Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Clark

Clark testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, p. 1144; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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John Burton

Brewer

Burton testified that Robert Bromley told him about John Tooley's prayer denouncing the pope and that Bromley showed him a copy of the prayer. Burton, in turn, showed the prayer to members of Sir William Chester's household. 1563, p. 1145; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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John de Vere

(d. 1562)

16th earl of Oxford. (DNB)

John de Vere accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

John Hamond, Simon Hamond, Christopher Lyster, John Mace, John Spencer and Richard Nicholas were delivered to John Kingstone, bachelor of civil law, and then commissory to Gardiner, by the earl of Oxford on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1517, 1570, p. 2089, 1576, p. 1803, 1583, p. 1909.

John Routh was convented before the earl of Oxford. He was sent to Colchester castle by Lord Rich and then on to Bonner. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2096., 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

Thomas Hawkes was a member of his household. The earl reported to Bishop Bonner that Hawkes refused to have his son baptized in a catholic service and delivered Hawkes to Bonner�s custody (1563, pp. 1161-62; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

He denounced six residents of Coggeshall, Essex (William Bamford, Nicholas Chamberlain, Thomas Brodehill, Thomas Osborne and Richard Webbe) to Bishop Bonner on 1 May 1555 (1563, p. 1166;1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02).

In a letter to Bishop Bonner, John Kingston said that the 'lord of Oxford' was one of the commissioners who confiscated the lands and goods of 22 accused heretics. 1563, p. 1564 [recte 1576].

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. De Vere was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

John Cornet was sent before the earl of Oxford, who ordered that he be held in chains and finger irons that made the tips of his fingers burst. 1570, p. 2287, 1576, p.1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1938], 1583, p. 2081.

Cornet was sent to Bonner but later ordered by the earl of Oxford to return to Rough-hedge to be whipped and then banished from the town forever. 1570, p. 2287, 1576, p.1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1938], 1583, p. 2081.

 
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John Laurence

(d. 1555)

Former Dominican; at Sudbury Convent when it was dissolved in 1538 [Emden, 1501-40].

Foxe mentions that John Laurence was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Articles objected against John Laurence on 8 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1111-12; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, pp. 1468-69; 1583, p. 1542.

Laurence was examined, formally and informally, by Bonner on 9 February 1555. He declared to Bonner that he had been ordained as a priest eighteen years previously, that he had been a Dominican and that he was engaged to be married. He also denied the Real Presence, declaring that the eucharist was a remembrance of Christ's body. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

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He was condemned and degraded on 9 February 1555 and sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

John Laurence was executed in Colchester on 29 March 1555. Because of physical infirmity, he was carried to the stake in a chair. Children shouted encouragement to him as he was burning. 1563, p. 1113; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, pp. 1469-70; 1583, p. 1543.

 
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Philip Andrew

Under-marshal of the Marshalsea

Andrew testified that he rebuked John Tooley for his prayer denouncing the pope. 1563, p. 1144; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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Philip Britten

Britten testified about John Tooley's prayer from the scaffold denouncing the pope. He also testified that he gave one of the papers from which Tooley had read to Thomas Way. 1563, p. 1145; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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Richard Longman

Merchant Tailor

Richard Longman testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, pp. 1144-45; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

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The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

 
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Stephen Knight

(d. 1555)

Barber; martyr

Foxe mentions that Stephen Knight was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Articles were objected against Knight on 8 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1111-12; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, pp. 1468-69; 1583, p. 1542. Answers to these articles: 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, pp. 1542-43.

Knight, examined by Bonner on 9 February 1555, refused to recant. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, pp. 1720-21; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543. He was condemned by Bonner on 9 February and sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

He was taken to Malden, Essex, and executed there on 28 March 1555. He said a prayer at the stake which Foxe reprints. 1563, pp. 1112-13; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Bonner asked Thomas Hawkes if he knew Stephen Knight or William Pygot; Hawkes replied that he knew Knight but not Pygot (1563, p. 1148; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1500 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1586).

 
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Thomas Hawkes

(d. 1555)

Gentleman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Thomas Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Hawkes sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Foxe describes Hawkes' life and character; Hawkes served in the household of the earl of Oxford (1563, p. 1161; 1570, p. 1758; 1576,pp. 1501-1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes refused to allow his infant son to be baptized in a catholic service. The earl of Oxford reported this to Bishop Bonner (1563, p. 1162; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes was examined informally by Bonner (1563, pp. 1148-51; 1570, pp. 1758-60; 1576, pp. 1550 [recte 1502]-1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1585-87).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and and John Harpsfield (1563, pp. 1151-52; 1570, pp. 1760-1; 1576, pp. 1551 [recte 1503]-1504; 1583, pp. 1587-88).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and John Bird (1563, pp. 1152-53; 1570, pp. 1761-62; 1576, pp. 1504-05;1583, p. 1588).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Feckenham (1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583,pp. 1588-89).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and William Chedsey (1563, pp. 1154-55; 1570, pp. 1763-64; 1576, pp. 1505-06; 1583, pp. 1589-90).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 29 June 1554 (1563, pp. 1155-56; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, p. 1506; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 30 June 1554 (1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 1 July 1554 (1563, pp. 1156-57; 1570, pp. 1764-65; 1583, p. 1590).

A formal examination of Hawkes was held on 3 September 1554 (1563, pp. 1157-58; 1570, pp. 1765-66; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, pp. 1590-91).

Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555 and condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555 (1570, pp. 1705 and 1766; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1508; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1591-92).

Hawkes dined and prayed with Thomas Wattes and other Marian martyrs on the night of 9 June 1555, when they were all detained at an inn at Chelmsford, awaiting execution (1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p.1513; 1583, p. 1596).

Foxe describes the martyrdom of Hawkes (1563, p. 1162; 1570, pp. 1766-67; 1576, pp. 1508-09; 1583, pp. 1592-93).

Hawkes sent a letter to a congregation (1563, pp. 1558-59; 1570, pp. 1767-68; 1576, pp. 1509-10; 1583, p. 1593).

Hawkes sent a Letter to his wife (1563, pp. 1159-60; 1570, pp. 1768-69; 1576, p. 1510; 1583, pp. 1593-94).

Hawkes sent a letter to Clement Throgmorton (1570, p. 1769; 1576, pp. 1510-11; 1583, p. 1594).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Tomkins

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr

Thomas Tomkins' godly life and character are recounted. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Thomas Tomkins was mistreated (notably by having his beard forcibly shaven and his hand burned in a candle flame) while in Bonner's custody. 1563, pp. 1101-2 and 1733; 1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, pp. 1459-60; 1583, pp. 1533-34.

Foxe mentions that Tomkins was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555, and condemned on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

He was examined on 8 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, pp. 1102-3; 1570, p. 1711; 1576, pp. 1460-61; 1583, pp. 1534-35.

He was examined on 9 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, pp. 1711-12; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was condemned by Bishops Edmund Bonner, Gilbert Bourne and Henry Morgan on 9 February 1555. 1563, p. 1101; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535.

Tomkins was executed on 16 March 1555. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1535 [Foxe says 15 March in 1563, but corrects this in subsequent editions].

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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[NB: Although Foxe does not mention it, Tomkins was a member of a heretical conventicle which was detected in London in January 1545 (See Brigden, London , p. 388)].

[Not to be confused with the composer Thomas Tomkins.]

 
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Thomas Way

Keeper of the Marshalsea

Thomas Way testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, pp. 1144-45; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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William Gellard

Fishmonger

William Gellard testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, pp. 1144-45; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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William Hollingworth

Fishmonger of old Fish Street

William Hollingworth testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, pp. 1144-45; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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William Hunter

(d. 1555)

Weaver's apprentice and martyr

William Hunter refused to attend mass in London in 1553; he returned home to Brentwood, Essex. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

He was denounced to Thomas Wood, the vicar of South Weald, for reading scriptures in English. He was examined by Wood, who denounced William Hunter to Anthony Browne. 1570, p. 1713; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

Hunter was brought before Browne and interrogated; Hunter was then sent to Bonner by Browne. 1570, pp. 1713-14; 1576, pp. 1462-63; 1583, pp. 1536-37.

William Hunter was examined by Bonner and condemned. 1563, p. 1110. [NB: This account of Hunter's examinations, based on Bonner's registers, was replaced in subsequent editions by a more detailed account of Bonner's treatment of Hunter.]

Hunter was detained by Bonner for nine months, during which time the bishop tried both harsh and lenient treatment to persuade him to recant. Finally he condemned Hunter. 1570, pp. 1714-15; 1576, pp. 1463-64; 1583, pp. 1537-38.

Foxe mentions that Hunter was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bishop Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

William Hunter was sent to Brentwood to be burned. Hunter refused pressure at his execution to recant and died constantly on 26 March 1555. 1563, p. 1110; 1570, pp. 1715-16; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, pp. 1538-39. [NB: The date of Hunter's execution is given as 25 March in the 1563 edition; this is corrected in subsequent editions.]

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Hunter wrote a short letter to his mother shortly before his martyrdom. 1583, p. 2149.

 
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William Pygot

(d. 1555)

Butcher and martyr

Foxe mentions that Pygot was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Articles were objected against Pygot on 8 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1111-12; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, pp. 1468-69; 1583, p. 1542. Answers to these articles: 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, pp. 1542-43.

Pygot was examined by Bonner on 9 February 1555; he refused to recant. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, pp. 1720-21; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

He was condemned by Bonner on 9 February and sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

He was taken to Braintree, Essex, and executed there on 28 March 1555. He said a prayer at the stake which Foxe presents. 1563, pp. 1112-13; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

On 3 May 1555, the Privy Council ordered the arrest of two men who were carrying Pygot's bones through the Essex countryside and displaying them to people (1583, p. 1577).

Bonner asked Thomas Hawkes if he knew either Stephen Knight or Pygot; Hawkes responded that he knew Knight but not Pygot (1563, p. 1148; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1586).

 
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William Walton

Chandler of old Fish Street

William Walton testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, pp. 1144-45; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

1609 [1585]

Queene Mary. Processe agaynst Iohn Tooley after his death. The story of Thom. Haukes Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iune.mighty God, do promise that we will receiue them beyng penitent for such theyr errors & faultes, with thankes, benignity, mercy and fauor, to the comfort and health of their owne soules, and in that behalfe saue their honesties to the vttermost of our power: otherwise if they wil not prouide thus to come of theyr owne accord, but to abide þe ordinary processe of the law, let those mē know that we will punish more seuerely this offēce, according to the vttermost of the law, and as farre as the law will beare it: & what you shal do in the premisses, let him among you which shall execute this our present Mandate, certify vs, or our vicar general in spirituall matters, eyther by his owne person, or by his letters patents, together with these autētically sealed. Dated at London vnder our seale, the last day saue one of April. 1555. and of our Translation the 16.

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MarginaliaTooly suspended and excommunicated.When the tyme of this Citation was expired, and thys Tooly being cited, dyd not appeare: next in order of lawe came the suspension (where as one suspension had bene enough for him) and after that commeth the Excommunication, that is, that no man should eat or drinke with him, or if any mette him by the way, he shoulde not bidde hym good morrow, and besides that, he should be excluded from the Communion of the Churche. These thynges beyng prepared in such maner, as in such cases ful wisely they vse to do, at length one stood out for the nonce, that made aunswere to certayne articles, rehearsed in iudgement openly, and that in the behalfe of the dead manne. But when the poore dead man could neyther speake for himselfe, nor did, (as they sayd) sufficiently aunswere them by the other, to auoyde the name of an hereticke: MarginaliaWitnes agaynst Iohn Tooly.first witnesses  

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe published these depositions; in all subsequent editions he simply listed the witnesses. This was another case where documents were elimated from the 1570 edition due to a shortage of paper.

were producted agaynst him, whose names were Hēry Clarke Esquire, Thom. Way keeper of the Marshalsey, Philip Andrew Vndermarshal, William Holingworth Fishmōger, William Gellard, William Walton Chaundler, Richarde Longman Marchaunt Taylour, Philip Britten, Iohn Burton Brewer, Thomas Smyth Sergeant. Then hee was for an hereticke condemned, aand so MarginaliaTooly geuen to the secular power.committed to the secular power, namely to the Shiriffes of London, which with like diligence went aboute to execute their charge. Therfore receiuing the man being suspēded, excommunicated, condemned as an hereticke, and besides that beyng dead, they laid him on the fire to be burned, namely, ad perpetuam rei memoriam, for a continuall remembrance therof. This was done the fourth day of Iune.  
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This is Foxe's mistake; Tooley was (posthumously) condemned for heresy on 4 May 1555 (PRO, C/85/127, fol. 7r).

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Here foloweth the history and Martyrdome of the worthy seruaunt of Christ, Thomas Haukes Gentleman, with his examinations and aunsweres had with B. Boner, recorded and penned with his owne hand. 
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The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes

The Rerum contains an acccount of Haukes's background and life (p. 445), which is reprinted in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. The Rerum continues with a relatively brief account of Haukes's final examination by Bonner, his condemnation and his journey back to Essex to be burned (Rerum, pp. 445-46). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition (on p. 1162) but dropped thereafter to be replaced by a more detailed account. The Rerum also contains an account of Haukes's execution, which was reprinted in all versions of the Acts and Monuments and his two 'private' examinations by Bonner (Rerum, pp. 446-62). All of this was fairly typical of the material Grindal assembled for the Rerum: a collection of documents, usually written by the martyr, supplemented with biographical material from oral sources. Two copies of Haukes's account of his 'private' examinations remain in Foxe's papers: BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 13r-27r and 171r-182v.

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The account of Haukes in the 1563 edition was essentially a reprinting of the material in the Rerum, although the arrangement of this material was different and rather unusual: Haukes's examinations were printed before the details of Haukes's life and martyrdom were given. In the 1570 edition, Foxe rearranged the order of material, placing it in chronological order, with Haukes's life now followed by his examination and then by the details of his martyrdom. Foxe also replaced the public examinations of Haukes by Bonner, and the martyr's condemnation, with material drawn from Bonner's official record. (This material, probably kept in a court book, is now lost).

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Foxe reprinted the 1570 account of Haukes without any significant alteration in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Thomas Hawkes

Many of the glosses draw attention to stages in the narrative and also matters under discussion; indeed Hawkes' is one of the more disputational lives, and the margins reflect this fact. Some of the glosses take specific points made by Hawkes in arguments with his interrogators and draw out the general principles inherent in them ('Fecknam maketh euery act spoken of in the new Testament to be a ceremony'; 'The wordes of Christ are to be vnderstand, not as he spake , but as he ment thē'). The gloss 'Other doctrine taught in the Church of Rome then euer Paule taught' makes Hawkes' point clearer for the reader, and there are also glosses highlighting poor attempts at exegesis by Bonner and Fecknam ('See how Boner proueth holy water by the scripture'; 'Elizeus put salt in the water, not to washe away sinne, but onely to make the water sweete'; 'Boner proueth holy bread by the 5. loaues and 3. fishes'; 'Fecknams reason lyeth in Paules Breches'). In short, Foxe's margins are in some respects similar to those we find in the Oxford disputations sections; he also includes a comment of his own about the sacrament that is not indicated by the text ('It is his sacramentall body, or the Sacramēt of his body, but not his true body'). Bonner gets his usual criticism, his pride and anger both drawing marginal comments ('Boner looked to be curtised'; 'Boner in a fume with Thomas Haukes'), while another gloss uses the disparaging term 'coniure' in relation to his persuasion of Baget ('Boner taketh Baget with him aside to coniure him'). A gloss emphasises his assertion that he is no preacher ('B. Boner iudgeth other men by his own sore'). The limitations of papist debating skills are highlighted ('Boner whē he can not ouercome by doctrine, goeth about to oppresse by authoritie'; 'Fecknam falleth out of his matter to rayling'). The solidity of Hawkes' profession is emphasised in the use twice of the gloss 'Thomas Haukes builded his fayth vpon no man'. The gloss 'Thomas Haukes standing at the stake reasoneth with the Lord Rich' uses the surprising term 'reasoneth' to describe Hawkes' mode of speaking at the stake: a more biblical term might have been expected. There are various errors of placing, with 1570 (as is usual) more accurate in comparison to later editions.

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MarginaliaThe story of M. Tho. Haukes Martyr.IMmediatly after the story of D. Taylor, pag. 1456. mention before was made of sixe men brought & conuēted before Bishop Boner vpon the eight day of February. The names of which martyrs were Steuen Knight, William Pigot, Tho. Tomkins, Ioh Laurence, Wil. Hunter. In which number was also Tho. Haukes, & cōdemned likewise with thē the 9. day of the foresaid month of February. But because his execution did not so shortly followe wyth theirs, but was prolonged to this present x. day of the moneth of Iune, wherwith we are nowe in hand, it foloweth therfore now consequētly to enter tractation thereof, first, beginning briefly with his godly cōuersation & institution of life, then shewing of his troubles, also of his examinations and conflictes with the bishop and other aduersaries according as the order of his story doth require.

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MarginaliaThe lyfe and conuersation of Tho. Haukes.As touching therefore his education and order of life, first hee was of the countrey of Essex, borne of an honest stocke, in calling and profession a Courtier, brought vppe daintely from his childhhoode, and like a Gentleman. Besides that, he was of such comlines and stature, so well endued with excellēt qualities, that he might seme on euery side a man (as it were) made for the purpose. But hys gentle behauiour toward other, and especially his feruent study and singuler loue vnto true Religion and godlines did surmount all the rest. Wherein as God did singularly adorne him: euen so he being suche a valiaunt Martyr of God, may seeme to nobilitate the whole company of other holy martyrs, and as a bright starre, to make the Churche of God and his trueth, of thēselues bright and cleare, more gloriously to shine by his example.

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MarginaliaThe victory of Martyrs, is the triumph of Christ. Ambrose.For if the conquestes of martyrs are the triumphes of Christ (as Saynt Ambrose doth notably and truely write) vndoubtedly Christ in few mē hath either conquered more notably, or triumphed more gloriously, then in this young man: he stood so wisely in his cause, so godly in his life, and

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so constantly in his death.

But to the declaration of the matter: first this Haukes folowing the guise of the Court, as he grew in yeares, entred seruice with the MarginaliaThomas Haukes first in seruice with the Earle of Oxford.Lord of Oxford, where he remained a good space, being there right well estemed & loued of all the houshold, so long as Edward the sixt liued. But he dying, all things begā to go backward, religiō to decay, godlines not only to waxe cold, but also to be in daūger euery where and chiefly in the houses of great men. MarginaliaHaukes compelled to leaue the Earle of Oxfordes house.Haukes mislikyng the state of thinges, and especially in such mens houses rather thē he would chaunge the profession of true godlines which he had tasted, thought to chaunge the place: and so forsaking þe Noble mans house, departed home to his own home, where more freely he might geue himselfe to God, & vse his owne conscience.

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But what place  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 98, middle

The edition of 1583 here reads "paradise," but all the other old editions read "place." {NB: It is the 1563 edition that reads 'paradise.'} "Paradise" is retained {in Cattley/Pratt} because it is the reading of the Latin. (Basil 1559, p. 445.)

in this worlde shall a man finde so secret for himselfe, whether that old wicked Serpent 
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I.e., the Devil.

can not creep, wherby he may haue some matter to ouerthrow the quietnesse of the Godly? Nowe in the meane season (as it happened) Haukes keeping his house at home, had borne vnto him a young sonne, MarginaliaHaukes childe three weekes vnchristened.whose baptisme was deferred to the third weeke, for that he would not suffer him to be baptised after the papistical maner, Which thing the aduersaries not able to suffer, laying handes vpon him, MarginaliaHaukes brought before the Earle.did bryng him to the Earle of Oxforde, there to be reasoned with, as not sound in religion, in that he semed to contemne the sacramentes of the Church.

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 98, line 31

The Latin edition, 1559, p. 446, says: "Mense Junii 23, anno 1554, Comes Oxoniæ, eujus non multo ante famulus eram, servo illius euidam me commisit ad Bonerum Londinensem perducendum, una cum literis ad Episcopum scriptis, quarum haec ferè erat formula." And the edition of 1563, p. 1148, begins the narrative: - "The xxiij day of June I was apprehended and sent to London to Doctour Boner, at the same time Bishop of London: and a man with me, who brought me up as a prisoner, with a letter to the Bishop, wherein was contained these words following." And after the letter, it proceeds in the first person: "Then the Bishop red the letter unto me; when I heard it, I thought I should not be very well used, seeing it was put to his discretion. Then wrote he a letter again to him that sent me with many great thanks, for his diligence in setting forth the Queen's proceedings. Then spake the Bishop unto me and said, What should move you to leave your child unchristened so long?"

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The Earle eyther intending not to trouble hymselfe 
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This sentence marks the beginning of Haukes's own account of his 'private' examinations. In the 1570 edition, Foxe rewrote this material slightly by changing the narrative from the first person to the third.

in such matters, or else seeyng hymselfe not able to weigh with him in suche cases of Religion, MarginaliaHaukes sent vp by the Earle to B. Boner.sent him vp to London with a messenger and letters, and so willing to cleare his owne handes, put him in the handes of Boner bishop of London: the contētes of which his letter sent to Boner, be these.

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¶ A Letter of the Earle of Oxford to Boner. 
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This letter was part of Haukes's narrative does not come from any official archive.

MarginaliaThe Earles letter to Boner.MOst reuerend father in God, be it knowne vnto you, that I haue sent you one Thomas Haukes, dwelling in the County of Essex, who hath a child that hath remayned vnchristened more then three weekes,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 98, line 13 from the bottom

"Filium habet jam tertiam agentem sine baptismo septimanam" (Latin Ed. p. 446): which accords with Foxe's words {earlier}, "a young son, whose baptism was deferred to the third week."

who being vpon the same examined, hath denied to haue it baptised, as it is now vsed in the Church: wherevpon I haue sent him to your good Lordship, to vse as ye thinke best, by your good discretion.

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Whē the bishop had perused this letter, and afterward read it to M. Haukes, he hearing the same, thought with himselfe, that he should not be very wel vsed, seing he was put to his discretion. Then wrote the bishop a letter again to him that sent the prisoner, with many great thankes for his diligence in setting forth the Queenes proceedynges. Then began the bishop to enter communication with M. Haukes, first asking what should moue him to leaue hys child vnchristened so long? To whom M. Haukes answered thus agayne as foloweth.

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MarginaliaPriuate talke or conference betweene M. Haukes and B. Boner.Haukes. Because we be bound to do nothing contrarye to the word of God.

Boner. Why? Baptisme is commaunded by the worde of God.

Haukes. His institution therin I do not deny.

Boner. What deny ye then?

Haukes. I deny all things inuented and deuised by man.

Boner. What thinges be those that be deuised by man, that ye be so offended withall?

MarginaliaMans inuētions added to Baptisme.Haukes. Your Oyle, Creame, Salt, Spettle, Candle, and coniuring of water. &c.

MarginaliaThe forefathers.Boner. Will ye deny that which all the whole worlde, and your father hath bene contented withall?

Haukes. What my father & all the whole world hath done, I haue nothing to do withall: but what God hath cōaūded me to do, to that stand I.

MarginaliaThe Catholick church.Boner. The Catholicke Church hath taught it.

Haukes. What is the Catholicke Church?

Boner. It is the faythfull congregation, where so euer it be dispersed throughout the whole world.

Haukes. Who is the head therof?

Boner. Christ is the head therof.

Haukes. Are we taught in Christ, or in the Church now?

Boner. Haue ye not reade in the eyght of Iohn, where hee sayd, he would send his comforter which should teach you all thinges?

Haukes. I graunt you it is so, that he woulde sende hys comforter, but to what ende? forsooth to this ende, that hee should lead you into all truth and verity, and that is not to teach a new doctrine.

Boner. A Syr, ye are a right scripture man. For ye wyll haue nothing but the scripture. There is a great number

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