dounge, that I might winne thee: whiche death is dearer vnto me, then thousandes of gold and siluer. Such loue, O Lord, hast thou layd vp in my breast, that I hunger for thee, as the MarginaliaPsal. 42. Deere that is wounded desireth the soyle.  

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 740, fn 1

"To take soil" is a hunting term, meaning "to run into water," as a deer, when closely pursued. - ED. Appendix:The allusion appears, from the wording in the Latin Edition, p. 427, to be somewhat different: "Ut quemadmodum cervus longa fatigatione sitibundus ad aquarum fontes desiderat, non aliter animula hæc ad te tota anhelet." The same expression occurs in a prayer of Bp. Hooper: "I hunger for thee, as the deere that is wounded desireth the soile." Parker Soc. Later writings; Biograph. Notice, p. xxix. Also by Bland in vol. vii. p. 305. The word "soil" in this sense is probably derived from the French souille.

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Send they holy comforter O Lord, to ayd, comfort, and strengthen this weake peece of earth, whiche is emptye of all strength of it selfe: Thou remembrest O Lorde, that I am but dust, and able to do nothing that is good. Therfore, O Lord, as of thine accustomed goodnes and loue, thou hast bidden mee to this banket, and accompted mee worthye to drinke of thyne owne cup amongst thine elect: euen so geue me strength O Lord against this thine element: which as to my sight is most irkesome and terrible: so to my minde it may at thy commaundement (as on obedient seruaunt) be sweete and pleasaunt, that through the strength of thy holy spirite, I may passe through the rage of thys fire into thy bosome, according to thy promise: and for thys mortall, receiue an immortal, and for this corruptible, put on incorruption: Accept this burnt sacrifice and offeryng, O Lorde, not for the sacrifice, but for they deare sonnes sake, my sauiour, for whose testimonye I offer this free will offering with all my hart, and with all my soule. O heauenly father forgeue me my sinnes, as I forgeue all the worlde. O sweete sonne of God my Sauioure, spread thy winges ouer me. O blessed and holy Ghost, through whose mercifull inspiration I am come hither, conduct mee into euerlasting life. Lorde into thy handes I commend my spirite. Amen. MarginaliaMarke the spirit of this payer, and compare it with the prayer of the Papistes at the sacrifice of the Masse.

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The death and martyrdome of Iohn Laurence Priest.

MarginaliaIohn Laurence Martyr. March. 29. MarginaliaIohn Laurēce lamed with yrons in p rison. THe next day being the 29. day of this moneth, the sayd Iohn Laurence was brought to Colchester, and there being not able to go, (for that as wel his legges were sore worne with heauie irons in the prison, as also hys bodye weakened with euill keeping) was borne to the fire in a chayre, and so sitting, was in hys constant faith consumed with fire.

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The cruell burning of Iohn Laurence Martir. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Iohn Laurence Priest at Colchester. Anno. 1555.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
Among the smaller woodcuts made to illustrate an individual case, this is unusual in two respects: in showing a group of children, whose presence allowed Foxe to moralise for the benefit of two generations, and in the iron chair to which the priest was chained. There was early church precedent for such martyrdom, and a woodcut of Attalus (one of a group martyred in 177) in the flames in an iron chair was printed in Ludwig Rabus, Historia der Heyligen (1556-58), while Foxe's large table of the ten first persecutions of the primitive church delineated Maturus and Sanctus (two others of the martyrs of 177) being 'fried in an iron chair'. Anne Askew [Ascue], her body racked by torture, was carried to the stake and burned sitting in a wooden chair, though this did not feature in the illustration of her martyrdom. For the burning of Anne Askew, which first appeared in Robert Crowley, The confutation of xiii articles (1548), see 1563, p. 666; 1570, p. 1420; 1576, p. 1210; 1583, p. 1240.

At the burning of this Laurence, hee sitting in the fire the young children came about the fire, and cryed, (as wel as young children could speake) saying: MarginaliaEx ore infantium. Lorde strengthen thy seruaunt, and keepe thy promise, Lord strengthen they seruaunt, and keepe thy promise:  

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The Venetain ambassador reported on the sympathy of the crowd at Laurence's execution for the martyr (C.S.P. Venetian, VI, i, nos. 45 and 49).

which thing, as it is rare so it is no small manifestation of the glory of God, whiche wrought thys in the harts of these little ones: nor yet a litle commendation to their parentes, whiche from theyr youth brought them vp in the knowledge of God and his trueth.

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