Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
Names and Places on this Page
Lord Richard RichCoxehall [Coggeshall]
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (DNB)

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the Privy Council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

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Coxehall [Coggeshall]
NGR: TL 855 230

A parish in the Witham district of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 16 miles north-east from Chelmsford. The living is a consolidated vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1616 [1592]

Queene Mary. The Martyrdome of Thomas Haukes.

MarginaliaAnno 1555 Iune. MarginaliaEx Registro The first dayes Sessions against Thomas Haukes.witte, Thom. Tomkins, Ste. Knight, W. Pygot, Iohn Laurence, and W. Hunter, to appeare in the bishops Cōsistory, the 8. day of February, this present yeare, videl. 1555. Vpon which appearaunce was laid against him, in like order, as to the other, first the bill of his confession, written with Boners hand, to the whiche bill ye heard before how the blessed seruaunt of God denyed to subscribe.

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After which bill of confession being read, and hee constantly standing to the said confession, the Bishop then assigned him with the other v. the next day folowing, which was the ix. of February, to appeare before him againe, to geue a resolute aunswere what they woulde sticke vnto. MarginaliaThe second dayes Sessions against Thomas Haukes.Which day being come, and these foresaid vi. prisoners being seuerally called before the Bishop, at the comming of Thomas Haukes, the Bishop willed him to remember what was sayd to him yesterday, and nowe while he had time and space, to aduise with himselfe, what he would answere: for he stode vpon life and death. MarginaliaThe aunswere of Thomas Haukes.Well, quoth maister Haukes againe, I wil willingly receaue what soeuer shal be put vnto me.

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Then were certayn other Interrogatories or Articles commensed agaynst him by the said Bishop (in like maner as to the other) to the number of foure: with an other bill also, which Boner brought out of his bosome containyng priuate matters against the sayd Thomas Haukes, which the bishop called heresies and errours, but we may better call them Christian verities. To the whiche matter being read, the said Haukes answered openly againe saying that it was true, and that he was glad it was so true, as it was: with moe woordes to the like effect. And this was on the forenoone, the ix. day of February.

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MarginaliaThe wordes of Thomas Haukes at his iudgement.In the after noone agayn, the sayd Haukes appearing and hearing the foresaid bill of his confession, with the Articles and Interrogatories read vto him, with like constancie in answering againe to the bishop: My Lord (saide he) as you being my frend haue caused these my sayinges to be writtē: so do you cause them to be read: and yet I wil neuer go from them.

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MarginaliaThe inuincible constancye of Thomas Haukes.And then being exhorted by the Byshoppe with many fayre wordes, to returne againe to the bosome of the mother Church: No my Lord (sayd he) that will I not: for if I had an hundreth bodies, I woulde suffer them all to be torne in peeces, rather then I will abiure or recant.

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And so continuing still in the same song, not withstanding

that the Doctors and Lawyers were euer calling vppon him to come again to the vnitie of the Church he euer kept them of with this aunswere, that he would neuer go from the beliefe he was in, so long as he liued. MarginaliaThomas Haukes condemned by Bishop Boner.Wherupon Boner, at last read the sentence of death vppon him, & so was he cōdemned the same day with the residue of his followes which was the 9. of February.

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MarginaliaThe death of Haukes differred.Neuertheles his execution was prolonged, and he remained in prison till the 10. day of Iune. 

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Most unusually Haukes was formally condemned twice; once on 9 February 1555 and once on 25 May 1555 (See PRO, C/85/127, fos. 4r and 9r). It is probable that Haukes had friends who interceded and tried to secure clemency for him. When this failed, the authorities decided to secure another writ for his execution as a precaution.

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MarginaliaThomas Haukes brought downe to Essex by the Lord Rich.Then was he committed to the handes and charge of the Lord Rich, who being assisted with power sufficiēt of þe worshipfull of the shyre, had the foresayd Tho. Haukes downe into Essex, with vi. other fellow prisoners (whose stories hereafter folow) there to suffer martirdōe, Haukes at Coxehall, the other seuerally in other seuerall places.

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Thomas Haukes by the way vsed much exhortation to his frendes, and when soeuer oportunitie serued to talk with them, he would familiarly admonish them.

MarginaliaAgreed betweene Thomas Haukes and his frendes to geue them a token in the fire, whether the payne of burning were so greeuous as it seemeth or no.A little before his death certayne there were of his familiar acquayntaunce and frendes, who frequenting hys company more familiarly, which seemed not a litte to be confirmed both by the example of his constancie, & by hys talke: yet notwithstanding the same agayne being feared with the sharpenes of the punishment, which he was going to, priuely desired that in the middest of the flame hee would shewe them some token if he could, whereby they might be more certayn whether the payne of such burning were so greate, that a man might not therein keepe hys minde quiet and pacient. 

Commentary  *  Close

Once again Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of the protestant martyrs. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

Which thing he promised them to do, and so secretly betwene them it was agreed, that if the rage of the payne were tollerable and might be suffered, then he should lift vp his handes aboue his head toward heauen before he gaue vp the ghost. 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 114, line 5 from the bottom

There is some little variation here in the first edition, p. 1162: "it was agreed amongest themselves, that if the flame should in strength vexe him intolerably, he should stand quiet; but if it shoulde be tolerable and to be suffered, and by sufferaunce might easely be overcome by the greater strength of constance and spirite, that then he should lyft up hys handes above his head towarde the heaven, before he gave up the ghost. Thinges therefore set in this order, and their mindes thus confirmed by this mutuall conversation, the houre of their martirdom is come. Hawkes is brought out to the slaughter house; and straight after to the stake fastened in the ground he is bounde very straightlie with a chaine, compassing his bodye: the gentle sacrifice standeth ready to receive the fire."

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MarginaliaThomas Haukes caryed to the place of execution.Not long after, when the houre was come Thomas Haukes was leade awaye to the place apoynted for the slaughter, by the Lord Rich & his assistaunce, who beyng now come vnto the stake, there mildly & patiently addressed himselfe to the fire, hauing a straite chayne cast about his middle, with no smal multitude of people on euery side compassing him about. MarginaliaThomas Haukes standing at the stake reasoneth with the Lord Rich.Vnto whome after he had spoken many thinges, but especially vnto the Lorde Rich, reasoning with him of the innocent bloud of Sayntes, at lēgth after his feruent prayers first made, and poured out vnto god, the fire was set vnto him.

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¶ The Martirdome of Thomas Haukes in Essex, at a Towne called Coxehall. Anno. 1555. Iune. 10.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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The young, 'comely' and well-informed Essex gentleman, Thomas Haukes, called an exemplary 'bright starre' by the martyrologist, having been examined and condemned in London, was committed to Lord Rich and returned to Essex for execution at Coggeshall. There friends and acquaintance came to his burning, shown in this crowded scene hemmed in by armed guards. They asked for a signal to show that the spirit could remain constant in the fire, and Haukes is depicted giving this, lifting his hands over his head and clapping them as he gave his last. His last words, given in italic letters in 1563, were renewed in roman with slight differences in each of the succeeding three editions. The slopes and trees and village church in the background quite deftly suggest the country location. The style of the central portion of the woodcut, with its straight lines of stacked wood and flames that snake around the martyr, bear some similarity to the small group of single-column cuts that appear to have been borrowed from another (unidentified) source (see Introduction).

In the which when he continued long, and when his speech was taken away by violence of the flame, his skin

also drawen together, and his fingers consumed with the fire, so that now all men thought certainely he had bene

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