Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
George Marsh

(1515? - 1555)

Farmer, curate and martyr [DNB]

Foxe recounts his early life. 1563, pp. 1118-19; 1570, p. 1731; 1576, p. 1478; 1583, p. 1561.

George Marsh refused to flee and surrendered to the authorities. 1570, pp. 1731-32; 1576, pp. 1478-79; 1583, pp. 1561-62.

He was examined and questioned by the earl of Derby. 1570, pp. 1732-35; 1576, pp. 1479-81; 1583, pp. 1562-64.

He was imprisoned at Latham House, the earl of Derby's residence. 1570, p. 1735; 1576, pp. 1481-1470 [recte 1482]; 1583, p. 1565.

He was imprisoned at Lancaster. 1563, p. 1119; 1570, pp. 1735-36; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1565. Marsh was supplied with meat and drink during his imprisonment by the mayor of Lancaster. 1570, p. 1646; 1576, p. 1440 [recte 1404]; 1583, p. 1475.

Marsh was examined by Bishop Cotes of Chester. 1563, pp. 1120-21; 1570, pp. 1736-37; 1576, pp. 1470 [recte 1482]- 1477 [recte 1483]; 1583, pp. 1565-66.

His final appearance before Bishop Cotes and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1120-21; 1570, pp. 1737-38; 1576, pp. 1477 [recte 1483]-1484; 1583, p. 1566.

Foxe recounts his martyrdom and posthumous denunciation as an heretic by Bishop Cotes. 1563, pp. 1121-22; 1570, p. 1738; 1576, p. 1484; 1583, pp. 1566-67.

His letters: 1563, pp. 1128-35; 1570, pp. 1735-48; 1576, pp. 1484-91; 1583, pp. 1567-74.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Laurence Saunders

(d. 1555) [DNB]

Martyr.

Saunders' life and career are described. 1563; pp. 1037-38; 1570, pp. 1664-65; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, pp. 1493-94.

Laurence Saunders preached in Northampton, soon after Mary's accession, denouncing 'Antichrist's errors'. He was arrested and released. He came to London, despite warnings to the contrary. 1563, pp. 1038-39; 1570, p. 1665; 1576, pp. 1420-21; 1583, p. 1494.

On 15 October 1553, Saunders preached at Allhallows, Bread Street, denouncing the mass as an abomination. On the same day he was summoned by Bonner, interrogated, and committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466; also 1563, p. 1039; 1570, p.1665; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, pp. 1494-95.

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He was interrogated by Gardiner and imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583; p. 1495.

It was rumoured in May 1554 that he, along with Bradford and John Rogers, would participate in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Saunders was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Saunders was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters and examinations: 1563, pp. 1040-47; 1570, pp. 1666-70; 1576, pp. 1421-25; 1583, pp. 1495-98.

Saunders was excommunicated at 6am on 23 January 1555. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Saunders was examined and condemned by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555. 1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

He was degraded, conveyed to Coventry and executed there. 1563, pp. 1047-48; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, p. 1495.

Saunders is contrasted with Henry Pendleton. 1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1671; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, pp. 1499-1500.

Additional letters: 1570, pp. 1671-74; 1576, pp. 1426-29; 1583, pp. 1500-2.

Lawrence Saunders was imprisoned in the Marshalsea at the same time as Bradford was imprisoned [in the King's Bench] and often met with Bradford at the back of the prison. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

His martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

He received a letter from Bradford. 1563, p. 1194, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, pp. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

He received another letter from Bradford. 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Saunders was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote the letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Letter to evangelicals in Lichfield [BL, Harley 416, fos.13v-16r. Printed in LM, pp. 182-88.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Vawdrey

Deputy Chamberlain of Chester

Vawdrey offered George Marsh a pardon if he would recant. 1563, p. 1122; 1570, p. 1738; 1576, p. 1484; 1583, p. 1567.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Spittle Boughton

Not identified.

1591 [1567]

Queene Mary. The condemnation, and martyrdome of George Marsh. His letters.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Aprill.call to him, and aske him how he did. MarginaliaThe brotherly zeale of good men in comforting G. Marsh. He would answere them most chearefully, that he did well, and thanked God most highly that he woulde vouchsafe of his mercy to appoynt him to be a witnes of his truth, and to suffer for the same, wherein he did most reioyce, beseeching him that he would geue him grace not to faynt vnder the Crosse, but patiently beare the same to his glorye and comfort of hys Churche: with many other like godly sayinges at sondrye tymes, as one that most desired to be with Christ. Once or twise he had money cast him in at the same hole, about ten pence at one tyme, & 2. shillings at an other time: for which he gaue God thankes, and vsed the same to his necessitie.  

Commentary  *  Close

A small cask for liquids (OED).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 52, line 11 from the bottom

It is singular, that the Latin account (Basil 1559, p. 432) says at the beginning of the account "die Aprilis 24," and at the end "Mense Martio."

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When the time and day appointed came  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 52, fn 1

April 24, 1555.

that he should suffer: MarginaliaAmry & Couper Shiriffes of Chester.the Sheriffes of þe Cittie (whose names were Amry & Couper) with their Officers and a great nūber of poore simple Barbers, with rousty Billes & Polaxes, went to the Northgate, & there tooke out the said George Marsh, who came with them most humly & meekly, with a lock vpon his feete. MarginaliaMarsh led to his Martyrdōe.And as he came vpon the waye towardes þe place of execution, some folkes proferd him money, & looked that he should haue gone with a litle purse in his hand (as the maner of felons was, accustomed in that Cittye in times past, at their goyng to execution MarginaliaThe old vse in Lancashyre to geue money to bye Trentalls.) to þe end to gather money to geue vnto a priest to say Trentals of Masses for thē after their death, wherby they might (as they thought) be saued: MarginaliaG. Marsh refuseth to receaue money going to his death.but Marsh sayd he would not as thē be troubled wt medling with mony, but willed some good man to take the mony, if þe people were disposed to geue any, & to geue it vnto the prisoners or poore people. So hee went all the way vnto his death, wt his booke in his hand, looking vpō the same, & many of þe people sayd: this mā goeth not vnto his death as a theefe, or as one that deserueth to dye.

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Now when he came to the place of execution wtout the Citie, neare vnto Spittle boughton, one Vawdrey, being then deputie chamberleine of Chester, shewed Marshe a writyng vnder a great seale, saying, that it was a pardon for him if he would recant. MarginaliaG. Marsh refuseth the Quenes pardon.Wherat Marsh answered, that he would gladly accept the same (and sayd farther, that he loued the Queene) but for asmuch as it tended to plucke him frō God, he would not receiue it vpon that condition.

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After that, hee began to speake to the people shewing the cause of his death, and woulde haue exhorted them to sticke vnto Christ. Whereupon one of the Sheriffes sayd: MarginaliaG. Marsh not suffred to speake to the people.George Marshe, we must haue no sermoning nowe. To whom he sayd, Mayster, I cry you mercy: and so kneeling downe made his prayers, and then put of his clothes vnto his shirt, and then was he chayned vnto the post, hauyng o number of Fagottes vnder him, and a thing made like a firkin, with pitch and tarre in the same ouer his head: & by reason the fire was vnskilfully made, and that the winde dyd dryue the flame to and fro, he suffered great extremitie in his death, whiche notwithstanding he abode very paciently.

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¶ The cruell burning of George Marsh, Martyr. MarginaliaThe Martyrdōe of G. Marsh, at Westchester. Anno. 1555. Aprill. 24.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The martyrdom of George Marsh (Type 1 of the small woodcuts) perhaps earned illustration by virtue of the unusual presence of the firkin containing pitch and tar attached to the stake. It is shown dripping onto the martyr's head as he stood enduring the additional suffering of a poorly made fire that burned uncertainly.

Wherein this in him is to be noted, that when as hee had bene a long time tormented in þe fire without mouing

hauing his fleshe so broyled and puft vp that they whiche stoode before him vnneth could see the chayne wherewith he was fastened, and therfore supposed no lesse but he had bene dead, notwithstanding sodenly he spread abroad hys armes, saying: father of heauen haue mercy vpon me, & so yelded his spirite into the handes of the Lord.

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MarginaliaThe paciēce of G. Marsh the blessed MartyrVpon this, many of þe people sayd that he was a martyr, and died maruelous patiently and godly. Which thing caused the Bishop shortly after to make a Sermon in the Cathedrall Church, and therein affirmed, that the sayde Marshe was an hereticke, burnt like an hereticke, & was a firebrand in hell.

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MarginaliaGods iust reuenging hand vpō a persecuting Bishop.In recompence of this hys good and charitable sermō within short time after, the iust iudgement of God appeared vppon the sayde Byshop: recompensing hym in suche wise, that not long after he turned vp his heeles and dyed.  

Commentary  *  Close

The difference between the account of the death of Bishop Cotes in the 1563 edition and the version in subsequent editions is striking. The account, while similar in its essentials in all four editions - that the bishop died of a venereal disease as divine punishment for executing Marsh - is considerably less graphic and detailed in the later editions of the Acts and Monuments. This is one indication that Foxe, possibly in response to Catholic attacks on his first edition, modified some of his rhetoric in later editions.

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 53, line 13 from the bottom

Bishop Cotes died, according to Godwin, "exeunte anno 1555."

Vpon what cause his death was gendred. I haue not here precisely to pronounce, because the rumour and voyce of þe people is not alwayes to be followed. Notwithstanding such a report went in all mens mouthes, that he was burned of an harlot. Whereupon whether he dyed or no, I am not certayne, neyther dare leane to much vppon publicke speach. Albeit this is certayn, that whē he was afterward searched being dead, by some of hys secret frends & certain Aldermen for stoppyng the rumour of þe people, this maydenly Priest and Byshop was foūd not to be free frō certayne appearaunce, which declared but small virginitie in him, & that the rumour was not raysed vp altogether vpō naught, amongest the people. But of this I will stay, and proceed no further, not because more cā not be said, but because I will not be so vncharitable in defacing these men, as they are cruel in condemning Gods seruants to death. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 54, fn 1

The history is given more in detail in the First Edition; but from many ... there used, one passage only is added. "Whereat one Brassy, being the coroner, and no heretic by the Romish profession, said with an oath, that surely the fact was so; for he, before that thime, had taken the view of a mariner, who died vpon the like disease, and, in every case, had such evident sores and tokens as the bishop had. More, particularly, might be said touching the last tragedy of this bishop, etc. but shamefacedness calleth back." See Edition 1563, p. 1122.

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Letters of George Marshe.

This good mā wrote diuers and sondry letters out of prison besides his examinations, as before ye haue heard. Touching the which hys examinations, this letter first he sendeth to his frendes, the copy wherof here followeth.

¶ A letter of George Marsh to the reader, touching the matter of his examination.  
Commentary  *  Close

This letter first appears in the 1570 edition and it was almost certainly sent to Foxe along with Marsh's account of his examinations by the earl of Derby. In fact, it was probably the cover letter for Marsh's account of his examinations.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Letters of George Marsh

As is usual with the martyrs' letters, scriptural references dominate. There are also glosses which contrast worldly and outer things with godly and inner things ('The glory of the Church standeth not in outward shewes'; 'If worldly men ieopard so much for earthly thinges, how much more ought we to ieopard for euerlasting thinges?' ). There are glosses relating to the binary between truth and falsehood ('True salte discerned from the corrupt and vnsauory salt'; 'True receauers of the word, who they be'). The paradoxical characterisation 'Death is a dore to lyfe' is also highlighted. A section concerned with the proper conditions for godly fasting is quite heavily annotated ('Praying and fasting'; 'True fast what it is'; 'How to fast without hipocrisie'; 'Abuse of fasting among Christians'; 'The Iewish maner of fasting reproued'; 'The Christians in superstitious fasting exceede the Iewes'). Most of the non-scriptural glosses simply note the basic topics under discussion, but there are some examples of Foxe drawing out some of the theological issues implicit in Marsh's letters, as with the soteriological 'Workes of mercy doe not merite with God touching our saluation, any thing' and the glossing of the term 'we' as the 'elect' in 'Straite is the way which the elect must walke in' (there is a reversal of this in 'The Church is euer forewarned before afflictions', in which the 'the Church' is substituted for the 'elect' in the text). Marsh's warning against strange doctrine is taken by Foxe (without direct textual warrant) as a reference to 'Doctrine of good workes'. There are many examples of disagreement between editions among the large number of scriptural references.

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MarginaliaA letter of G. Marsh to the reader.HEre haue ye dearely beloued frendes in Christ, the chiefe & principal Articles of Christian doctrine briefly touched, whiche heretofore I haue both beleeued, professed, and taught, and as yet do beleue, professe, and teach, and am surely purposed by Gods grace, to continue in the same vntill the last day. I do wāt both time and oportunitie to write out at large the probations, causes, partes, effectes, and contraries or erroures of these Articles, which who so desireth to know, let them read ouer the cōmon places of the godly learned men: Philippe Melancthon, and Erasmus Sarcerius, whose iudgement in these matters of Religion I do chiefly follow and leane vnto. The Lorde geue vs vnderstanding in all thinges, and deliuer vs from this present euill world, according to his will and pleasure, and bryng vs agayn out of this hell of affliction, into which it hath pleased the mercifull Lord to throw vs downe: and deliuer vs out of the mouth of the Lyon and from all euill doing, and keepe vs vnto his heauenly and euerlasting kingdome. Amen.

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Though Sathan be suffered, as wheate to sift vs for a tyme, yet fayleth not our fayth through Christes ayde, but that we are at all tymes able and readye to confirme the fayth of our weake brethren, Marginalia1. Pet. 3.and alwayes ready to geue an aunswere to euerye man that asketh vs a reason of the hope that is in vs, and that wyth meekenes and reuerence, hauing a good conscience, that when as they backbyte vs as euill doers, they may be ashamed, for asmuch as they haue falsely accused our good cōuersatiō in christ. I thought my selfe nowe of late yeares, for the cares of this lyfe well setteled with my louing and faithfull wife and children, and also well quieted in the peaceable possession of that pleasaunt Euphrates, I do confesse it: but the Lord who worketh all thyngs for the best to them that loue him, would not there leaue me, but did take my deare and beloued wife from me: whose death was a paynefull crosse to my flesh.

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Also I thought my selfe nowe of late well placed vnder my most louing and most gentle mayster Laurence Saunders in the cure of Langhton. MarginaliaG. Marsh curate to Laurence Saunders But the Lord of his great mercy woulde not suffer me there long to continue (although for the small tyme I was in his vineyard, I was not all an idle workman) But he hath prouided me (I perceiue it) to taste of a farre other cuppe, for by violence hath he yet once agayne driuen me out of that glorious Babilon, that I should not taste to much of her wanton pleasures but wyth his most dearely beloued Disciples to haue my inward reioysing in the Crosse of his sonne Iesus Christe: MarginaliaThe glory of the Church standeth not in outward shewesthe glorye of whose Church I see it well, standeth not in the harmonious soūd of Bells and Organes, nor yet in the glistring of Mitors & Copes neither in the shining of gilte Images and lightes (as the blynde

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Papistes
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