Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
David Walter

David Walter was one of Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

He was accused by Ferrar of improper procedure in gathering evidence against him. 1563, p. 1093; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1740; 1583, p. 1550.

[NB: Foxe describes Walter as George Constantine's servant. Actually Walter was the deputy registrarof the diocese of St David's, while Constantine was the registrar (Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 262-65)].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
George Constantine

(1501? - 1561)

Protestant Reformer and translator. Registrar of St David's (1546 - 1550), Archdeacon of Carmarthen (1549 - 1554), Archdeacon of Brecon (1559 - 1561). Father-in-law of Thomas Young [DNB; Venn]. Brother-in-law of Thomas Lee (Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), p. 186]

Constantine was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

According to Foxe, Constantine was motivated to act against Ferrar because the bishop opposed his despoiling the church, his simony and his laxity. 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.

His opposition to Ferrar is detailed in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50.

He was accused by Ferrar of improper procedures when gathering evidence against him. 1563, pp. 1093 and 1095; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1550 and 1551-52.

Ferrar denounced Constantine in letters to Lord Chancellor Thomas Goodrich. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472[recte 1474]-80; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56.

Constantine acted as a notary and officiated at the examinations and trial of Ferrar for heresy in 1554. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

 
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Henry Goddard

Chaplain to Robert Ferrar

Henry Goddard was appointed by Robert Ferrar to the rectory of Hasguard, Pembrokeshire, in 1550, despite the objections of Thomas Young who claimed the right of patronage over the right of benefice. 1563, pp. 1080 and 1085; 1583, pp. 1544 and 1547.

 
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Hugh Rawlins

(d. 1533)

Preacher; Rawlins held numerous benefices in England and south Wales.

He was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Rawlins sent articles to the privy council denouncing Ferrar. 1563, pp. 1085-88; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1544-46.

He was accused by Ferrar of improper procedure in gathering evidence against him. 1563, pp. 1093 and 1095; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1550 and 1551-52.

Rawlins was denounced by Ferrar for holding an excessive number of benefices. 1563, pp. 1093-94; 1570, p. 1550.

[NB: The complex problems of identification connected with Rawlins are resolved in Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 262-65].

 
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John Evans

Chaplain to Robert Ferrar; vicar of Carew [Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), p. 227]

John Evans was collated by Robert Ferrar to the vicarage of Penbryn in Cardiganshire, allegedly in violation of royal rights of patronage to this benefice. 1563, pp. 1085, 1088-89 and 1094; 1583, pp. 1544, 1547 and 1551.

 
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John Goch

Goch was inducted to the rectory of Hasguard, Pembrokeshire, in 1550 by Thomas Young without the knowledge of Bishop Ferrar. Ferrar challenged Goch's right to the benefice. 1563, pp. 1085, 1089 and 1094; 1583, pp. 1544, 1547 and 1551.

[In the documents which Foxe used, Goch's name was anglicised to John Gough; see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), p. 313 n. 6.]

[Also referred to as 'John Gough']

 
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Meredith ap Thomas

Servant of Robert Ferrar

Accused by Sage Hughes of fathering her illegitimate child, ap Thomas sued her for slander. 1563, pp. 1085 and 1088; 1583, pp. 1544-45 and 1548.

 
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Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

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Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

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Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Rowland Meyrick

(1505 - 1566)

Canon and chancellor of St David's (1550 - 1554). Bishop of Bangor (1560 - 1566). [DNB]

Rowland Meyrick was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

According to Foxe, Meyrick was motivated to act against Ferrar because the bishop proceeded against him for despoiling the church, for simony and for laxity. 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.

He was accused by Ferrar of despoiling church property. His opposition to Ferrar is detailed. 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50.

Meyrick's involvement in the dispute over the benefice of Penbryn is mentioned. 1563, p. 1094; 1583, p. 1551.

Ferrar denounced him in letters to Lord Chancellor Thomas Goodrich. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-1480 [recte 1484]; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56. [NB: When Foxe printed these letters in the 1563 edition, he gave only Meyrick's initials. In subsequent editions, he gave Meyrick's name].

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sage Hughes

Sage Hughes accused Meredith ap Thomas of being the father of her illegitimate child. She later retracted this accusation and claimed that John Hughes, her stepbrother and a priest, was the father. Meredith ap Thomas sued her for slander. 1563, pp. 1085 and 1090; 1583, pp. 1544-45 and 1548.

 
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Thomas ap Richard

(d. 1553)

Chaplain of Robert Ferrar; Ferrar's commissary at Cardigan

Thomas ap Richard was accused of celebrating a communion, at a wedding, with 'superstitious' ceremonies; Ferrar denied this. 1563, pp. 1086, 1090 and 1095; 1583, pp. 1545, 1548 and 1551.

He was denounced to the privy council by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee for conducting a wedding without having the banns read. 1563, p. 1089; 1583, p. 1547.

[For ap Richard's death see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), p. 227].

[Foxe calls him 'Thomas Prichard'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Lee

(d. 1554)

Merchant. Brother-in-law of George Constantine; uncle to Thomas Young's wife.

Thomas Lee was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Together with Hugh Rawlins, Lee sent articles to the privy council denouncing Ferrar. 1563, pp. 1085-88; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1544-46.

He was accused by Ferrar of improper procedures in collecting evidence against him. 1563, pp. 1093 and 1095; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1550 and 1551-52.

Ferrar claimed that Lee was paid by his enemies to accuse him. 1563, p. 1094; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1740; 1583, p. 1550.

Ferrar denounced Lee in a letter to Lord Chancellor Thomas Goodrich. 1563, pp. 1096-97; 1570, p. 1725; 1576, p. 1473; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56.

[Lee was reported dead in an indenture of 1 August 1554; see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), p. 227.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Young

(1507 - 1568)

Precentor of St David's Cathedral (1542 - 1554 and 1559); bishop of St David's (1559 - 1561) and archbishop of York (1561 - 1568). Son-in-law of George Constantine (DNB; Fasti).

Thomas Young was one of six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, John Philpot, Richard Cheyney and John Aylmer - who refused to subscribe to the articles promulgated in the 1553 convocation. Because Young did not take part in the ensuing debates, Philpot did not learn who he was; only identifying him as 'one other'. Foxe, who would not have known who this was either, also never identified him (1563, p. 906; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

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Thomas Young was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

According to Foxe, Young was motivated to act against Ferrar because the bishop proceeded against him for despoiling the church, for simony, and for laxity. 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.

Thomas Young accused Ferrar of praemunire. He disputed with Ferrar over the right of patronage to several benefices. 1563, pp. 1084-85; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Young was accused by Ferrar of despoiling church property; Young's opposition to Ferrar is detailed. 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50.

Young was accused by Ferrar of improper procedure in gathering evidence against him. 1563, pp. 1093 and 1095; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1550 and 1551-52. He was accused by Ferrar of ignorance of the law and of acting illegally. 1563, pp. 1094-95; 1583, pp. 1551-52.

Ferrar denounced Young in letters to Lord Chancellor Thomas Goodrich. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-1480 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1556. [NB: When these letters were printed in the 1563 edition, only Young's initials were given. His name was printed in subsequent editions].

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Elizabeth replaced Nicholas Heath with Thomas Young as archbishop of York. 1583, p. 2124.

[NB: In the diocese of St David's the precentor ranked second only to the bishop].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Carmarthen
NGR: SN 410 255

A borough and parish, the head of a union and a county of itself, locally in the hundreds of Elvet and Derllys, county of Carmarthen. 216 miles west by north from London. The town is wholly within the parish of St Peter, which is a discharged vicarage in the Diocese of St Davids.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Haskaud [Hasguard]
NGR: SM 852 098

A parish in the union of Haverfordwest, hundred of Rhos, county of Pembroke, 4.5 miles north-west by west from Milford. The living is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Crown.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Pembrin [Penbryn]
NGR: SN 297 520

A parish in the union of Newcastle Emlyn, lower division of the hundred of Troedyraur, county of Cardigan, 8 miles east-north-east of Cardigan. The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacies of Bettws Evan and Brongwyn annexed, in the patronage of the Bishop of St Davids.

Further information:

Pembrin, a vicarage and hamlet 8 miles north-east of Cardigan

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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St David's (Tyddewi; Mynyw; Menevia)

[Meneuia]

Pembrokeshire, Wales

OS grid ref: SM 755 255

Cathedral city

1568 [1544]

Queene Mary. The story of Doct. Farrar Byshop of Wales. Articles agaynst hym.
The history of Doctor Robert Farrar, Bishop of S. Dauids in Wales, 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdom of Robert Ferrar

In Foxe's presentation, Ferrar's sufferings under Mary are almost an anticlimax to what he endured in the reign of Edward VI. This emphasis is already apparent in the Rerum, where Foxe blames Ferrar's troubles solely on the malice of George Constantine and on the duke of Northumberland, who, Foxe maintained, hated Ferrar because he was favoured by the duke of Somerset. (These charges against Northumberland would not be repeated in any of the editions of the Acts and Monuments. This is undoubtedly due to the power and influence of Northumberland's two sons Ambrose and Robert, in Elizabeth's reign). According to Foxe, Ferrar was stripped of his bishopric and imprisoned in the Fleet until the beginning of Mary's reign. (This is demonstably inaccurate; see Brown, pp. 216-18). He remained in prison under Mary until the end of January 1555, when he was sentenced to death. He was taken to Carmarthen and burned, dying a slow death because the wood for the fire was taken from a bog and was wet. The account ends with an interesting physical description of Ferrar, describing him as short, stout and swarthy (Rerum, pp. 423-25). Unlike many detailed accounts in the Rerum, there are no documents. All of this information seems to have come from a person familiar with St David's (the burning suggests an eyewitness account) and sympathetic to Ferrar.

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It is reasonable to suppose that this person was responsible for the flood of information about Ferrar that washed over Foxe before the 1563 edition was printed. Except for the detail of Ferrar being burned with wet wood, nothing from the Rerum account was reprinted in 1563. The reason for this was that Foxe had an enormous cache of papers pertaining to Ferrar's case to work from. Someone had copied these papers (probably from Ferrar's records) and sent them to Foxe, presumably in an effort to vindicate the bishop. (BL, Harley 420 consists largely of the papers in this collection which Foxe did not print. They all are written in a single hand, indicating that they were copied and sent to Foxe). Foxe constructed his narrative of Ferrar in Edward VI's reign entirely from these documents. The same individual was probably also responsible for sending Foxe copies of the official documents on which Foxe based his account of Ferrar's examinations in Wales in 1555 and his degradation there. An eyewitness seems to have supplied Foxe with his account of Ferrar's examination by Gardiner.

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Whoever Foxe's sources for the Rerum and 1563 accounts were, they succeeded in making Foxe an ardent champion of Ferrar. Foxe's printing of thedocuments in Ferrar's case is not only detailed, but it is very partisan. Foxe printed the basic complaint which Ferrar's opponents made to the privy council, but he did not even mention a further complaint (BL, Harley 420, fol. 90r-v charging Ferrar with sedition) and an affadavit supporting it (BL, Harley 420, fol. 92r), as well as Ferrar's denial of the charge (BL, Harley 420, fol. 93r). Nor did Foxe print many of the depositions against Ferrar (BL, Harley 420, fos. 80r-89v and 95r-104v) or the depositions of 124 witnesses testifying against Ferrar (BL, Harley 420, fos. 111r-178r). Even more striking is the fact that he printed this detailed pro-Ferrar account at all; he could have simply omitted this unsavoury feud and focused on Ferrar's martyrdom under Mary. One of Ferrar's opponents was Thomas Young, the first Elizabethan archbishop of York, and this could only have increased the pressure on Foxe for silence. (One of Foxe's friends wrote to the martyrologist begging him not to discuss this aspect of Ferrar's history; the best that Foxe would do was not name Young while the archbishop was alive). Foxe seems to have been genuinely outraged at Ferrar's treatment by his canons; perhaps Foxe's friendship with John Parkhurst - Elizabeth's first bishop of Norwich and another prelate circled by sharks - influenced him. (Foxe would know about Parkhurst's troubles; he lived at Parkhurst's palace in Norwich from 1560 to 1562 and his family resided there until 1563).

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Except for details about Ferrar's death, all the information which Foxe would ever print on Ferrar was in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition all the documents pertaining to Ferrar's Edwardian ordeals were omitted except for two letters which Foxe moved to the end of his account of Ferrar. (In this edition, Foxe also erroneously declared that Bishop Goodrich of Ely was the recipient of these letters). Foxe replaced the deleted documents with a brief narrative of Ferrar's troubles under Edward VI. He also replaced the account of Ferrar's execution with a new version, obviously drawn from an eyewitness, which gave the precise date of Ferrar's death and the story that, in a demonstration of stoicism, the martyr did not move in the flames. The 1570 account of Ferrar was reprinted in the 1576 edition without change.

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But in the 1583 edition, Foxe restored all of the documents that had appeared in 1563 and were deleted afterwards. This appears to have been done without much care since the two letters Ferrar purportedly wrote to Goodrich were restored along with the other documents from the first edition but also printed at the end of the account, as they were in the 1570 edition. As result the letters are printed twice in 1583 (on pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56).

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who most constantly gaue his life for the testimonye of the truth. March. 30. an. 1555.  
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The date is incorrectly given as 22 February in 1563.

 

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Farrar

There is a long section dealing with the stirring in Farrar's diocese under Edward. This precedes the account of Farrar's troubles under Mary and leads to a different balance in the glosses from the previous few martyrs. The many articles against Farrar are noted in the 1563 and 1583 editions only; readers are advised in 1570 and 1576 to consult a copy of 1563. The 1583 glosses seem to have been set from the 1563 version. In these glosses, Foxe occasionally uses terms supportive of Farrar, describing the charge of Praemunire against him as 'pretensed' ('Premunire pretended agaynst B. Farrar') and noting the 'crafty packing' of his opponents ('Crafty packing agaynst Farrar'). Stoical phrases such as 'stoutly standeth' are used, along with commendation of constancy ('B. Farrar stoutly stādeth vpon his truth'; 'B. Farrar standeth to his oth made to the K. agaynst the Pope'; 'A memorable example of constancie in this blessed B. & Martyr'). The familiar charge that Winchester once supported the royal supremacy is introduced when opportunity serves ('Winchesters periury touched'), and there is a repeat of the restrained drawing attention to an appeal to the cardinal ('B. Farrar appealeth from the B. of S. Dauids to the Cardinall'). There is a mistaken date in 1583 (March 32) which was correctly given as March 30 in 1570 and 1576.

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MarginaliaAnn. 1555. March. MarginaliaThe burning of D. Robert Farrar Byshop of S. Dauyes, & Martyr. THe next day after, whiche was the xxx. day of the sayde moneth of march, followed the worthy & constāt martirdome of the bishop of S. Dauids in Wales, called Robert Farrar, who was the next bishop in this Catalogue of Christian Martirs, that suffered after mayster Hooper. This foresayd Farrar, by the fauour and good will of the Lord protectour, was first called and promoted to that dignitie. This man I may well call twise a martyr, not onely for the cruell death of the fire, which he suffered most constantly in the dayes of Queene Mary, vnto the shedding of his bloud: but also for diuers other iniuries & molestations in king Edwardes time, which he no lesse firmly, then vnworthily susteined at the hands of his enemies after the fall of the Duke of Somerset. Of these his vexatiōs and troubles, with the wrangling articles and informations layd against him, to the number of fifty and sixe, & of the malice conceiued agaynst him by certayn couetous Canons of the Churche of Carmarthen, & what were the proceedinges of both partes, as well of the innocent, as of the crafty aduersaries,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 3, line 3 from bottom

The Edition of 1563 says, "of both the parties, as wel of the bishop as of his adversaries."

& what were their names in theyr articles agaynst him, in order here followeth.

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The principall articles agaynst Bishop Farrar. 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, 4, fn 1

See the Harleian MSS. Number 420, art. 17-27. - ED. Appendix:The following are the titles of the Articles in the Harleian MSS. No. 420, relative to Bishop Ferrar: they throw much light on Foxe's narrative: -

Art. 17. Deposition of Doctor Rowlande Meyrycke, one of the Cannons of Sainct David's; sworne and examyned the 21 daye of Februarye 1551 upon certeyne Articles objected against the Bishop of St. David's. (fol. 80)

Art. 18. Deposition of Gryffythe Goz of Blaienporth yn Cardigan-shyre, Clerke, upon the same, the 12th day of February 1551 [1552]. (fol. 85.)

Art. 19. Bishop Farrar's exceptions against the Testimonies of Roger Barloo yeoman, Griffith Donne gent., Thomas John Thomas ap Harrye gent., John Evans clerk the said bishop's chaplen. (fol. 89, b.)

Art. 20. Complaint to the Privy Council [by Rawlyns] of certain words spoken by Bp. Ferrar in the Pulpit, tending to the raising of strife and hatred between the Welsh and English; and to revive the singing of old Welsh Rhymes, and the belief of their vain Prophecies. (fol. 90.)

Art. 21. A prouf of Rawlins Information made by Thomas Williams, Vicar of Carmarthen, and Moris Gryffythe Clerke. (fol. 92.)

Art. 22. The effecte of the Bushope of Saincte Davids Answer to Rawlyns Information. (fol. 93.)

Art. 23. Deposition of George Constantine of the age of li. yeres, upon the Articles exhibited to the Kings Majesties Privy Council agaynst Robert Farrar Bishoppe of St. Davids. (fol. 95)

Art. 24. Deposition of ..... upon the Articles aforesaid. [Imperfect.] (fol. 100.)

Art. 25. Interrogations minystered on behalfe of the reverende Father in God Robert, by the suffrance of God Bushop of Sanct Davydes, agaynst all and singuler suche Wittnes as shal be producted agaynst him on the behalffe of Thomas Lee and Hughe Raulins, or ether of theym; uppon the which Interrogatoris, and everie part of the same, the said Bishopp desierith that the said Wittnes and every of theym may be secretly apart, by virtu of their othes, diligently examined. (fol. 105.)

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Art. 26. A brive note, how many Witnessis hath deposed to every Article objected against Bishop Farrar. (fol. 107.)

Art. 27. Depositions of 127 Witnesses producted on the behalfe of Hugh Rawlings Clerke, and Thomas Lee of Carmarthen, sworen and examyned the 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th dayes of May 6 Ed. VI [1552]. (fol. 111.)

Marginalia56. articles agaynst B. Farrar in K. Edwardes tyme, deuysed by Tho. Yong, Cōstantine and other his aduersaryes GEorge Constantine, Dauid Walter his seruant, Thomas Young  

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On 29 January 1561 Richard Pratt, a friend of the martyrologist, wrote to Foxe and asked him not to discuss Ferrar's feud with his canons as it would create scandal and encourage the catholics, particularly since Thomas Young was about to become archbishop of York (BL, Harley 416, fol. 170r-v). Foxe obliged to the extent of witholding the names of Meyricke and Young from his first edition. In the second edition, with both men dead, he supplied their names and even identified Meyricke ashaving been bishop of Bangor and Young as having been archbishop of York.

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chanter of the Cathedrall Churche, who was afterward Archbishop of Yorke, MarginaliaTho. Yong sonne in lawe to Constantine.Rowland Merick,  
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On 29 January 1561 Richard Pratt, a friend of the martyrologist, wrote to Foxe and asked him not to discuss Ferrar's feud with his canons as it would create scandal and encourage the catholics, particularly since Thomas Young was about to become archbishop of York (BL, Harley 416, fol. 170r-v). Foxe obliged to the extent of witholding the names of Meyricke and Young from his first edition. In the second edition, with both men dead, he supplied their names and even identified Meyricke ashaving been bishop of Bangor and Young as having been archbishop of York.

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doct. of law, who was afterward Bish. of Bangor, Thomas Lee, and Hugh Rawlins. &c.

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THrough the procurement and instance of these his aduersaries, ioyning and confederating together, one Hugh Rawlins priest, and Thomas Lee brother in lawe to the sayd George Constantine, did exhibite to the kinges most honourable counsell certaine articles and informations,  

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Foxe does not supply any details of a quarrel which been festering between Ferrar and his canons long before this denunciation of Ferrar was sent to the privy council. Over a year before this document was written, Ferrar had suspended some of his leading opponents from their diocesan offices and they had appealed to the Council of the Marches. And along with the complaint made against Ferrar to the privy council, another complaint had been brought against Ferrar in the Court of Great Sessions in Carmarthen. (For the details of the feud between Ferrar and his canons, see Brown, pp. 82-185).

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conceiued and deuised by the persons before named, to the intent to blemish the bishops credit, and vtterly (as they thought and made their boast) to pull him from hys bishopricke, and to bring him in a premunire.  
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This was originally a series of statutes enacted in 1353, 1365 and 1393, limiting appeals to the papacy by English clerics and prescribing penalties for those promoting a papal bull or excommunication in England. By Ferrar?s day it had come to be used as a legal term for any clerical usurpation of royal power or authority.

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The copye of whiche articles, we thought here good to expresse, and so after them to set his answeres to the same.

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Articles and informations to the kings honorable counsell, put vp and exhibited by Hugh Raulins, and Tho. Lee. agaynst the blessed man of God, Mayster Farrar, byshop of sainct Dauids.  
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This is an indictment Ferrar's opponents sent to the privy council accusing the bishop (in no less than 56 articles) of praemunire and other misdeeds. The first 18 articles consist of actual charges of praemunire (i.e., the bishop having usurped royal perogatives) and these take two forms: cases where Ferrar allegedly overrode vested rights of patronage (articles 2-4, 7, 14 and 15) and cases where Ferrar, either through ignorance or willfulness, acted illegally (articles 1, 5-6, 8-13 and 16-18). The remaining articles are intended to show that Ferrar was an unfit bishop because of a failure to enforce the religious reforms enacted by the government (articles 19-24), greed (articles 25-47) or sheer incompetence (articles 48-56). None of these were legal reasons to deprive a bishop (whereas praemunire was) but they were intended to convince the privy council that depriving Ferrar was desirable and thus reinforcea weak case. Readers desiring more background on the details behind these charges should consult Andrew J. Brown's superb monograph on Ferrar.

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¶ Abuse of the authoritie to him committed.

Marginalia1. IN primis when the sayde bishop first came to his dyocesse, he appoynted his chauncellour by his letters of commission, omitting the kings maiesties stile and authoritie, and grounded his sayd commission vppon forrein vsurped lawes and authoritie:  

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This is a good example of the desperate efforts of Ferrar's opponents to make a case for praemunire. Because a reference to the royal supremacy had been inadvertantly omitted from a commission Ferrar issued, his opponents were maintaining that he based his claim to episcopal authority upon 'foreign usurped laws' (i.e., papal, rather than royal, authority). This is ridiculous; Ferrar was a controversial bishop, but he was a thoroughgoing reformer.

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by force of whiche authoritie his sayd Chauncellour did visite certayne deanryes of hys sayd diocesse, and monished the Chauntor and chaptre of the cathedrall Churche of S. Dauids afore sayd, agaynst a certeine day and place, for like intent and purpose, contrary to the kinges highnes lawes and statutes, and in derogation of his highnes supremacy.

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Marginalia 2. Item,  

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Details of this dispute are in Brown, pp. 151-52.

that the sayd Chauntour and chaptre, perceyuing the faultes of the sayd commission, tooke the same frō the Registre into their custodye, refusing to appeare by vertue thereof, and by secrete and charitable wayes and meanes did admonishe the sayde Byshop of the vnlawfulnesse and faultes of the sayde commission and of the daunger that he had incurred for graunting and executyng the same: opening also vnto hym the effecte of the statute made in the xxviii. yeare of oure late Soueraigne Lorde Henry the eight: Whiche monitions notwithstanding, the sayd Bishop neglecting the same, and continuing in hys malicious doyng or inexcusable ignoraunce, about the xx. daye of Auguste in the fourthe yeare of the reigne of our Soueraigne Lorde that nowe is dyd conferre vnto one Iohn Euans the Vicarage of Pembrin, instituting him by authoritie of the old forreigne vsurped lawe, making no mention of the kinges highnes authoritie, in contempt and derogation of the same.

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Marginalia 3. Item,  

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Details of this dispute are in Brown, pp. 149-51.

wheras the Chauncellour and Vicar generall to the sayde Byshop, did vppon a lawfull title, and by the

kinges hignes supreme authoritie admit and institute one Iohn Gough into the rectory of Haskard with thappurtenaunces, and gaue out in þe kings name vnder his highnes seale ecclesiasticall appoynted for that office with the (teste) of the said bishop and subscription of the said chauncellour, a mādate to inducte accordingly: by vertue wherof the said Iohn Gough was inducted by the official there into reall possession of the same rectory, with the rightes and appurtenaunces to the same belonging: whereupon the register of the sayd dioces, at the request of the foresayd chauncellour did signifie the premisses, with all the circumstances, before diuers persons to the forenamed Byshop, Who notwithstanding, did institute and cause to be inducted one Harry Goddart vnto the same personage. making no mention of the kinges maiesties authority nor supremacie: in contempt and derogation of the same hys hignes crowne and dignitie, and in extolling the forreine vsurped aucthoritye, contrary to the fourme of the statute &c.

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Marginalia4. Item,  

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Details of this dispute are in Brown, pp. 149-51.

the sayde Bishop immediately after the vnlawfull institution and induction of Goddart aforesayde, molested the sayd I. Gough lawfully instituted inducted as before, citing him frō place to place, obiecting no matter vnto him of long season, till at the length hee articled. Emong which Articles was contayned. Item Interrogatur quo titulo tenet rectoriam de Haskard. So taking vppon him the cognition of the title of the hole fruites and patronage, in contempte of the kinges highnesse regall crowne and dignitie, and in derogation of the lawes and statutes of this Realme.

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Marginalia5. Item, hee hath commonly made his collations, and institutions, as hee did his first commission in hys owne name and authoritie, without expressing the kinges supremacie.

Marginalia 6. Item, hee hath made vnder his seale one collation, two institutions, and three mandates, inducte in one vocation of one benefice, to three seuerall persons, wythout order of law, or reuocation of anye of them, geuing to euery one like authoritye, title, and right. Whereby, except good foresight aswell of Iustices of the peace, as of the frendes had not bene, there had ensured much inconuenience amonges the partakers of the intituled incumbentes in that behalfe.

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Marginalia 7. Item,  

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This article charged that Ferrar decreed that certain appointments to benefices were illegal and then forced his candidates into the livings without proper legal process.

the sayde Bishop decreeing Caueates to be made in benefices, thereby knowing the titles litigious, instituted, and causeth to be inducted without tryall of anye title or due order of lawe.

Marginalia 8. Item, hee directeth hys mandates of induction vnto priuate men, and not to Tharchdeacons nor theyr Officialles: contrary to the lawe and custome vsed in that behalfe. Notwithstanding he hath bene counsayled to the contrary, of men that be learned.

Marginalia 9. Item, hauing no maner of knowledge nor practise in the lawe, he sitteth euery day, in haruest and other times, vpon causes without assistaunce of learned in the law, hauing with him onely an vnlearned boy, which is no Notary, to his scribe, neither obseruing the law, nor yet reasonable order. And therefore doth no good, but tryfeleth the time, as may appeare by his actes, if he haue them to be shewed.

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Marginalia 10. Item, hee and his officcrs, by his knowledge, vseth to dispense with mariages, to be solemnized without banes, contrarye to the lawes and ordinaunces in that behalfe.

Marginalia11. Item, where as one Thomas Pricharde  

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 5, Art. XI

Meyrick in his Deposition on this Article, Harleian MS. N. 420, fol 81, calls this individual "Thomas Ap Richard."

a Chapleine of his, solempnized matrimony in a priuate house wythout banes, & that betwixt a priest, and a sister of hers, that was appointed to be maryed with the said priest that day: hee also being a parson, and leauing his cure vnserued that day being sondaye: notwithstanding, that one of the kinges counsell in the marches of Wales: enformed the sayd bishop of the same misdemeanours, requiring due reformation therof, he hath done nothing therein, but put the same Chapleine in office, and made him his Commissary generall since that tyme, bearyng a speciall fauour to the rest of the offendours.

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Marginalia12. Item, where as one Meredith ap Thomas, his housholde seruaunt, was accused of one Sage Hugh, for to haue bene father of her chylde, the sayde Byshop wythout purgation  

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The charge was that Ferrar did not compel Thomas to 'purge himself'; that is, to take an oath as to his innnocence. The case is described in Brown, pp. 111-12.

of his seruauut, caused hym to sue the parentes of the sayde Sage of infamie, first in hys principall consistory, and from thence before a commissary of hys, being his housholde Chaplaine, and at the last tooke the matter before hymselfe, so rayling agaynst all his officers, because they proceeded not after hys parciall affection, and agaynst the lawe, that honest men of Carmarththē, where

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he
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