Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Francis Englefield

(1521/22 - 1596)

Catholic exile. High sheriff of Berkshire and Oxfordshire at the death of Henry VIII. Privy councillor, Master of the Rolls and Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries under Mary [DNB; Bindoff, Commons]

Englefield was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Sir Francis Englefield was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Learning of the madness of John Bolton, Sir Francis ordered him released from Reading goal (1563, pp. 1017-18). [NB: Englefield was also the keeper of Reading goal; see Bindoff, Commons.]

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Englefield and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1467; 1583, p. 1559.

On 29 May 1555, the privy council ordered that Englefield apprehend John Dee and that he search the papers of Dee and Thomas Benger. 1583, pp. 1577-78.

On 5 June 1555, the privy council ordered Englefield to examine Cary, Dee, John Field and Sir Thomas Benger about their having practiced conjuring and witchcraft. 1583, p. 1581.

[Went into exile under Elizabeth and retired to Valladolid. (DNB)]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Cardmaker

(d. 1555)

Franciscan friar. Vicar of St Bride's, London. Chancellor of Wells. Martyr. [DNB]

In 1554 Cardmaker attempted to flee England with his bishop, William Barlow, but both were arrested and imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before the Star Chamber and then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

He was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 28 January 1555. Cardmaker submitted to Gardiner (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Barlow and Cardmaker appeared to be ready to recant. Cardmaker was imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street where he had a 'Christian and comfortable conference' with Laurence Saunders who had been sent there after being condemned by Gardiner; Saunders persuaded Cardmaker not to recant. Thomas Martin and other catholics urged Cardmaker to recant. 1570, p. 1047; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500; also see 1563, pp. 1141-42; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, pp. 1494-95; 1583, p. 1578.

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Articles presented to Cardmaker by Bishop Bonner on 24 May 1555 and Cardmaker's answers are recorded. 1563, pp. 1142-43; 1570, pp. 1750-51; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, pp. 1578-79.

Foxe records Cardmaker's confession of faith 1563, pp. 1143-1135 [recte 1145].

Beard visited Cardmaker in Newgate a few days before Cardmaker's execution and tried to persuade him to recant; Cardmaker refused. 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker wrote a letter to a friend, denying that he had recanted. 1570, pp. 1753-54; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker was executed on 30 May 1555. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1751-52; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, pp. 1579-80.

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Cardmaker sent greetings to John Bradford via the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a 'scholer' of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Copy of his submission. [BL Harley 421, fo.39v. Not printed in AM or LM. Gingerly described in 1563, p. 1141 et seq.]

[Alias Taylor.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Dee

(1527 - 1608)

Mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. [DNB]

Dee is described by Foxe as a 'great coniurer' to whom Philpot was sent, shortly before Philpot's martyrdom. 1563, p. 1445, 1570, p. 1999. This is removed from the 1576 and 1583 editions.

On 29 May 1555, the privy council ordered Sir Francis Englefield to apprehend John Dee and to search for books and papers concerning him. 1583, pp. 1577-78.

On 5 June 1555 the privy council ordered that Cary, John Dee, John Field and Benger should be examined about their confessions concerning the practice of conjuring. 1583, p. 1581.

On 7 June the privy council ordered that Cary, Dee, Field and Benger be examined again about conjuring and witchcraft. 1583, p. 1581.

On 29 August 1555, Dee and Cary were released on bond. 1583, p. 1581.

Robert Smith was examined by John Dee, Harpsfield and Bonner on eucharistic doctrine. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith was again examined before Bonner, Mordant and Dee. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner; Rochester, chancellor of Lichfield; Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

In Philpot's seventh examination, John Dee is referred to as Master Dee in 1563 and 1570 and then as Doctor Dee in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

In Philpot's eleventh examination, John Dee is referred to as a 'great conjurer' in 1563 and 1570. The reference is removed in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference is made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

In a letter that was never delivered, Green told Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. Dr Dale, Master George Mordant and Master Dee [not listed here as Dr] were also there. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

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Bartlett Green met with John Dee, who was very friendly to him. 1563, p. 1462, 1570, p. 2024, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1853.

[Foxe refers to Dee as 'D.' in the 1576 and 1583 editions. This is discussed in Julian Roberts, 'Bibliographical Aspects of John Foxe' in David Loades (ed.), John Foxe and the English Reformation (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 36-37 and 49].

[Also referred to as 'John D']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Warren

Upholsterer. Martyr. Husband of Elizabeth Warne and stepfather to Joan Lashford/Warren.

Dr Martin gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Scory. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

John Warren was burned at the end of May 1555. 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Laurence Saunders

(d. 1555) [DNB]

Martyr.

Saunders' life and career are described. 1563; pp. 1037-38; 1570, pp. 1664-65; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, pp. 1493-94.

Laurence Saunders preached in Northampton, soon after Mary's accession, denouncing 'Antichrist's errors'. He was arrested and released. He came to London, despite warnings to the contrary. 1563, pp. 1038-39; 1570, p. 1665; 1576, pp. 1420-21; 1583, p. 1494.

On 15 October 1553, Saunders preached at Allhallows, Bread Street, denouncing the mass as an abomination. On the same day he was summoned by Bonner, interrogated, and committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466; also 1563, p. 1039; 1570, p.1665; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, pp. 1494-95.

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He was interrogated by Gardiner and imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583; p. 1495.

It was rumoured in May 1554 that he, along with Bradford and John Rogers, would participate in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Saunders was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Saunders was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters and examinations: 1563, pp. 1040-47; 1570, pp. 1666-70; 1576, pp. 1421-25; 1583, pp. 1495-98.

Saunders was excommunicated at 6am on 23 January 1555. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Saunders was examined and condemned by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555. 1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

He was degraded, conveyed to Coventry and executed there. 1563, pp. 1047-48; 1570, pp. 1665-66; 1576, p. 1421; 1583, p. 1495.

Saunders is contrasted with Henry Pendleton. 1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1671; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, pp. 1499-1500.

Additional letters: 1570, pp. 1671-74; 1576, pp. 1426-29; 1583, pp. 1500-2.

Lawrence Saunders was imprisoned in the Marshalsea at the same time as Bradford was imprisoned [in the King's Bench] and often met with Bradford at the back of the prison. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

His martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

He received a letter from Bradford. 1563, p. 1194, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, pp. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

He received another letter from Bradford. 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Saunders was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote the letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Letter to evangelicals in Lichfield [BL, Harley 416, fos.13v-16r. Printed in LM, pp. 182-88.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Thomas Benger

(d. 1572)

JP, MP (1559). Auditor of Princess Elizabeth's household (1552 - 1558). Master of the Revels, (1560 - 1572) [Bindoff, Commons]

On 29 May 1555, the privy council ordered Sir Frances Englefield to search for papers concerning John Dee or Benger. 1583, pp. 1577-78.

On 5 June 1555 the privy council ordered that Cary, John Dee, John Field and Benger should be examined about their confessions concerning the practice of conjuring. 1583, p. 1581.

On 7 June the privy council ordered that Benger, Cary, Dee and Field be examined again about conjuring and witchcraft. 1583, p. 1581.

[NB: Benger was arrested for having asked John Dee to calculate the horoscopes of Philip, Mary and Elizabeth. He was released by the end of May 1555. His will reveals protestant sentiments, expressing his hope that he was one of the elect and denying the efficacy of good works (Bindoff, Commons)].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Martin

(d. 1597?)

Of Winterbourne St Martin, Dorset; Steeple Morden, Cambridge and London. DCL (1555), LLD (1587). MP Saltash (1553), Hindon (1554 and 1555), Ludgershall (1558). Chancellor to Stephen Gardiner by 1554. Commr. Visit Oxford University (1555), collect surveys and acct. religious houses (1556), heresy (1557), heretical books (1557). [Bindoff]

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Thomas Martin was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Thomas Martin searched John Hooper's room in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, pp. 1679-80; 1576, p. 1433; 1583, p. 1507.

George Tankerfield was sent into Newgate by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martin and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

A talk took place between Cranmer and Martyn while Cranmer was in prison. 1576, pp. 1770-71, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

John Careless' first examination was before Dr Martin, marshall of the King's Bench [Sir William Fitzwilliam - DNB + Hasler / Bindoff], Dr Martin's scribe and an unspecified priest in the lord chancellor's house. 1563, pp. 1529-35, 1570, pp. 2101-02, 1576, pp. 1813-14, 1583, pp. 1919-20.

Elizabeth Young's second examination was before Dr Martin. 1570, p. 2269, 1576, p. 1959, 1583, p. 2066.

Her third examination took place before Martin. 1570, pp. 2269-70, 1576, p. 1959, 1583, p. 2066.

Her fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

When Alexander Wimshurst arrived at St Paul's, he saw Chedsey, his old acquaintance at Oxford, and said to him that he would rather be examined by Martin than by anyone else. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Robert Horneby was delivered from condemnation by Dr Martin. 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1975, 1583, p. 2082.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Barlow

(d. 1568)

Bishop of St Asaph (1536). Bishop of St David's (1536 - 1548). Bishop of Bath and Wells (1548 -1553). Bishop of Chichester (1559 - 1568) [DNB]

Robert Ferrar maintained that Barlow had leased Ramsey Island to William Brown. 1563, p. 1091; 1583, p. 1548.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before Star Chamber, then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

Barlow was apprehended with Cardmaker and imprisoned at the beginning of Mary's reign. Examined by Stephen Gardiner in January 1555, he appeared to be ready to recant. Barlow was 'delivered' from the Fleet and went into exile. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

[NB: Although Foxe cleverly words his account to avoid acknowledging this, Barlow was released from prison after recanting. He then fled into exile (DNB)].

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Katherine Brandon and her husband devised with Barlow, former bishop of Chichester, to travel with him to the Continent to avoid persecution under Mary. 1570, p. 2286, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Foxe refers to his installation as bishop of Chichester after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Wells
NGR: ST 544 454

A city, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Wells Forum, county of Somerset. 19 miles south-west from Bath, 19 miles south from Bristol. The city comprises only the in-parish of St Cuthbert, which surrounds the cathedral precinct, and the out-parish of St Cuthbert. The living is a vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, who have ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the liberty of St Andrew. The in-parish is subject to the Bishop and the out-parish to the Dean. The city is the seat of the bishopric.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1602 [1578]

Queene Mary. The trouble and examination of Cardmaker. Articles obiected against him, with his answers.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. May. field to make search for one Iohn D.  

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 77, line 30

The Council Book says, "oon John Dye dwelling in London." Dee is again mentioned by Foxe June 5th: but the Council Book has the following intermediate notice of Dee and his companions, under date of June 1st:

"A lettre to the Mr. of the Rolles to receive into his custody oon Christopher Cary, and to kepe him in his howse without conference with any personne saving such as he speciallie trusteth, until Mr. Secretary Bourne and Mr. Englefelde shall repair thither for his further examination.

"A lik lettre to the Chief Justice of the Common Place with oon John dee.

"A lik lettre to the Bishop of London with on John Felde.

"A Lettre to the Warden of the Flete to receive Sir Thomas Benger, and to keep him in safe Warde without having conference with any. Robert Hutton is appointed, being his servaunte, tattende upon hym, and to be shut up with him."

This Dee was the famous John Dee, otherwise Dr. Dee: there is a full account of him in the "Biographia Britannica," and Cooper's "Athenæ Cantabrigienses." He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, but became fellow of Trinity College. He became M.A. in 1548, and went that summer to Louvain, where he was made LL.D.; he returned home in 1551. He was an eminent mathematician, astrologer, and magician. Having been discovered at the beginning of Mary's reign to be on friendly terms with some of the Princess Elizabeth's confidential servants, he was accused to the Council of plotting by magic against Queen Mary's life; and was accordingly thrown into Newgate and tried, but acquitted of this charge, and released August 29th, 1555. He was bedfellow to Bartlet Green, and having been observed to shew sympathy for him when carried away to his execution, was put under the surveillance of Bonner on a suspicion of heresy: hence he appears subsequently in the examinations of Philpot, where it was the object of his enemies to test his soundness in the Romish faith, and his allegiance to the papal church: he is called ... "the great conjurer." He was born in 1527, and died in 1608. It is observable that after the Latin Edition of 1559, and the English of 1563, Foxe has (for whatever reason) disguised the name of Dr. Dee, in every instance.

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at Londō, and to apprehend him and send him to the Counsaile, and to make search for such papers & bookes as may thinke may touch the same D. or one Benger.

The burning and Martyrdome of Iohn Cardmaker & Iohn Warne Vpholster, which suffered both together in Smithfield. An. 1555. May. 30.  
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Cardmaker and Warne

The executions of Cardmaker and Warne mark a point at which the Marian persecution began to go wrong in two ways. In the case of Cardmaker, the effort to secure a recantation from a prominent evangelical was initially succesful, only to backfire and produce a martyr instead. In the case of Warne, the persecution was beginning to turn away from prominent clerics to ordinary layfolk, although admittedly in Warne's case, layfolk with long-standing heretical views which were outspokenly expressed. Foxe does not say exactly what brought Warne to the attention of the authorities in Mary's reign, although the articles brought against Warne suggest he publicly derided the Marian religious reforms.

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In the Rerum, Foxe printed an account of Cardmaker's arrest with William Barlow, of Barlow's refusing to recant, thanks to the persausive influence of Laurence Saunders, Cardmaker's debates in prison with Thomas Martin and of Cardmaker's execution along with John Warne, a citizen of London (Rerum, pp. 442-43). This material was reprinted, with only minor changes, in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. It was derived from a narrative account of these events which was probably sent from a protestant in London to a co-religionist in exile and which was obtained by Grindal or one of his associates. This narrative - or more accurately, a copy of it - survives among Foxe's papers as BL, Harley 425, fol. 68r-v. There was also a passage in the Rerum (p. 443), stating that Warne had made a confession of faith which commented on the Apostle's Creed. Foxe probably had the document at this time, but he did not print it.

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the articles put to Cardmaker and Warne, along with their answers as well as an account of Bishop Bonner's examination of Warne. All of these were obtained from Bonner's records. Foxe also printed the confession of faith to which he had alluded in the Rerum.

In the second edition, Foxe added details of Cardmaker's background - that the martyr had been an Observant Franciscan and that he was a reader in St Paul's - undoubtedly obtained from oral sources. This may well have included the unnamed friend to whom Cardmaker sent a letter, which was printed for the first time in 1570. Foxe also added a note relating a final attempt, by Thomas Beard, to secure a recantation from Cardmaker. Cardmaker probably sent this account to a friend, possibly the same one to whom he had sent the letter.

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There were no changes made to the narrative of Cardmaker and Warne in the third or fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

 

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Cardmaker and Warne

Most of the glosses in this section are the usual narrative pointers. There are glosses mocking the articles alleged against the martyrs ('The beliefe of the Popes Catholicke church'; 'To speake naturally of the naturall body of Christ, these two canot stād together at one tyme, vnles we graunt Christ to haue 2. bodyes'; 'That Christ neuer willed, neyther can the Scriptures beare it'; 'Heresye for laughing at a Spaniell shorne on the head'). A gloss which records that Warne was pardoned under Henry VIII makes the useful (implicit) point that the religious policy of his daughter was even more conservative. As ever, constancy is the signature of the martyrs as portrayed in the glosses ('Iohn Warne constant agaynst the Bishops persuasions'; 'Iohn Cardmaker standeth constantly to the fier'; 'The reioycing of the people at Cardmakers constancye'), and there is also a gloss recording the (as it emerged, groundless) fears of the people about Cardmaker's constancy ('The people afrayd at Cardmakers recanting').

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MarginaliaIohn Cardmaker and Iohn Warne Martyrs.VPon the 30. day of May suffred together in Smithfield Iohn Cardmaker, otherwise called Tailour, Prebendarie of the church of Wels: & Ioh. Warne Vpholster, of the parish of S. Iohn in Walbrooke. Of whome it remaineth now particularly to entreat, beginning first with M. Cardmaker, who first was an obseruant Frier  
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I.e., Cardmaker was an Observant friar. These were members of the Franciscan order who claimed to be observing the original, and more rigorous, rules laid down by St Francis of Assisi, the order's founder.

before the dissolution of the Abbeys: then after was a maried Minister, and in king Edwards time appointed to be MarginaliaMaister Cardmaker reader in Paules.Reader in Paules, where the Papistes were so much agrieued with hym for his doctrines sake, that in his reading they cut and mangled his gowne with their kniues. MarginaliaCardmaker with M. Barlow apprehended, and layd in the Fleete.This Cardmaker being apprehended in the beginnyng of Queene Maries raigne, with M. Barlowe Bishop of Bathe, was brought to London:  
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In August 1553, Cardmaker, together with William Barlow, the bishop of Bath and Wells, were apprehended while trying to flee England disguised as merchants (Machyn, p. 75 and APC IV, p. 321).

and layde in prison in the Fleete, king Edwards lawes yet beyng in force.  
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What Foxe means is that Cardmaker and Barlow were not charged with heresy because there was no law then in force against it. They were arrested for trying to leave the realm without royal permission.

But after the Parliament was ended, in which the Pope was againe admitted as supreme hed of the church, and the Byshops had also gotten power and authoritie, Ex officio,  
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There were technical meanings to the phrase 'ex officio' but here Foxe means it literally: the bishops now had offcial authority to proceed against Cardmaker and Barlow for heresy.

to exercise their tyranny: these two were both brought before Winchester Chauncellour, and others appointed by Commission (as before is mentioned) to examine the fayth of such as were then prisoners, and as vnto others before, so now vnto them, the Chancellor offred the Queenes mercy, if they would agree and be conformable, &c.

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MarginaliaBarlow and Cardmaker acceptable to Winchester as Catholickes.To this they both made such an answer,  

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Although Foxe had an official account of their examination (BL, Harley 421, fol. 39v), he is following the narrative he printed in the Rerum.

as the Chancellor with his fellow Commissioners allowed them for catholike. Whether they of weakenes so answered, or he of subtletie would so vnderstand their answer, that he might haue some forged example of a shrinking brother, to lay in the dish of the rest, which were to be examined, it may easily be perceiued by this, that to all them which followed in examination, he obiected the example of Barlow & Cardmaker, commending their sobernes, discretion & lerning. But whatsoeuer their answer was, yet notwithstandyng Barlow was led againe to the Fleete, from whence he afterward beyng deliuered, MarginaliaM. Barlow exiled for the truth.did by exile constantly beare witnes to the truth of Christes gospell.  
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Foxe's account of what happened during the examination of Barlow and Cardmaker is tendentious. Barlow and Cardmaker did agree to recant (BL, Harley 421, fol. 39v; cf. Machyn, p. 75; Wriothesley II, p. 126 and OL, I, p. 171). Barlow recanted and was released from prison; he then fled into exile (Garrett). Cardmaker refused to recant as promised and was ultimately executed.

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Cardmaker was conueyed to the Counter in Breadstreete, the B. of London procuring it to be published, that he should shortly be deliuered, after that he had subscribed to Transubstantiation and certaine other articles.

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To the same prison where Cardmaker was, Laurēce Sanders was brought (after the sentence of excommunication and condemnation was pronounced agaynst hym) MarginaliaConference betweene Laurence Saunders & Iohn Cardmaker.where these two prisoners had such christian conference, that whatsoeuer the breath of the bishops blustred, & the tickle eares of the people too lightly beleued,  

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Foxe is rather skillfully obscuring the fact that Cardmaker had promised to recant.

in þe end they both shewed themselues constant confessors and worthy martyrs of Christ: as of Laurence Sanders it is already written. After whose departure Cardmaker remayned there prisoner, to be baited of the Papistes, which would needes seeme to haue a certayne hope that Cardmaker was become theirs.  
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Foxe is rather skillfully obscuring the fact that Cardmaker had promised to recant.

Continuall and great conference diuers of them had with hym, with reasonyngs, perswadyngs, threatnyngs, and all to none effect. To the end that their doyngs might appeare, hee required them to put their reasons in writyng, and promised by writyng to answer them.

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MarginaliaD. Martyn wryteth against Cardmaker.Doctor Martin who bare also a part in those pageants, tooke vppon hym to be the chiefe doer by writyng, whose long vnsauery letters and simple reasons for Trāsubstantiation, and such papisticall trash, this Cardmaker answered largely, learnedly, & substantially, confuting the same, openyng the falsehood of his arguments, and deliueryng the sentences of the Fathers (which Martin abused for his purpose) to their true vnderstanding: which his answers I would had come to our hands. Thus constantly aboade this man of God all the enemies doyngs, as he did also the death which he suffred in Smithfield in London. Wherof ye shall heare more anone, but first we will suruey the matter and maner of his articles obiected against him by B. Boner, with his answers annexed to the same, as consequently here vnder followeth.

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¶ Articles obiected by Boner against Iohn Taylor, aliâs Cardmaker, with hys aunswers vnto the same.  
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The articles put to Cardmaker, and his answers to them, came from records of Bishop Bonner, probably a separate act book, now lost.

MarginaliaMay. 24. Articles ministred agaynst Iohn Cardmaker, by the B. of London.FIrst, I Edmund B. of London, obiect against thee Sir Iohn Taylor aliâs Cardmaker, that thou wast and art of the citie and Dioces of London, and so of the iurisdiction of me Edmund B. of London.

MarginaliaIohn Cardmaker first an obseruant Fryer.Item, that thou in tymes past diddest professe the rule of S. Fraunces, and diddest by vow promise to keepe pouertie, chastitie, and obedience, according to the rule of S. Frances.

Item, that thou in tymes past didst receyue all the orders of the church then vsed, to wit, tam maiores, quam minores.

MarginaliaIohn Cardmaker maryed.Item, that thou after thy said entrie into religion and profession and orders aforesaid, didst take to wife a widow and with her hadst carnal copulation, and didst get of her a woman child, breaking therby thy vow and order, & also the ordinance of the church.

MarginaliaThe beliefe of the Popes Catholicke church.Item, that thou hast beleued and taught, and so doest beleue that in the sacrament of the aultar vnder the visible signes there: that is to say, vnder the formes of bread and wyne, there is really and truly the true and very naturall body and bloud of our sauiour Iesus Christ.

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MarginaliaTo speake naturally of the naturall body of Christ, these two canot stād together at one tyme, vnles we graunt Christ to haue 2. bodyes.Item, that the beliefe of the catholike church is, that in hauing the body and bloud of Christ really and truly conteined in the sacrament of the altar, is to haue (by the omnipotent power of almighty God) the body and bloud of Christ there inuisibly and really present vnder the said sacrament, and not to make thereby a new God, or a newe Christ, or a new body of Christ.

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Item, that it may stand wel together, & so is the fayth of the Catholike church: that the body of Christ is visibly and truely ascended into heauen, and there is in the visible forme of his humanitie: and yet the same body in substāce is inuisibly and truely conteyned in the sayde Sacrament of the aulter.

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Item, that Christ at his last supper takyng bread into his hands, blessing it, breakyng it, geuyng it to his apostles, and saying: Take, eate, this is my body, did institute a Sacrament there, * Marginalia* That Christ neuer willed, neyther can the Scriptures beare it.willyng that his body really and truly should be conteyned in the sayd sacrament, no substance of bread and wyne there remainyng, but onely the accidents therof.

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¶ Aunswers of Cardmaker, to the articles aforesayd.  
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The articles put to Cardmaker, and his answers to them, came from records of Bishop Bonner, probably a separate act book, now lost.

MarginaliaIohn Cardmaker aunswereth to the articles.TO the first article he answereth, and confesseth the same to be true in euery part therof.

To the 2. article he aunswereth and confesseth, that he beyng vnder age, did professe the said order and religion, & afterward by the autoritie of K. Henry the 8. he was dispensed with for the same religion.  

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Cardmaker was pointing out, accurately, that when the monastaries were dissolved under Henry VIII, his oath binding him as a Franciscan, was - under English law - voided. He was also claiming that he was entered into the order underage; this would not make the oath non-binding per se, but it provides a moral justification for his subsequent marriage, in violation of his oath.

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To the 3. he aunswereth, and confesseth the same to bee true in euery part thereof.

To the 4. he aunswereth, and confesseth the first part therof to be true: and to the second part of the same article he answereth and saith, that in mariage he brake no vow, because he was set at liberty to mary, both by the lawes of this realme, and also by the lawes and ordinaunces of the Church of the same.

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To the 5. he answereth & confesseth, that he hath beleeued & taught, as it is conteined in this article but he doth not now so beleue nor teach.

To the 6. he answereth, that he doth not beleue þe same to be true in any part therof.

To the 7. he aunswereth, that he doth not beleeue the same to be true in any part thereof.

MarginaliaThe first parte of this article is true: the second is false.To the 8. he answereth and doth beleeue, videlicet, that it is true: that is to say, that Christ takyng breade at hys last supper into hys handes, blessyng it, breakyng it, geuyng it to his disciples, and saying: Take, eate, this is my body, did institute a sacrament there. And to the other part of this article, videlicet, (willyng that his bodye really and truely should be conteyned in the sayd sacrament, no substance of bread and wyne there remayning, but onely the accidents thereof) he answereth, that he doth not beleeue the same to be true.

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By me Iohn Cardmaker.

M. Cardmaker calling to mynd afterwards the redy cauillings of the papists, and thinking himself not to haue fully and according to his true meaning answered the latter part of the last eight article, did the next day after the foresaid answers, exhibite vnto the Bish. in a schedule this hereafter followyng.

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