Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Clement Throckmorton

(by 1515 - 1573)

Cousin of Catherine Parr, client of Lord Rich, MP [1542, 1545, 1547, 1553, 1559, 1563, 1571, 1572], Constable of Kenilworth castle (1553 - 1573) [Bindoff, Commons].

Thomas Hawkes instructed his wife to entrust their eldest son to Clement Throckmorton?s care. 1563, p. 1160; 1570, p. 1768; 1576, p. 1510; 1583, p. 1594

Hawkes wrote to Throckmorton entrusting his eldest son to Throckmorton?s care. 1570, p. 1769; 1576, pp. 1510-11; 1583, p. 1594

[Clement Throckmorton was the father of Job Throckmorton, the puritan MP and author].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Gawdy or Gaudy

Justice.

According to Foxe Gawdy was one of the justices who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. He was about to speak in Wattes?s defence but he kept silence when the other justices accused Wattes of treason. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1769; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, p. 1594

[Foxe does not give a first name for Gawdy. There are numerous members of the Gawdy family in Norfolk who became justices or prominent lawyers, but only one, Thomas Gawdy (by 1526 - 1588) was a justice at this time (see Bindoff, Commons). This identification is made more attractive because Thomas Gawdy was an outspoken protestant during Mary?s reign. But there is a problem with this identification as well: Thomas Gawdy was a Norfolk JP, so why was he sitting on an Essex commission? Perhaps he was not present in an official capacity; this would explain why he did sign the letter denouncing Wattes which the other commission members sent to Bonner].

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John Wiseman

John Wiseman was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. These commissioners sent Wattes to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

[This probably John Wiseman of Great Canfield, Essex (by 1515 - 1568), JP and MP [1554, 1555](Bindoff, Commons) but it might be John Wiseman of Felsted, Essex, a JP who died in 1559].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (DNB)

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the Privy Council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

 
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Richard Weston

JP, MP (1553, 1554, 1555). Justice of the Common Pleas (1559 - 1572) [Bindoff, (Commons].

Richard Weston was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. These commissioners sent him to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Richard Weston was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

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In a letter to Bishop Bonner, John Kingston said that Richard Weston was one of the commissioners who confiscated the lands and goods of 22 accused heretics. 1563, p. 1564 [recte 1576].

 
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Roger Appleton

(by 1520 - 1558)

JP Essex and Kent (1554 - 1558); MP (1558). Of Dartford, Kent and South Benfleet, Essex. [Bindoff]

Roger Appleton was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. He sent him to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

In a letter to Bishop Bonner, John Kingston said that Roger Appleton was one of the commissioners who confiscated the lands and goods of 22 accused heretics. 1563, p. 1564 [recte 1576].

Lord Russell received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, p. 1816, 1576, p. 1552, 1583, p. 1634.

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Appleton was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971].

[Married Agnes, daughter of Walter Clerk of Hadleigh, Suffolk (1 July 1545). (Bindoff)]

[He is described by Bindoff as 'a zealous Catholic'. He appointed Edmund Tyrell to be supervisor of his will (Bindoff, Commons)].

 
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Sir Anthony Browne

(1509/10 - 1567)

JP, MP for Lostwithel (1545), Great Bedwyn (1547), Preston (1553), Scarborough (1554), Maldon (1554). Sergeant-at-law and Mary's sergeant (1555). Chief Justice of the Common Pleas (1558 - 1559) and Justice of the Common Pleas (1559 - 1567). A leading early Elizabethan recusant [Bindoff, Commons, sub 'Browne, Anthony II'; DNB].

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Sir Anthony Browne was instructed, in a letter of 19 August, to imprison those who criticised the 'Queenes order of religion' or did not attend mass and to report their names to the privy council. 1583, p. 1765. [Foxe's account was taken from APC V, p. 63, but Foxe misdated the incident to 1553; the Privy Council Register says 1554].

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He threatened to send William Hunter's father to prison if William did not surrender himself. He interrogated William Hunter, became enraged with Hunter and sent Hunter to Bishop Bonner. 1570, pp. 1713-14; 1576, pp. 1462-63; 1583, pp. 1536-37.

He complained about the lack of wood at William Hunter's execution. He told Hunter that he would no more pray for him than for a dog. 1570, p. 1715; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, p. 1538.

He had Robert Hunter imprisoned in the stocks and then interrogated. 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. He sent him to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

He was present at the execution of Thomas Higbed. 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1542.

Anthony Brown persecuted George Eagles. 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Rumours were raised in Chelmsford that Justice Brown had falsely accused diverse honest men who had kept Eagles safe in their houses, in order to discredit Eagles. Someone named Reynold of Chelmsford witnessed this to be false report. 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Sir Anthony Hungerford sought the advice of justice Brown on how he should act towards Richard White and John Hunt. 1563, p. 1702, 1570, p. 2256, 1576, p. 1948, 1583, p. 2055.

[NB: Anthony Browne named Sir Edward Saunders as one of the overseers of his will (Bindoff, Commons).]

[NB: Do not confuse this Anthony Browne with Sir Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague - they are not the same person.]

 
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Sir Henry Tyrell

JP in Essex (1555) [PRO, SP11/5, no. 6]

The privy council sent a letter to Sir Henry Tyrell, Anthony Browne and Edmond Browne, instructing that they imprison all those who ?contemne? the queen?s religious order on (according to Foxe) 19 August 1553 (1583, p. 1465). [Foxe took this material from the privy council register but he misdated it. APC V, p. 63 shows that the date of the letter was 19 August 1554.]

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Tyrell was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. These commissioners sent Wattes to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Tyrell was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

 
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Sir Thomas Mildmay

MP (1547, 1553, 1555, 1558, 1559); Sheriff of Essex and Herts (1558 - 1559). Older brother of Sir Walter Mildmay [Bindoff, Commons]

Sir Thomas Mildmay was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. The commissioners sent Wattes to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

John Derifall was called before Lord Rich and Master Mildmay.1563, p. 1523, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

[Sir Thomas was described by Bishop Grindal of London in 1564 as 'indifferent in religion' (Hasler, Commons)].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Wattes

(d. 1555)

Linen draper and martyr.

Thomas Wattes sold his goods and gave the money to his wife and children. He gave his store of cloth. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1769; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, p. 1594

He was arrested on 26 April 1555 and brought before Lord Rich. He was examined by Rich and other Essex magistrates and sent by them to Bonner on 27 April. 1563, pp. 1162-63; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, pp. 1511-12; 1583, pp. 1594-95

Wattes was examined by Bonner on 2 May 1555, where he declared that the mass was abominable and the pope a tyrant. Wattes refused Bonner?s exhortations to recant. 1563, pp. 1163-65; 1570, pp. 1770-71; 1576, pp. 1511-12;1583, pp. 1595-96

He was examined by Nicholas Harpsfield on 4 May 1555. Harpsfield urged him to recant, but Wattes refused. He was interviewed informally by Bonner on 10 May; Wattes again refused to recant. 1563, p. 1165; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1512; 1583, p. 1596

He was examined formally by Bonner on 17 May, 1555 and condemned on 18 May. 1563, p. 1165; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1512; 1583, p. 1596

Wattes was sent to Chelmsford to be executed on 9 June 1555. He was confined in an inn that night with Thomas Hawkes and others. He was burned soon afterwards. 1563, pp. 1165 and 1166; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1596

 
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Billerica [Billericay]
NGR: TQ 674 945

A chapelry in the parish of Great Burstead, hundred of Barnstaple, county of Essex. 9.5 miles south-south-west from Chelmsford. The living is a perpetual curacy annexed to the vicarage of Great Burstead, in the Archdeaconry of Essex and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1618 [1594]

Q. Mary. Letters of Tho. Haukes. The story of Thomas Wattes Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iune.that ye shalbe sure to obtaine: for he hath so promised if ye continue in faith, hoping surely in him. These former lessons, wt all such instructiōs as I haue told you by mouth, I do wish that ye would most earnestly learne: and then I doubt not, but God, who is the geuer of all grace, wyll assist you in all your doings, that ye may be found worthy of his kingdome, which is prepared through Christ.

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MarginaliaCare for his children.Further, where it hath pleased God to send vs childrē, my desire is that they may bee brought vp in the feare of God, and in his lawes. And this is to certifie you, that ye deliuer in any wise my eldest sonne vnto MarginaliaHe meaneth M. Clement Throgmorton, who desired to haue the bringing vp of his child.M. Throgmorton, who vpō his good wil hath promised me to bring him vp according to my desire, and (I trust) as God hath put into his hart. See therfore that ye deliuer him in any wyse without delay: and as for the other, if ye shall seeme to be burdened with him (which I thinke nature will not suffer) my desire is that it be brought vp in the feare of God to the vttermost of your endeuour, with some honest man that hath the feare of God before his eies, and let vs geue thanks vnto God which hath giuen them vs, beseechyng hym that they may be counted worthy to be of that flocke that shall stand on the right hand of the Maiestie of God, when he shall iudge the world. Amen.

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Yet once againe I warne you, that ye continue in feruent prayer, as I sayd before: then shall ye be sure, þt God euen of his owne mercy, according as he hath promysed, will be an husband vnto you, & prouide better for you thē I was euer able to do: yea, he wil cause all men that feare him, to pitie you, to helpe you, succour you in all your necessities, so that if any will do you wrong, he wil be aduenged on hym. MarginaliaKeeping of good company.Moreouer, I wish you to keepe company wt those, of whome yee may learne to come to a more perfect knowledge in God, and I doubt not but God will prouide that such will bee glad to receiue you, if you shall professe and go forward in his truth.

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MarginaliaExhortation to take heede whō shee maryeth, & that shee mary in the Lord.Finally, and to make an end, I desire you that ye take heed with whom ye couple your selfe. See that he be a mā that feareth God, loueth his lawes, and will walke in the same to the vttermost of hys power: such a one as can be content to loue you & to care for you. Take heede he be no brawler, no drunkard, no wicked person, not giuen to filthines, no worldling, no dicer nor carder. In fine, no filthy person, but chuse you such a one as God may be glorified in both your liues. And again on your part, loue him, serue him, obey him in all godlines, as long as God shall geue you life in this world. Then shall ye both be sure to obtaine that kingdome which God the father hath prepared, and Iesus Christ obtayned for you, that neuer shall haue end, where I trust to abide your comming. Amen.

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by your husband Tho. Haukes.

Ye heard before in the letter of Tho. Haukes written to his wyfe, mention made concerning his eldest sonne to be sent to M. Throgmorton. Now what he writeth hymselfe to the said M. Throgmorton touching the same matter, by this his letter to the said party here vnder ensuyng, may appeare.

¶ A letter of Thomas Haukes to M. Clement Throgmorton. 
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This letter was first printed in the 1570 edition; it was not printed in the Letters of the Martyrs.

MarginaliaAn other letter of Thomas Haukes written to M. Clement Throgmorton.GRace, mercy and peace from God the father, and from our Lord Iesus Christ, be with you, & assist you in al your thoghts words, and works, that he in all things as most woorthy, may be glorified, and that the blessing of Abraham may be poured plenteously on you and all your posteritie.

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Where as the loue of God hath mooued you to require my sonne to be brought vp before your eyes, & the selfe same loue hath also mooued me in like case to leaue hym in your hands, as vnto a father in myne absence, I shall require you in Gods behalf according to your promise, that ye will see hym brought vp in the feare of the Lord, and instructed in the knowledge of his holy word, that he may thereby learne to leaue the euill and know the good, and alwayes be pricked forward with fatherly instructions to folow my footsteps, that as almighty God hath made me worthy through his speciall grace to worke his will in obedience, he may learne to follow me his father in the like, to gods honor and prayse: And this I require you in Gods behalfe to fulfill or cause to be fulfilled, as ye before the liuing God will make aunswer for the same. I haue left for the child certaine bookes which shall be deliuered vnto you, wherein his instruction and saluation lieth, if he learne and practise the same. And thus, most humbly beseeching you once agayne, to be as good vnto him as your promise was to me, that is, to be a father, & a wall of defence vnto hym in all troubles, I leaue him in your hand through the Lord Iesu, and desire him to blesse both him & you according to his good promise: & all that good which ye shal do vnto him, I shal most hartily desire the euerlasting God to recompence vnto you in hys

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kingdome, where I hope to meete both him and you among all Gods elect. To which God be all praise, honor and glory. Amen.

Yours and all mens in Christ Iesu, Tho. Haukes.

¶ The history of Thomas VVattes, examined, tried, and burnt for the truth of the Gospell. 
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The Martyrdom of Thomas Wats

The Rerum merely mentions that Wats was executed at Chelmsford on 10June 1555. All the information Foxe printed on Wats appeared in the 1563 edition, although the materials were rearranged in the 1570 edition. The letter to Bonner from the Essex justices, the articles objected against Wats together his answers and the description of Wats's appearances in Consistory court all come from official records, probably a court book, which is now lost. The background on Wats's life, the account of the examination of Wats by Lord Rich and the description of Wats's execution came from oral sources and eyewitness accounts. (The disorder of this material in the 1563edition and its subsequent rearrangement show that this material came to Foxe from different sources). The account of Wats's life and martyrdom was reprinted without alteration in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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Thomas Watts

Most of the glosses in this section give brief summaries of the content of the articles against Watts and his answers to them. As is usual, 1563 simply uses marginal numbers to distinguish articles, while later editions use verbal glosses. Foxe in the gloss 'Q. Maryes seruice reproued' interestingly goes out of the way (if one compares it to the text) to make the point that the religious service in question was the queen's. Sir Anthony Browne's turn against his former profession is also highlighted in the margin ('Syr Anthony Browne a Gospeller in K. Edwardes dayes & a persecuter in Queene Maryes dayes'). A reference in 1563 to two who wanted to be burned along with Watts was later dropped, although the piece of text it corresponds to was retained: perhaps Foxe did not want to emphasise a case which could be portrayed as seeking martyrdom.

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MarginaliaIune. 10. The story of Thomas Wattes Martyr.THomas Wattes of Billerica, within the county of Essex, and the Dioces of London, was by his occupation a linnen Draper, MarginaliaThomas Wattes disposeth his goodes before he should be apprehended.who before 
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This little anecedote about Wats giving away his possessions and settling his affairs appeared at the end of the account of Wats in the 1563 edition. This indicates that this particular anecdote came to Foxe from a different source than the material on Wats's background.

he was apprehēded, had sold and made away his cloth in his shop, and disposed his things being set in order to his wyfe and children, & gaue away much of his cloth vnto the poore: For he looked always to be taken by gods aduersaries and his, as shortly after came in deed to passe: so that vpon the 26. day of April, he was apprehended and brought before the L. Rich, and other Commissioners at Chelmesford, and there beyng accused for not commyng to the church, was vpon the same examined before the L. Rich, Henry Tyrel, Sir Anthony Browne, Edmund Tyrell, Tho. Mildman, Iohn Wiseman, Rog. Appleton, Rich. Weston, Iustice Gaudy, &c. The summe and principall effect of which examination here vnder followeth briefly expressed.

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¶ The examination of Tho. VVattes, before the Lord Rich and others. 
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This examination appeared at the end of the account of Wats's martyrdom, indicating that it came from another source than the other material. It is clearly written by a spectator, or more probably, Wats himself and not taken from an official record.

MarginaliaThe examinatiō of Thomas Wattes before the Lord Rich and other the Queenes commissioners.WHen this Tho. Wattes came before the L. Rich and other the Iustices, whose names are specified in the letter followyng (which they sent vnto the B. of London agaynst him) at the sessions at Chelmesford, the Lord Rich sayd these words or the lyke in effect vnto hym.

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MarginaliaThe wordes of the Lord Rich to Tho. Wattes.Wattes, ye be brought hither (as I vnderstand) because of disobedience to the Kyng and Queens lawes. Ye will not come to the Church, ye will not heare Masse, &c. but haue your conuenticles a sort of you in corners, contrary to the K. and Queenes proceedings. Vnto whiche hys words Wattes answered and sayd.

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MarginaliaWattes wordes to the L. Rich.My L. if I haue offended a lawe, I am subiect here to the lawe. Then MarginaliaSyr Anthony Browne a Gospeller in K. Edwardes dayes & a persecuter in Queene Maryes dayes.Anth. Browne Iustice, sayd vnto hym: Wats, I pray thee tell me who hath bene thy schoolemaister, to teach thee this geare, or where didst thou first learn this religion? Forsooth (quoth Wattes) euen of you Sir: you taught it me, and none more then you. For in K. Edwards dayes in open sessions you spake against this Religion now vsed, no preacher more. You then sayd, þe masse was abhominable, & all their trumpery besides, wishing and earnestly exhorting that none should beleeue therin, & that our beliefe should be onely in Christ: and you said thē whosoeuer should bryng in any strange natiō to rule here it were treason, and not to be suffred.

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Then said Browne to my Lord Rich, he belies me my Lord. What a knaue is this? he wil soone belye me behind my backe, when he doth it before my face, and my L. Rich sayd againe, I dare say he doth so.

After these wordes, Wattes tooke occasion to speake somewhat of King Phillip and of hys commyng in, but what it was, I coulde not iustly learne. But this muche was heard, that after those wordes spoken, the Benche among themselues stood vp, and sayd one to another: treason, sauyng one good man called MarginaliaIustice Gaudy a good man.Iustice Gawdy, who a little before was about to speake: but when he heard them cry treason, he helde downe his head as one grieued and troubled at their doyngs.

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In conclusion, the Commissioners being wery of him or els not willing to meddle further in such high matters, sent him vp to the B. of London, with their letter withal, importing the cause of his sending vp as by the contentes thereof here vnder followeth to be seene.

¶ A letter sent by certaine Iustice in Essex to Boner B. of London. 
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The accounts of Wats's appearance in Consistory court, along with the letter from the Essex justices, and the articles objected against him with his answers, are taken from official documents, probably a court book, which is now lost.

MarginaliaA letter of the Lord Rich, Henry Tyrell & other Iustices to Boner.AFter our most harty cōmendations to your good lordship, these shall be to aduertise you, that at our Sessions of Oyer & Terminer holden at Chelmesford the 26. day of April last past, there came before vs in open Courte one Thomas Wattes of Billerica within your dioces, by ordinary proces, and then and there being examined why he refused to come to his parish Church, and there to receiue the sacrament of the aultar and heare diuine seruice, according to the institution of holy church, he openly there answered generally that like as the seruice of the Churche set out in the dayes of late King Edward the 6. was sayd by vs now to be abominable, hereticall, schismaticall, & all naught, so he sayd that all that is nowe vsed & done in the Church is abhominable, hereticall, schismaticall, and all naught, with diuers other erroneous & arrogant words: MarginaliaTho Wattes sent vp by the Iustices of Essex to Byshop Boner.and therefore we haue thought good to send hym to your

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