Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Francis Englefield

(1521/22 - 1596)

Catholic exile. High sheriff of Berkshire and Oxfordshire at the death of Henry VIII. Privy councillor, Master of the Rolls and Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries under Mary [DNB; Bindoff, Commons]

Englefield was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Sir Francis Englefield was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Learning of the madness of John Bolton, Sir Francis ordered him released from Reading goal (1563, pp. 1017-18). [NB: Englefield was also the keeper of Reading goal; see Bindoff, Commons.]

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Englefield and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1467; 1583, p. 1559.

On 29 May 1555, the privy council ordered that Englefield apprehend John Dee and that he search the papers of Dee and Thomas Benger. 1583, pp. 1577-78.

On 5 June 1555, the privy council ordered Englefield to examine Cary, Dee, John Field and Sir Thomas Benger about their having practiced conjuring and witchcraft. 1583, p. 1581.

[Went into exile under Elizabeth and retired to Valladolid. (DNB)]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Julius III

Pope (1550 - 1555)

Born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Received a letter dated 30 November 1554 from King Philip of England announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-8; 1583, p. 1478).

Received a letter from Cardinal Pole, dated 30 November 1554, announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1012-13 [in Latin, only in this edition]; pp. 1013-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79).

Received a message from Parliament asking him to confirm the purchasers of monastic lands and chantry lands in their current ownership (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

Reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English (1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457;1583, p. 1531).

Issued a bull excommunicating anyone who retained monastic lands or Church property (1570, p. 1729;1576, p. 1477; 1583, pp. 1559-60).

Permitted homosexuality in the papal court (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Proclaimed a jubilee, presided over the Council of Trent and sponsored the shrine of Our Lady ofLoretto (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Foxe relates anecdotes concerning his gluttony (1563, pp. 1117-18; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583,p. 1560).

Stephen Gardiner issued instructions for Julius's funeral in April 1555 (1563, p. 1118; 1570, p. 1730;1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

A London woman was imprisoned for refusing to pray for Julius III at his funeral ceremonies (1563, p.1118; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

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Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Anthony Browne


Viscount Mountague 1554-92 (DNB)

Present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross Sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Sent as an ambassador to the Pope on 19 February 1555. Foxe speculates that this embassy concerned the restoration of monastic lands to the Church (1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1529).

[NB: Do not confuse this Sir Anthony Browne with the Sir Anthony Browne of Essex; they are two different people.]

Foxe occasionally refers to him as 'Lord Montacute'.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Robert Rochester

(1494? - 1557) [DNB]

Mary's Controller of the Household; privy councillor

Sir Robert Rochester was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was present at the burning of John Rogers, 4 February 1555. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, p. 1493.

Rochester was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

On 28 March, Mary announced to Rochester and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

Rochester stated that he did not know that Bradford had been in prison, but that he now knew that he was to be kept in prison 'without a cause'. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir William Petre

(1505? - 1572)

Mary's principal secretary until 1557 [DNB]

Sir William Petre was one of the signatories of a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554. Foxe spells his name 'Peter', (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Petre and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

William Peter was one of the privy councillors who signed a letter to Bishop Bonner, dated 28 April 1555, ordering the bishop to proceed posthumously against John Tooley in ecclesiastical court. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. He mentioned two letters: one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsbury, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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Sir William Petre was humble before Elizabeth at Hampton court. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2291.

[Also referred to as 'Secretary Peter']

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Thirlby

(1506? - 1570) (DNB)

Bishop of Westminster (1540 - 1550). Bishop of Norwich (1550 - 1554). Bishop of Ely (1554 - 1559). [Fasti; DNB]

Thomas Thirlby was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Thomas Thirlby was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 22 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86.

He was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

He was sent as an ambassador to the pope on 19 February 1555. Foxe speculates that this embassy concerned the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1559.

A letter regarding Green's treason was sent to Bonner by the privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed by Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1563, pp. 1489-92; 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 1775-76, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Thirlby examined and condemned John Hullier. 1563, p. 1515, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

John Hullier was examined and sent to Cambridge Castle by Thirlby. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Thirlby was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1483? - 1572)

Marquess of Winchester (1551 - 1572) [DNB]

William Paulet signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550 which permitted Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504. [Paulet signed as 'W. Wiltshire', being earl of Wiltshire at the time].

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer on 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Paulet was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Paulet and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

On 16 May 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send Thomas Ross to John Hopton, and to commit Stephen Appes to Bedlam, if reports of his madness were true. 1583, p. 1577.

On 26 May 1555 the privy council ordered that that Paulet confer with Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs about where convicted heretics were to be executed. 1583, p. 1577.

On 28 May 1555 the Privy Council instructed Paulet to provide money for ambassadors carrying news of the (anticipated) safe delivery of Mary's child to various foreign monarchs. 1583, p. 1577.

On 12 June 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send writs for the executions of Derick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Launder to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

Derick Carver was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, then lord treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Paulet wrote to Feckenham, the dean of St Paul's. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

[Also referred to as 'Marquis of Winchester' and 'W. Wiltshire']

1583 [1559]

Queene Mary. The Martirdome of Rawlins. Restitution of Abbey landes by Queene Mary.
¶ The burning of Raulins, Martyr. MarginaliaAnno 1555. March.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The illustration of the bearded dignified figure of Rawlins White, one of the small woodcuts (Type 2) added to the 1570 edition, was among the group of these well-worked blocks which was not reused. Although Foxe's account provided sufficient drama for a specific illustration, this seemingly generalised image was perhaps following the text in showing Rawlins, the 'good old man' (aged about 60), his back 'close to the stake', bearded and bolt upright.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Rawlins Whyte, a Fisherman, at Cardiffe. Anno 1555. March.Lord receiue my spirit, vntill he could not opē his mouth. At the laste the extremitye of the fire was so vehement agaynst his legges, that they were consumed almost before the rest of his body was burned: whiche made the whole body fall ouer the chayne into the fire sooner then it would haue done. MarginaliaThe constant patience of Rawlins at his burning.During which tyme of his burning it can not be sayd, that he suffered or felt any great paine, considering that not without his perfect memory he aboad both quietly and paciently, euen vnto the departing of his life.  

Commentary  *  Close

Here again White is displaying the stoicism expected of a martyr. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

Thus died this godly and old man Rawlins for the testimony of Gods truth, being now rewarded, no doubt, wt the crown of euerlasting life.

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MarginaliaA sodayne alteration of nature maruelous in Rawlins before his death.It is recorded furthermore of the sayd good father Raulins by this Reporter, that as he was going to his death, and standing at the stake, he seemed in a maner to be altered in nature. For wheras before he was wont to go stooping, or rather crooked, through the infirmity of age, hauing a sad countenance and a very feeble complexion, and withall very soft in speech and gesture.

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Now he went and stretched vppe himselfe, not onelye bolt vpright, but also bare withall a most pleasant and cōfortable countenaunce, not without great courage and audacity both in speache and behauiour. He had (of whiche thing I shoulde haue spoken before) about his head a kerchiefe. The heares of his head (somewhat appearing beneath his kerchiefe) and also of his beard were more inclined to white then to gray: whiche gaue such a shewe and countenaunce to his whole person, that he semed to be altogether angelicall.

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MarginaliaThe reporter of this story one M. Dane.It is also sayd by this Reporter, that a litle before the fire flashed vp to his body (as ye haue heard) many of his frendes came to him, and tooke him by the hand, amongest whome, the Reporter of this story held him so long by the hand, till the flame of the fire rose, and forced them to sunder. In the meane time the priest of whome I spake afore, cryed out, and sayd, that it was not lawfull for any man to take him by the hand, because he was an hereticke, and cōdemned by the Churche. The chiefe cause of his trouble, was his opinion touching the sacrament of the aultar. He was at the time of his death, of the age of threescore yeares or thereaboutes.

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The summe of the wordes spoken by Queene Mary to certayne of her Counsellers. March. 28. an. 1555. touching the restitution of Abbey landes.  
Commentary  *  Close
The Restoration of Abbey Lands

There is nothing on the restoration of monastic lands nor on Pope Julius III nor on the spectacular death of Nightingale in the Rerum. The materials on Pope Julius III's death and a version of Nightingale's demise appear in the 1563 edition. The account of the plans to restore monastic property and of the woman of St Magnus were added in the 1570 edition. Details were also added in this edition to the account of Nightingale's death. There were no changes made to this material in subsequent editions.

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BEfore I passe ouer this moneth of Marche, I can not but leaue a litle memorandum of the wordes or consultation of Queene Mary, vsed to certayne of the Counsel, the eight and twenty day of the sayd month of March, touching the restoring agayne of the Abbey landes. Who after she had called vnto her presence foure of her priuye Counsell, the day and Moneth aforesayd: the names of whiche Counsellers were these:

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Restoration of Abbey Lands and Other Events in Spring 1555

The main topics in this section are the queen's decision to restore the abbey lands she held, and the response to the death of Julius III. The glosses concerning the pope are far more ribald than those relating to Mary. Julius III's prodigious appetite is recounted, as are the blasphemies linked to his greed; the glosses underline this at various points, using the phrase ' a Porkishe Pope' to describe his affection for pork. The glosses relating to Mary are more restrained but revealing. The use of 'conscience' in the gloss 'The Q. taketh a conscience in keeping Abbay landes' does not contain the sense of unanswerability that its invocation by protestants appears to carry. The gloss 'Note the nature of the Papistes where they can ouercome, they are Lions: where they are ouermatched, they play the Foxes' attacks the catholics for not living up to their principles and delaying the enforcement of the return of land for fear of rousing the nobility. The contrast between these two glosses perhaps hints that the queen was not devious, but was zealous in her pursuit of papal interests.

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There are examples of mistakes in the editions after 1570: a 'no' is lost from the 1570 gloss 'Here lacked no good will in the Bishops, but time as yet did not serue them'; the gloss 'Note here what an holy Catholicke Church this is' is out of place in 1583, and a date given correctly in 1570 and 1576 ('Aprill. 10') is incorrect in 1583 ('Aprill. 20').

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MarginaliaThe names of the Coūsellers called before Q. Mary.1 William Lord Marques of Winchester high treasurer of England.

2 Syr Robert Rochester knight, the queenes Controller.

3 Syr William Peter knight, Secretary.

4 Syr Fraunces Inglefielde knighte, Mayster of Wardes.

MarginaliaThe effect of Q. Maryes wordes touching Abbay landes to be restored.The sayde Queene Mary inferred these wordes: the principall effecte and summe whereof here foloweth. You are here of our Counsell, and we haue willed you to be called vnto vs, to the entent ye might heare of me my conscience, and the resolution of my mind, cōcerning the lands & possessions as well of Monasteries, as other Churches whatsoeuer being now presently in my possession. MarginaliaThe Q. taketh a conscience in keeping Abbay landes.

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Firste, I doe consider, that the sayd landes were taken awaye from the Churches aforesayde, in time of schisme, and that by vnlawfull meanes, suche as are contrary both to the law of God and of the Church. For the which cause my conscience doeth not suffer mee to deteyne them: and therefore I here expressely refuse eyther to clayme or to retayne the sayde landes for mine, but with all my hart, freely, and willingly without all paction or condition, here and before God I doe MarginaliaThe Q. surrendreth from her self the possession of Abbay landes.surrender and relinquishe the sayde landes and possessions or inheritaunces what so euer, and doe renounce the same with this minde and purpose, that order and disposition thereof may be taken, as shall seeme best liking to our most holy Lord the Pope, or els his Legate the Lord Cardinall, to the honour of God and wealth of this our Realme.

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And albeit you may obiect to me agayne, that considering the state of my kingdome, the dignity thereof, and my Crowne Imperiall can not be honorably mainteined and furnished without the possessions aforesayde: yet notwythstanding I set more by the saluation of my soule, then by x. kingdomes: and therfore the sayd possessions I vtterly refuse here to hold after that sort and title, and geue most harty thankes to almighty God, which hath geuen me an husband likewise minded, with no lesse good affection in thys behalfe, then I am my selfe.

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MarginaliaPromise for restitution of Abbay landes.Wherefore I charge and commaund, that my Chauncellour (with whom I haue conferred my minde in thys matter before) and you foure, to morow together do resort to the most reuerend Lord Legate, and doe signify to him the premises in my name, and geue your attendaunce vpon him for the more full declaration of the state of my kingdome, and of the foresayd possessions accordinglye, as you your selues do vnderstand the matter, and can inform him in the same.

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This Intimation being geuen by the Queene, firste vnto the Counsellours, and then comming to the Cardinals hand, he drawing out a copy therof in Latine, sēt the same to the Pope: which copy drawne into Latine, & comming afterwarde to my hand, I haue thus translated into English, as ye haue heard.

MarginaliaAmbassadours sent from England to Rome. February 19.Furthermore here by the way is to be vnderstand, that in the moneth before, which was February, and in the xix. day of the sayd moneth, the Bishop of Ely, with the Lorde Mountacute, and seuen score horse, were sent as ambassadours from the king and Queene vnto Rome. For what cause, in story it is not expressed; but by coniecture it maye be wel supposed to be for the same cause of Abbey lands, as by the sequele therof may probably appeare.

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MarginaliaThe Popes Bull for restitution of Abbay landes.For it was not long after, but the Pope did sette foorth in Print a Bull of Excommunication for all maner suche persons, without exception, as kept any of the Churche or Abbey landes: by vertue of which Bull,  

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe appears to be refering to Julius III's bull Praeclara of 20 June 1555. Ifthis is the case, then he is being willfully inaccurate; Julius's bull actually renouncedecclesiastical claims to former English monastic lands. (See Knowles, III, p. 423).

the Pope excommunicated as well all such as had any of the Churche or Abbey lands, as also all such Princes, Bishops, & noble men, Iustices of peace, and other in office, who had not, or did not forthwith put the same Bull in execution. Albeit this execution (God be thanked) yet to this day was neuer put in practise.

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MarginaliaNote the nature of the Papistes where they can ouercome, they are Lions: where they are ouermatched, they play the Foxes.Wherein agayne is to be obserued an other Catholick fetch, not vnwoorthy perchaunce of marking. For where this kinde of Catholickes by rigour and force may ouermayster, they spare for no coste, but laye on loade enough. This well appeared, & still doeth appeare in burnyng the poore pacient christiās, whō because they see to be destitute of power and strength to resiste them, and contente wyth pacience to receiue what so euer is put vnto them, there they play the Lions, and make no end of burning and persecutinge. But where they spye themselues to bee ouermatched, or feare to receiue a foyle in presuming too farre, there they keepe in, and can stay the executiō of their lawes and Bulles, be they neuer so Apostolicall, tyll they spye their time cōuenient for theyr purpose, as in this case is e-

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