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Aachen (Aquisgranum; Aix-la-Chapelle)
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Aachen (Aquisgranum; Aix-la-Chapelle)

[Aquisgraue; Akon]

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 46' 0" N, 6° 6' 0" E

160 [137]

K. Ethelwulphus. Swithinus. Adelstanus. Pope Ioan. The letter of Huldericke.

commendation to dye a Martyr. MarginaliaFridericke Byshop of Vtricke iudged of some a Martyr. Example of the women more ready to reuenge then the man. Whereof I haue not to iudge, nor here to pronoūce: but that rather I think him to be comended in his dying, then the women for her killing.

And for asmuch as mention hath bene made of Ludouicus Pius, here is to be noted, that in Fraunce then was vsed of Priestes and Churchmen, precious and shewing vesture, and golden, and rich staring girldles, with rings and other ornamentes of golde. Wherefore the sayd Lewes purchased of the Bishop of Rome a correctiō, for all such as vsed such disordinate apparell, causing them to weare browne and sad colours, according to their sadnes. Fab.

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Of this Lewes the Papistes do fayne, that because he conuerted certayne of their Church goodes and patrimonie to þe wages of his souldiours, his body (say they) was caryed out of his tombe by deuils, and was no more seene.

And thus a little hauing disgressed out of our course, now let vs returne out of Fraunce into England agayne: kyng Ethelwulfus, who comming from Rome by the coūtrey of Fraunce, was now returned agayne into his own dominion, where he continued not long after.

MarginaliaSwithinus Bishop of Winchester. This Ethelwulfus, had especially about him two Bishops, whose counsell he was most ruled by, Swythinus Byshop of Winchester, and Adelstanus Byshop of Syreborne. Of the which two, the one was more skilfull in tēporall and ciuill affayres touching the kings warres, and filling of hys coffers, and other furniture for the king. The other (whiche was Swythinus) was of a contrary sorte, wholly disposed and enclined to spirituall meditation, and to minister spirituall coūcel to þe king: who had ben scholemaister to the king before. MarginaliaExample of a kind scholer to hys scholemayster. Wherein appeared one good cōdition of this kings nature, among his other vertues, not onely in following the preceptes and aduertisementes of his old schoolemaister: But also in þt he like a kinde & thākfull pupille did so reuerence hys bringer vp, and old scholmaister (as he called him) that he ceased not, till hee made hym Byshop of Winchester, by the consecration of Celnoch then Archbishop of Canterbury. MarginaliaMonkishe miracles fayned of Swithinus. But as concerning the miracles which are read in the Churche of Winchester, of this Swythinus, them I leaue to be read together with the Iliades of Homere, or tales of Robenhood.

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MarginaliaPope Leo iij. Stephen. iiij. Pascalis i. Eugenius ij. Valentinus. j. Gregory. iiij. This Gregory the fourth here in this present Chapter aboue mentioned: was the third pope which succeeded after Paschalis the first, being but. 4. yeares betwixt them, which Paschalis succeeded after Steuen the 4. who followed after Leo the 3. next Pope vnto Hadrian aboue in our history mentioned, whereas we intreated of Charles the great. From the tyme of that Hadrian the first, vnto Pope Hadrian the 3. The Emperours had some stroke in the election (at lest in the confirmation) of the Romaine Pope. Notwithstanding, diuers of those foresayd popes in the meane time began to work their practises to bring that purpose about. But yet all their deuises could take no full effect, before the sayd Hadrian the iij. as hereafter (Christ willing) shalbe declared. So that the Emperours all this while bare some rule in chusing the Popes, and in assembling generall Councels. Wherfore by the commaundement of Ludouicus the Emperour, in the tyme of this Gregory the iiij. a generall Synode was commensed at Aquisgraue, where it was decreed by the sayd Gregory and his assistaunce: MarginaliaA generall Synode at Aquisgraue. Euerye Church to haue sufficient to finde hys owne Priestes. Pretious garmentes of scarlet or other riche colour forbidden men of the Clergy. Great families not lawfull for men of the Clergy. Ringes and gold in their shoes forbidden. first that euery Church should haue sufficient of his owne proper landes and reuenewes, to finde the Priestes thereof: that none should need to lacke or go about a begging. Itē that none of the Clergy of what order or degree soeuer he be, should vse any vesture of any precious or scarelet coulour. Neither shall weare ringes on their fingers, vnlesse it be when Prelates be at Masse, or geue their consecrations. Item that Prelates should not keepe to great portes or families, nor keepe great horse, vse dice, or harlots. And the Monkes should not exceed measure in glotony or riot. Item that none of the Clergye being either annoynted or shauen: should vse either golde or siluer in their shooes, slippers of girdles, like to Heliogabalus. By this it may be coniectured, what pompe and pride in those daies was crept into the Clergy. MarginaliaThe feast of all Sainctes first ordayned. Moreouer, by the sayd pope Gregory the 4. at the commaundement of Ludouicus Emperour, the feast of all Saintes was first brought into the Church.

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MarginaliaPope Sergius. ij. When the Popes names began the first to be altered. After this Pope, came Sergius the second which first brought in the altering of Popes names, because hee was named before os porci, that is, Swines snout: which also ordayned the Agnus thrice to be song at the Masse, and the hoast to be deuided into three partes. MarginaliaAgnus thrise song at the Masse. The hoste deuided in three partes.

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MarginaliaPope Leo the 4. After him, was Pope Leo the iiij. to whom this kyng Ethelwulfus (as in this present chapter is aboue specified) did commit the tuition of his sonne Alured. By this Pope Leo, it came in, and was first enacted in a Counsell of hys, that no Bishop should be condemned vnder 72. witnesses, according as ye see in the witnesses, at the condemnationof Stephen Gardiner, orderly practised. MarginaliaNo Byshop by the Popes law to be condemned vnder 72. witnesses.

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Item contrary to the law of Gregory the iiij. his predicessor: this Pope ordayned the crosse (all set with golde & precious stone) to be caried before him, like a Pope. MarginaliaThe golden crosse first borne before the pope.

And here next now followeth & commeth in, the whore of Babylon (rightly in her true colours by the permission of God and manifestly without all tergiuersation) to appeare to the whole world: and that not onely after the spiritual sense, but after the very letter, and the right forme of an whore in deed. MarginaliaA woman Pope called Ioan. viij. The Church of Rome after their Masse of the holy Ghost may erre. For after this Leo aboue mentioned, the Cardinals proceeding to their ordinary electiō (after a solemne Masse of the holy Ghost, to the perpetuall shame of them & of that sea) in stead of a mā Pope, elected an whore in deed to minister Sacraments, to say masses, to geue orders, to constitute Deacons, Priests, and bishops, to promote Prelates, to make Abbots, to consecrate Churches and altars, to haue the raigne and rule of Emperors and kings: And so she did in deede, called by name Ioan. the 8. This womans proper name was Gilberta (a Dutch woman of Magunce) who went with an english monke out of the Abbey of Fulda in a mans apparell vnto Athens, and after through hex dexteritie of wit and learning, was promooted to the Popedom, where she sate two yeres & 6. monthes. At last openly in the face of a general procession, fell in labour & trauail of child, & so died. By reason wherof, the Cardinals yet to this day do auoid to come nere by that streete where this shame was taken. By Benedictus the iij. who succeeded next in the whorish sea, was first ordained (as most writers record) the Dirge to be sayd for the dead. MarginaliaPope Benedictus. iij. Dirge for the dead. Albeit before him, Gregory the iij. had done in that matter, worthily for his part already.

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MarginaliaPope Nicolas the first. After him sate Pope Nicholas the first, who enlarged the Popes decrees with many constitutions, equallyng the authoritie of them, with the writings of the Apostles. He ordayned that no secular Prince, nor the Emperour himself, should be present at their Councels, vnles in matters concerning the fayth: to the end that such as they iudged to be heretikes, they should execute and murther. Also, that no lay men should sit in iudgement vpon the clergy men, or reason vpon the Popes power. Item that no Christian Magistrate should haue any power vpon any Prelate, alledging that a Prelate is called God. Item that all Church seruice should be in Latine: yet notwithstanding, dispensing with the Sclauonians, and Polonians, to retaine still their vulgar language. Sequences in the Masse were by him first allowed. By this Pope, Priestes began to be restrained and debarred from marrying: MarginaliaThe mariage of priestes begon to be forbiddē. whereof Hulderike Bishop of Ausbrough (a learned & an holy man) sending a letter vnto the Pope, grauely and learnedly refuteth and reclaimeth against his vndiscret proceedings touching þt matter. The copy of which letter, as I thought it vnworthy to be suppressed, so I iudged it here worthy & meete for the better instruction of the Reader, to bee inserted. The wordes whereof here follow out of Latine into English translated.

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A learned Epistle of Hulderike bishop of Ausbrough, sent to Pope Nicholas the first, proouing by probations substantiall, that Priestes ought not to bee restrayned from Mariage. 
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Ulrich of Augsberg letter

This letter is reprinted from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), pp. 101-9. During the eleventh century, letters were composed under the name of the revered and relatively recently deceased St. Ulric, a tenth-century bishop of Augsburg. The purpose of these was to provide a historical (or pseudo-historical) justification for the marriage of priests. These letters were widely disseminated throughout Europe and accepted as genuine writings of St. Ulric. (See 'Pseudo-Udalrici epistola de continentia clericorum', ed. L von Heineman in Libelli de lite Imperatorum et Pontificum Saeculis 11-12, I, pp. 255-60 (Monumenta Germaniae Historia) and E. Frauenknecht, Die Verteidigung der Priesterehe in der Reformzeit (Hanover, 1997), pp. 70, 176-80 and 303-15). In the fifteenth century, the humanist scholar Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (later Pope Pius II) came across one of these letters and described it as denunciation of clerical celibacy written by St. Ulric. Piccolomini's description of the letter brought it back into prominence and it was seized upon by Protestants. The letter was printed both by Luther and Robert Barnes. (See Catherine Hall, 'The One-Way Trail: Some Observations on CCC MS 101 and G&CC MS 427', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographic Society 11 [1998], p. 276). In 1556, Matthias Flacius printed the letter and identified Ulric as the author and Pope Nicholas I as the recipient (Catalogus testium veritatis [Basel, 1556], pp. 101-9).

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Bale, following Flacius, referred to the letter as the work of St. Ulric in his Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae…Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 118. Yet in a letter to Matthew Parker of 30 July 1560, Bale stated that he, Barnes and other scholars had been 'foully deceyved' by Picclomini's attribution of the letter to Ulric. Now Bale postulated that the letter had been written by a Bishop Gulderic of Utrecht. (CUL MS Add 7489, fo. 4r - NB the Latin for Ulric is Uldericus or Huldericus). What had changed Bale's mind? Almost certainly it was the Catholic polemicist Frederic Staphylus, who pointed out in 1559, that Nicholas I and St. Ulric were not contemporaries. (Ulric was bishop of Augsburg from 924-73 while Nicholas I was pope from 858-67). On this basis, Staphylus denounced the letter as a forgery (Fredericus Staphylus, Defensio pro trimembri theologica M. Lutheri contra aedificationes Babylonicae turris [Augsburg, 1559], sigs. b4r-C1r). Apparently Staphylus's uncomfortably accurate observation inspired Bale to come up with his identification of Bishop Guldericus of Utrecht as the real author of the letter. Unfortunately there was no bishop named Guldericus in Utrecht in the relevant time period. However, sometime between his letter to Parker and his death, Bale discovered a manuscript which had belonged to the monastery of St. Augustine's, Canterbury and is now Gonville and Caius MS 427 (Hall, 'One-way trail', p. 274). This manuscript contained copies of two letters, both supporting clerical marriage and both attributed to the fictitious Bishop Volusianus of Carthage. The first of these letters was the one that Picclomini had discovered and Flacius had printed, and which both scholars had attributed to Ulric. Bale triumphantly concluded that the letters that he had found were both authentic and both written by Volusianus. Bale also, as Foxe declared, gave the manuscript to Matthew Parker (1570, p. 1320). Parker, however, did not do anything with Bale's discovrery for a number of years and Foxe apparently did not know of it. Instead, Foxe reprinted Flacius's version of the letter, with a translation, in the 1563 edition, attributing it to Ulric (1563, pp. 385-88). Unfortunately, in subsequent editions of the A&M, the Flacius version of the letter continued to be reprinted and atrtributed to Ulric (C 42/1), creating considerable confusion. In 1566, Nicholas Harpsfield repeated Staphylus's criticisms (Nicholas Harpsfield, Dialogi sex [Antwerp, 1566], pp. 146-52). Apparently in response to this, Parker had the pseudo-Volusianus letters printed from the manuscript Bale had given him (Epistolae duae D. Volusiani…[London, 1569], STC 24872). At first Foxe seems to have been unaware of the letters attributed to Volusianus when he began the 1570 edition, since he reprinted the letter attributed to Ulric from Flacius. But Parker eventually loaned Foxe Bale's manuscript of the two letters (C 233/132) and Foxe included them in the A&M. He also referred the reader back to his earlier translation of the first letter and supplied his own translation of the second letter. And, where Bale and Parker maintained that the letters were sent to Nicolas I, Foxe argued that they were sent to Nicholas II.

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NIcolao Domino & patri, peruigili sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ prouisori, Huldericus solo nomine Episcopus, amorem vt filius, timorem vt seruus. Cum tua (O pater & Domine) decreta super clericorum continentiam, &c. MarginaliaAnno. 867. A letter written to Pope Nicolas concerning Priestes not to refrayne from Mariage.

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¶ The same in English.

Hulderike bishop onely by name, vnto the reuerend father Nicholas the vigilant prouisor of the holy church of Rome: with due commendation sendeth loue as a sonne, and feare as a seruaunt. Vnderstanding reuerend father your decrees which you sent to me concerning the single lyfe of the Clergy, to be far discrepant from all discretiō, I was troubled partly with feare, partlp with heauinesse. With feare, (for that, as it is sayd) the sentence of the pastor, whether it be iust or vniust, is to be feared.

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For I was afrayde for the weake hearers of the Scripture (which scarsely obey the iust sentence of their Pastour) much more despising this vniust decreement, through the onerous and importable transgression of their Pastor, should shew themselues disobedient. With heauines I was troubled, and with compassion: for that I doubted how the members of the body should doe (their head being so greatly out of frame.) For what can be more greuous or more to be lamēted, touching the state of the church then for you, being the Bishop of the principall seat, to whom appertaineth the regiment of the whole church, to swarue neuer so little, out of the right way? Certes, in this you haue not a little erred, in that you haue gone about to constraine your Clergy to singlenes of life, through your imperious tiranny: whom rather

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