Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Ardeley

(1525? - 1555)

Husbandman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Accused of heresy and, together with John Simson, Ardeley was brought to London to be tried by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1169; 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1582.

Articles objected against John Ardeley on 22 May 1555 and his answers to them are recorded. 1563, pp. 1169 and 1170-71; 1570, pp. 1754-55; 1576, pp. 1498-99; 1583, pp. 1582-83.

Ardeley was urged by Bonner to recant, defiantly refused and was condemned on 25 May. 1563, p. 1171; 1570, pp. 1754 and 1755; 1576, p. 1499; 1583, pp. 1582 and 1583.

Ardeley protested that he would give up all that he owned to live in peace under Mary without having to commit idolatry. 1563, p. 1733; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1583.

Ardeley was executed in Rayleigh, Essex, around 10 June 1555 (1563, p. 1172; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1583).

Ardeley sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Simson

(c. 1521 - 1555)

Husbandman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

John Simson was accused of heresy and, together with John Ardeley, was brought to London to be tried by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1169; 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1582.

Simson sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Wigborow, Wigborow the Great [Great Wigborough]
NGR: TL 968 156

A parish in the hundred of Winstree, county of Essex. 6.5 miles south-south-west from Colchester. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1606 [1582]

Queene Mary. Q Maryes letter to Boner. Iohn Symsom, Iohn Ardeley Martyrs.
¶ The story of Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson of the Parish of Wigborow the great, in Essex.  
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Ardley and Simpson

There is some evidence that John Simpson was a more important figure among the Marian protestants then even Foxe realized. He had been one of the organizers of the Bocking conventicle, a major meeting of evangelicals from Kent, Essex and Suffolk during Edward VI's reign (see Freeman [2002], pp. 130-31). There are also a number of manuscript copies of a letter which Simpson wrote to followers in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Kent (BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 144v-145v and 243r-v as well as ECL 260, fos. 47r-48v, 55r-v and 252v-253v). Interestingly, two other martyrs, John Denley and John Newman, were apprehended journeying from Kent to visit Simpson and Ardley in Essex.

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In the Rerum, however, Foxe confused John Simpson with another Marian martyr, Cuthbert Simpson (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum also states that Simpson and Ardley were both burned on 11 June 1555 (the correct date is 10 June 1555) at Rochford and Rayleigh respectively (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum (p. 462) also contains a story of a false rumour of a riot causing a panic at the condemnation of Ardley and Simpson which would be reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments.

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Foxe added a great deal of material in his 1563 edition; in fact, all of the information Foxe printed on Ardley and Simpson appears in his first edition. In 1563, Foxe added the letter from Philip and Mary to Bonner, which was copied from Bonner's register. He also added the articles charged against the two martyrs, their answers and an account of their condemnation, all taken from a now lost official record. probably a court book. And in the appendix of the 1563 edition, Foxe added a short account of the defiance of Ardley and Simpson at their condemnation. This came from an eyewitness while the first edition was being printed.

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In the second edition, Foxe did not add any material but he rearranged it. First he placed the overall narrative of Ardley and Simpson in its proper chronological place. Then Foxe conflated the articles and answers of the two martyrs, and he moved the story of the defiance of the two martyrs at their condemnation from the appendix. This version of the account of Ardley and Simpson was printed unchanged in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson

The usual narrative pointers are given in the glosses in this section, along with glosses giving summaries of the contents of articles alleged against the martyrs and their answers. As it often does, 1563 uses numbers in the margin to mark out the articles and the answers to them; this is in line with its generally (though not universally) less ambitious attitude to annotation in comparison with later editions. Two notes continue Foxe's campaign to portray Bonner as the slave to his passions: 'Q. Mary stirreth Boner to shedde innocent bloud' and 'A note of the sodaine fear of Boner'. The first of these is an interestingly unreserved comment on the role of the Queen in the persecutions: she is portrayed as the principal agent in the stirring up of Bonner, even though the letter was also from her husband.

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MarginaliaAnno 1555. May. MarginaliaThe story of Iohn Simson, & Iohn Ardeley Martyrs.WIth Mayster Cardmaker and Iohn Warne, vpon the same day, & in the same company, & for the same cause was also cōdemned Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, which was the 25. day of Maye. But before we come to the story of them, first here is to be noted the copy of the King and Queenes letter, directed frō the court the same day, and sent by a Poste early in the morning to the bishop in tenor and forme as foloweth.

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¶ To the right reuerend Father in God, our right trusty and welbeloued, the Bishop of London.  
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe copied this letter from Bonner's register; see GL, 9531/12, fol. 363r.

MarginaliaThe king & Queenes letter to B. Boner.RIght reuerend father in God, right trusty and welbeloued, we greet you well. And where of late we addressed our letters to the Iustices of peace within euerye of the Countyes of this our Realme, wherby amongest other instructions geuen them for the good order and quiet gouernement of the Country about them, they are willed to haue a speciall regard vnto such disordred persons, as forgetting theyr duetyes towardes God and vs, do leane to any erroneous and hereticall opinions, refusing to shew them selues conformable to the Catholick Religiō of Christes church: wherein if they cannot by good admonitions and fayre meanes reforme them, they are willed to deliuer them to the Ordinarye, to be by him charitably trauelled withall, and remoued (if it may be) from their noughty opinions, or els if they cōtinue obstinate, to be ordered according to the lawes prouided in that behalfe: vnderstanding nowe, to our no little maruell, that diuers of the sayd disordered persons, being by the Iustices of peace for theyr contempt and obstinacy, brought to the Ordinaryes  

Commentary  *  Close

An ordinary was any person exercising authority by virtue of holy orders, in this case the bishop in charge of the diocese to which the accused person belonged.

to be vsed, as is aforesayd, are either refused to be receiued at theyr hands, or if they be receiued, are neither so trauelled with, as christian charity requireth, nor yet proceeded withall according to the order of Iustice, but are suffered to continue in theyr errors, to the dishonor of almighty God, and daungerous exemple of others:  
Commentary  *  Close

Philip and Mary were claiming that the bishops were failing to prosecute the heresy cases brought before them and were ordering their bishops to take a tougher line against them.

like as we finde this matter very straunge, so haue thought conueniēt, both to signify our knowledge & therwith also to admonish you to haue in this behalfe such regard hencefoorth to the office of a good pastor and Bishop, MarginaliaQ. Mary stirreth Boner to shedde innocent bloud.as whē any such offenders shalbe by the sayd Officers or Iustices of peace brought vnto you, you to vse your good wisedom & discretiō in procuring to remoue thē frō theyr errors, if it may be, or els in proceeding agaynst them (if they shall cōtinue obstinate) according to the order of the lawes: so as through your good furtherance, both Gods glory may bee better aduaunced, and the common wealth more quietly gouerned. Yeuen vnder our signet, at our honour of Hampton Courte, the 24. of May, the 1. and 2. yeares of our reignes.

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This letter thus comming from the Court to the Bishop, made him the more earnest and hasty to the condemnation, as well of others, as of these men, of whom now we haue presently to entreat, of Iohn Symson, I meane and Iohn Ardeley. Whyche both beyng of one countrey, and of one Towne together, and of one trade, that is, being MarginaliaIohn Ardeley & Iohn Simson both husbandmen in the towne of Wigborough.both husbandmen in the towne of Wigborow in Essex, and also almost both of one age, saue that Symson was of the age of 34. the other of 30. were brought vp both together, by the vnder Shyriffe of Essex, to Boner Bishop of London, vpō the accusation (as in that time it was called) of heresy.

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As touching the order & maner of theyr examinations before the bishop, as the articles ministred against them, were much alike: so theyr aunsweres agayne vnto the same were not much discrepant in maner & forme, as out of the Bishops owne Registers here foloweth expressed.

¶ Articles obiected agaynst Iohn Symson, and Iohn Ardeley, of the Parish of Wigborow the great in Essex, husbandmen, by Boner Bishop of London, at Fulham. 22. of May. 1555.  
Commentary  *  Close

The articles and answers of Ardley and Simpson were taken from an official record of Bonner's which is now lost, probably a court book. Note that in the second edition Foxe conflated the two sets of identical articles and nearly identical answers.

MarginaliaArticles ministred agaynst Iohn Simson, and Iohn Ardeley.1. FIrst, that thou Ioh. Symson (or Ioh. Ardeley) husbandman, of the age of 34. yeres, or thereabout, wast and art of the parish of great Wigborow, within the dioces of Londō, and thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue, that there is here in earth one Catholicke and vniuersal whole Church, which doth hold and beleue all the fayth & religiō of Christ and all the necessary articles and sacramentes of the same.

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2. Item, that thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue, that thou are necessarily bounden vnder the payne of damnation of thy soule, to geue full fayth and credence vnto the sayd Catholique and vniuersall Church, and to the Religion of the same, in all necessary poyntes of the sayd fayth and Religion, without wauering or doubting in the sayde

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fayth and Religion, or in any part therof.

3. Item, that thou hast not beleeued, nor doest beleue, that the fayth and Religion: MarginaliaThe Church of Rome, Italy, Spayne, an other forrayne countreys in Europe.whiche both the Churche of Rome, Italy, Spayn, England, Fraunce, Ireland, Scotland, and all other Churches in Europe, being true members and partes of the sayd Catholick & vniuersall church do beleue and teach, is both agreing with the sayd Catholicke and vniuersall Church, and the fayth and Religion, of Christ, and also is the very true fayth & Religion, which all Christen people ought to beleue, obserue, folow & keep, but contrariwise thou hast beleued, and doest beleue, that that fayth and Religion, which the sayd Church of Rome, and all the other Churches aforesayd haue heretofore beleued, and do nowe beleue, is false, erroneous and nought, & in no wise ought to be beleued, obserued, kept, and followed of any Christian man.

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4. Item, that albeit it bee true, that in the Sacrament of the aultar there is in MarginaliaSubstance of Christes body vnder formes of bread & wyne.substance the very body and bloud of Christ vnder the formes of bread and wyne, and albeit, that it be so beleued, taught & preached vndoubtedly in the sayd Churche of Rome, and all the other Churches aforesayd, yet thou hast not so beleued, nor doest so beleeue, but contrariwise thou hast & doest beleue firmely, & stedfastly, that there is not in the sayd sacrament of the aultar, vnder the sayd formes of breade and wine, the very substaunce of Christes body and bloud, but that there is onely the substaunce of material and common bread and wine, with the formes thereof: and that the sayd materiall & commō bread and wine are onely the signes and tokens of Christs body and bloud, and by fayth to be reciued, onely for a remembraunce of Christes passion & death, without any such substaunce of Christes body and bloud at all.

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MarginaliaTransubstantiation denyed.5. Item, that thou has beleued and taught, and thou hast openly spoken, and to thy power maynteined and defended, and so doest beleue, thinke, maynteyn and defend, that the very true receiuing and eating of Christes body & bloud, is onely to take materiall and commō bread, and to brake it, and to distribute it amongest the people, remembring therby the passion and death of Christ onely.

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MarginaliaThe Masse abominable.6. Item, that thou hast likewise beleued, taught, and spoken, that the Masse now vsed in this Realme of England, and others the churches aforesayd, is abhominable & naught and full of Idolatry, and is of the ordinance of the Pope, and not of the institution of Christ, & hath no goodnes in it, sauing the gloria in excelsis, and the Epistle and the Gospell, & that therefore thou hast not, nor wilt not come and be present at the Masse, nor receiue the Sacrament of the aultar, or any other Sacrament of the Church as they are now vsed in this Realme of Englande, and other the Churches aforesayd.

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7. Item, that thou hast in tymes past beleued precisely, and obstinately affirmed and sayd, & so doest now beleue & thinke that auricular confession is not needfull to be made vnto the Prieste, but it is a thing superfluous and vayne, and ought onely to be made to God & to none other persō: and likewise thou hast condemned as superfluous, vayne, and vnprofitable, all the ceremonies of the church and the seruice of the same, & hast sayd that no seruice in the church ought to be sayd, but in the English tongue, and if it be otherwise sayd, it is vnlawfull and nought.

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¶ The aunsweres of Iohn Symson and also of Iohn Ardeley, to the foresayd Articles.  
Commentary  *  Close

The articles and answers of Ardley and Simpson were taken from an official record of Bonner's which is now lost, probably a court book. Note that in the second edition Foxe conflated the two sets of identical articles and nearly identical answers.

MarginaliaTheir aunsweres to the articles.TO the firste, they beleue, that here in earth there is one Catholicke and vniuersall holy Churche, which doeth hold and beleue as in conteined in the first article, and that this Church is dispersed and scattered abroad throughout the whole world.

To the second, they beleue, that they be bound to geue fayth and credence vnto it, as is conteyned in the second Article.

To the third, as concerning the fayth and Religion of the Church of Rome, of Italy, Spaine, Fraunce, Ireland, Scotland, and other Churches in Europa, they say, they haue nothing to doe with that fayth and Religion, but as concerning the fayth and Religion of England, that if the sayde Churche of England be ruled and Gouerned by the word of life, then the Church of England hath the fayth & Religion of the Catholicke Church, and not otherwise: & doe say also, that if the Churche of England were ruled by the word of life, it woulde not go about to condemne them and others of this heresy.

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MarginaliaTransubstantiation denyed.To the fourth they aunswere, that in the Sacrament, commonly called the Sacrament of the aultar, there is very bread and very wine, not altered nor chaunged in substaunce in anye wise, and that hee that receiueth the sayde bread and wyne, doth spiritually and by fayth only receiue

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the
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