Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
James Bradshaw

Protestant. Of Bolton

Related to Laurence Bradshaw (probably his brother) [Haigh, Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire, pp. 171, 173.]

James Bradshaw sent a letter to George Marsh in prison, declaring his admiration for Marsh's constancy and seeking Marsh's advice. 1570, p. 1745; 1576, pp. 1490-91; 1583, p. 1573.

John Bradford sent him a manuscript copy of his 'Hurt of Hearing Mass' (LM, p. 363).

James Bradshaw was the recipient of letter by John Bradford, who sent greetings primarily to his mother but also to his father and other friends, who included James Bradshaw, Laurence Bradshaw, John Treves, Thomas Sorrocold, and their wives and families. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

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[NB: James Bradshaw was in trouble for heresy in 1554; see Christopher Haigh, Reform and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975), p. 184].

 
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William Flower

(d. 1555)

Monk, priest, schoolteacher and martyr

Foxe recounts William Flower's life and career. 1563, p. 1135 [recte 1134]; 1570, p. 1746; 1576, p. 1491; 1583, pp. 1573-74.

Flower attacked, with a knife, a priest celebrating mass at St Margaret's, Westminster, on Easter Sunday 1555. 1563, p. 1135 [recte 1134]; 1570, p. 1746; 1576, p. 1491; 1583, p. 1574.

He was interrogated by Robert Smith, a fellow prisoner in Newgate, about his actions. 1563, pp. 1135 [recte 1134]-44 [recte 1135]; 1570, pp. 1746-47; 1576, pp. 1491-92; 1583, p. 1574.

On 15 April 1555, the privy council ordered that Flower be interrogated about a sign he wore. They also ordered that Bishop Bonner proceed against him for heresy and the Middlesex JPs proceed against him for shedding blood in a church. On 22 April, the council issued a writ for Flower's execution, together with an order that his hand be cut off first. 1583, p. 1561.

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Flower was interrogated by Bishop Bonner on 19 April 1555; Foxe prints articles presented to him and his answers. 1563, pp. 1135 [recte 1134] and 1144 [recte 1135]-37; 1570, pp. 1746 and 1747-48; 1576, pp. 1491 and 1492-93; 1583, pp. 1574 and 1575-76.

Bonner urged Flower to recant; when Flower refused, his answers to his articles were read back to him. Flower amended the record to express his contrition at having stabbed the priest, but refused to change his denial of transubstantiation. 1563, p. 1137; 1570, p. 1748; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, pp. 1575-76.

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On 20 April 1555, Flower was again brought before Bonner. Depositions of witnesses to Flower's assault were taken. Bonner condemned Flower and degraded him from the priesthood. 1563, pp. 1137-38; 1570, pp. 1748-49; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, pp. 1576-77. [The depositions of the witnesses are printed in 1563 and 1583, but not in 1570 and 1576.]

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Flower was burned at Westminster on 24 April 1555. 1563, pp. 1139 and 1733; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, pp. 1493-94; 1583, pp. 1576-77.

 
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Latham, Lathum [Lathom]
NGR: SD 460 100

A township in the parish of Ormskirk, hundred of West Derby, county palatine of Lancaster. 3.75 miles north-east by east from Ormskirk. The living (of Ormskirk) is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Chester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Snowhill

Not identified.

1597 [1573]

Queene Mary. Godly letters of George Marsh Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. Aprill.Lathum, and the cause of mine imprisonmēt, according as I did promise you:  

Commentary  *  Close

This raises the possibility that Robert Langley sent the copy of Marsh's account of his imprisonment and examinations at the hands of the earl of Derby, as well as this letter, to Foxe.

and this ye shal receiue by my brother or some one of the Bradshawes of Bolton wtin this seuen night, willing you to shew the same to such faithfull mē about Manchester or els where, as you do take to be fauorers of true religion, and Christes holy word, and then to deliuer it againe. And wheras you did put me in comfort, that if I did want any thing necessary vnto thys life, you with some others, would be bearers with me in this my costly and paineful affliction. I geue you most hearty thankes and reioyce greatly in the Lord, who stirreth vp the hearts of others to be carefull for me in this my great necessitie. I thanke God, as yet I doe want nothing, and intende to be as little chargeable vnto others (sauing my mother) as I can. If I do want, I wil be bolde wyth you and others, to send for your reliefe and helpe in my necessitie: desiring you in the meane while to pray for mee, an all others in the bondes of Christ: that God woulde performe the thing which he hath begon in vs, that we maye with boldnesse confesse Iesus Christ, and fighte the good fight of faith.

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Yours George Marsh.

A letter of George Marshe to a certaine godly frende.  
Commentary  *  Close

This letter was first printed in the 1570 edition. It does not appear in the Letters of the Martyrs.

MarginaliaAn other letter of G. Marsh to his frend.GRace be with you, and peace be multiplied in the knowledge of God and Iesus the Lord.

After hearty commendations and thankes to you, not only for your large token, but much more for your louing letters, ful of consolation to me as touching my person to you vnknowen: these shall be to certifie you that I reioyce greatly in the Lorde, when I do perceiue how my sweete sauiour Christ doth stirre vp the mindes, not only of my familiar frends in times past, but also of sondry and diuers heeretofore vnto me vnknowne and vnacquainted, to beare part with me in this my painfull & costly imprisonment, sending me things not onely necessary for thys present life, but also comfortable letters, incouraging & exhorting me to continue grounded and stablished in the faith, and not to be moued away from the hope of the Gospell, wherof, according to my small talent I haue bene a minister: and daily I call and crie vnto the Lord, in whom is al my trust, and wythout whom I can do nothing, that he which hath begon a good worke in me, wold vouchsafe to go forth with it vntill the day of Iesus Christ, being surely certified in my conscience of this, that he will so doe, for as much as he hath geuen me, that not only I shoulde beleeue on him, but also suffer for his sake. The Lord strengthen me with hys holy spirite, that I maye be one of the number of those blessed, which enduring to the ende, shalbe saued.

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And whereas you say that my suffering of persecution wyth Christ, is a thing to you most comfortable, I make answere that in all mine aduersitye and necessitye, nothing on your behalfe is greater consolation vnto me, then to heare of the faith and loue of others, and how they haue good remembance of vs alwayes, euen as the Apostle reporteth by the Thessalonians, saying: Now are ye aliue if ye stande stedfast in the Lorde. For my trust in the Lord is, that this my businesse shall happen to the furtherance of the gospel, and that you will be none of those forgetfull and hypocritish hearers, MarginaliaWayside herers of the worde.whereof some being but wayside hearers, the deuil commeth and taketh away the woord out of their heartes, least they should beleeue and be saued (but lette praier be made without ceasing by the congregation vnto God for them) and (no doubt) God will to your consolation, gloriously deliuer by one meanes or other his oppressed. Onely tary ye the Lords leisure: be strong, let your heart be of good comfort, and waite yee still for the Lorde. He tarieth not, that will come, looke for hym therefore and faint not, and he will neuer faile you.

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Yours George Marsh.

A letter of a godly brother one Iames Bradshaw sent to George Marsh in prisone.  
Commentary  *  Close

This letter was first printed in the 1570 edition. It does not appear in the Letters of the Martyrs.

MarginaliaA letter of Iames Bradshaw to George Marsh.GRace and peace from God the father, and the Lord Iesu Christ be with you alway. Amen.

We had a letter from you, which is a great cōfort vnto vs, to see you take the crosse so thankefully. MarginaliaWhat good affliction worketh in the godly.Trouble & affliction doth prooue, try, instructe, confirme & strengthen the faith, prouoke and stirre vp prayer, driue and force vs to amendement of life, to the feare of God, to mekenes, to patience, to constancie, to gentlenesse, to sobernesse, temperancie, and to all maner of vertues, and are the occasion of exceeding much good, as wel transitorie as eternal, in this world as in the world to come. There is neither good nor bad, godly nor vngodly, but hee hathe one crosse or other. And although some there be that can shift for a while, and make prouision for thēselues for a time, by craft or subtilty and dissumulatiō, or by some fashion in fellowship (as they call it) yet they bring them selues at length into the highest

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danger, confusion and shame, both in this world, & in the world to come. And seing that all the troubles and aduersity in this world, are a thousand times more light & easy, yea nothing in cōparison of the eternal fire, which is prepared and already kindled for the vnfaithfull and wicked enemies of God: all faithfull and godly persons ought to beare and suffer their transitorye affliction and aduersitie the more patiently, willingly, and thankfully: considering and remembring all the dearely beloued frendes of God, which were wonderfully vexed & plaged of their enemies MarginaliaExamples of holy men suffering affliction.Abraham of the Caldeis, Lot, of the Sodomites, Isaac, of Ismael, Iacob of Esau, Moses of his people, Dauid of Saule and of his owne sonnes.  

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These examples are drawn from Genesis 16, 17, 19 and 27 as well as Exodus 15:24 and 17: 3 and 1 Samuel 18-27.

As for Iob, he had not a drop of bloud in hys body.  
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This affliction is not mentioned in the Bible.

Iohn Baptist the holyest that euer was borne of a woman, was without any law, right or reason, beheaded in prison, as thoughe God had knowen nothing at all of hym.  
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Matthew 14: 5-10 and Mark 6: 21-8.

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We haue many thousand fellow martyrs and companions of our miserie and aduersitie, in respecte of whose imprisonment, racking, chaines, fire, wilde beastes, and other meanes, wherwith they were tormented, al that we suffer is but a blast of winde. Therefore nowe who soeuer is ashamed of the crosse of Christ, and agreued therewith, the same is ashamed to haue Christ for his fellow & companion, and therefore shal the Lord Iesus Christ be ashamed of him againe at the latter day.

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Thus I leaue for this time, beseeching you to lette me haue your aduise, because I do not outwardly speake that with my tong, that I do thinke wt my heart. Pray for me, as I for you. I beseeche the holy Ghost haue you in hys keeping alway. Amen.

By your frend Iames Bradshaw.

A prayer of George Marsh, which he vsed daily to say.

MarginaliaA prayer of G. Marsh Martyr.OH Lord Iesu Christ, which art the onely phisition of woūded consciences, wee miserable sinners trusting in thy gratious goodnes, doe briefly open to thee the euil tree of our heart, with all the rootes, boughes, leaues and fruits, & withal the crookes, knots and knoures,  

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., a knot or tangle (OED).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 68, fn 1

This word appears to be synonymous with "knot:" from "knorr," (Teutonic) meaning knur, knoure, or knurl, a knot in timber. - ED.

all which thou knowest: for thou throughly perceiuest as well the inwarde lustes, doubtings, and denying thy prouidēce, as these grosse outward sinnes which we commit inwardly and deadly. Wherfore we beseeche thee, according to the litle measure of our infirmitie, althoughe we be farre vnable and vnapt to pray, that thou wouldest mercifully circumcise our stonie hearts, and for these old hearts, create new within vs, and replenish vs with a new spirite, and water vs and moysten vs wyth the iuyce of heauenly grace, and welles of spiritual waters, wher by the inwarde venome and noysome  
Commentary  *  Close

Poisonous.

iuyce of the flesh may be dried vp, and custome of the olde man changed, and our heart alwaies bringing forth thornes and briers to be burned with fire, from hencefoorth may beare spiritual fruites in righteousnes & holinesse, vnto life euerlasting. Amen.

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Beloued, amonge other exercises, I doe daily on my knees vse this confession of sinnes, willing and exhorting you to do the same, & daily to acknowledge vnfainedly to God your vnbelief, vnthākfulnes, & disobedience against him. This shal ye do if ye wil diligently consider and loke your selues first in the pure glasse of Gods commaundements, and there see our outward filthines and vncleannes, and so learne to vanquish the same, that is to wit, to fall in hearty displeasure against sinne, & therby be prouoked to long after Christ. For we truely are sinners: but he is iust, and the iustifier of all them that beleue on him. We are poore, but he is rich in mercy towarde all them that cal vpon him. If we hunger and thirst for righteousnesse, let vs resort vnto his table, Marginalia1. Cor. 10. Math. 20.for he is a most liberall feast maker. He wil set before vs his owne holy body, which was geuē for vs to be our meat, and hys precious bloud which was shed for vs, and for many for the remission of sinnes, to be our drinke. He biddeth, willeth, & calleth for geasts, which hunger and thirst. Come (sayeth he) all ye that labour and are laden, and I will refresh you, coole and ease you, and you shall finde rest vnto your soules. MarginaliaMath. 11.

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The life and historie of W. Flower, who for striking of a priest, was apprehended, first hauing hys hande cut off, and after martyred for his constant standing to the truth.  
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdom of William Flower

There is only a brief note on Flower in the Rerum (p. 431). This note merely states that William Flower, alias Branch, struck a priest at Westminster while he was celebrating mass. A month later on 24 April 1555, Flower had his hand cut and was then burned at the stake.

In the 1563 edition, Foxe had all of the materials on Flower's martyrdom which he would ever print. Most of this material came from Bishop Bonner's official records, but Foxe also printed an account of an interview the Marian martyr Robert Smith had with Flower. And in the appendix to the 1563 edition, Foxe printed an account of Flower's execution and a final prayer which he undoubtedlyobtained from an eyewitness while the first edition was being printed. Apart from moving the description of Flower's execution from the appendix into the main narrative of his martyrdom, Foxe made no substantial changes to his account of Flower in his second edition nor in any subsequent editions.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
William Flower

Flower's mind does not seem to have been entirely balanced, and Foxe's notes seek to steer the reader away from this conclusion to the belief that he was a genuine, if somewhat confused martyr (with a penchant for physically attacking priests). Thus, the gloss which describes him leaving his monastic house says he 'turned his religion', but as the next gloss records that he went on to be a mass priest, one must doubt the assertion; the gloss plants the suggestion that Flower underwent a conversion to the truth when no solid evidence exists for when that occurred: the gloss supplies a generic necessity in a case where empirical proof is lacking. Several of the glosses show that Foxe was keen to play down the violent aspects of the story: Flower's regret at the violence is highlighted and distinguished from regret about his religious principles ('W. Flower repenteth his acte in striking'; 'W. Flower constant in his fayth'), while another gloss asks the reader to bear in mind that Flower later revised his opinion about the violence (with the implication that his regret increased) ('Note that the sayd W. Flower afterward in his next appearaunce, corrected & reformed this aunswere'). Foxe's difficulties with Flower can perhaps be seen most clearly at the gloss 'Extraordinary zeales are no generall rules to be followed': the text it is next to is Flower's slightly confused assertion that God sometimes acts through individuals (which would seem to be a justification for his violent actions) followed by the assertion that he had been willing to suffer before striking the priest; Foxe's gloss notes that extraordinary zeals should not be followed as general rules, which would seem to be a warning to his readers not to do likewise. As such, this gloss marks the limits of the imitation of the martyrs which Foxe makes so much of elsewhere. Indeed, it would seem that Flower's status as a martyr is all that stops the reader seeing him as an unbalanced ruffian with an iconoclastic bent. As often happens, Foxe greets a popish text with some adversarial glosses ('In the latter dayes certayne shall depart frō the fayth, forbidding mariage and eating of meates'; '1. Tim. 4'). Despite his somewhat unconventional route to the stake, the marginal glosses accord Flower the usual honour of emphasising his constancy ('W. Flower refuseth to reuoke his fayth and doctrine'; 'W. Flower standeth to his doctrine'; 'W. Flowers constancie'; 'Cōstancy' [1563]).

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MarginaliaW. Flower Martyr.WIlliam Flower, otherwise named Branch, first cōcerning his trade of life & bringing vp, he was born at Snowhil in the County of Cambridge, where he went to schoole certaine yeares, and then came to the Abbey of Ely: where after hee hadde remained a while, hee was a professed Monke, according to the order and rule of the

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