Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Isabel Malt

Of Horn Alley, Aldersgate, London

Isabel Malt claimed that Lord North and another nobleman had approached her in 1555 and offered her money if they could take her infant son and pass it off as queen Mary's son. 1570, p. 1772; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1597

 
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John Cawood

(1514 - 1572)

Queen Mary's official printer (DNB)

In the 1563 edition, the Privy Council's letter to Bonner, announcing that the Queen was pregnant, is stated by Foxe to have been printed by 'Iohn Cawood' (1563, pp. 1014-15). The letter was reprinted in later editions (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76) but the attribution to Cawood was never repeated.

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In the 1563 edition, a copy of Hugh Weston's prayer for the safe delivery of Mary's child was printed and followed by the phrase 'Imprinted by Iohn Cawode etc' (1563, p. 1015). This phrase was omitted when the poem was reprinted in 1570, p. 1653; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1480-81.

 
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Lord Edward North

(1496? - 1564)

1st baron North of Kirtling (DNB ; Bindoff, Commons) Brother of Joan Wilkinson.

North was a supporter of Lady Jane Grey who gained Mary's favor.

He was one of the signatories of a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

North was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was ordered by the privy council to examine Cary, John Dee, John Field and Sir Thomas Benger. 1583, p. 1581

Isabel Malt claimed that Lord North and another nobleman offered her money in exchange for her infant son, hoping to pass the baby off as Mary?s son. 1570, p. 1772; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1597

Lord Edward North was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Ralph Allerton was examined on 24 April 1557 before Bonner, Lord North, Dr Story and others. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2210-11, 1576, p. 1907-08, 1583, p. 2015-16.

 
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Timothy Malt

Son of Isabel Malt. Born in 1555.

An attempt was allegedly made to purchase Timothy Malt from his mother and pass him off as Mary?s son. 1570, p. 1772; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1597

1621 [1597]

Queene Mary. Queene Maries child. Good bookes restrained. Articles to be inquired of.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iune.At thys time many talked diuersly: MarginaliaWhat became of Q. Maryes childe no man can tell.some sayd thys rumour of the Queenes conception was spread for a policie: some other affirmed that shee was deceiued by a Tympanie 

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A swelling or a tumor (OED).

or some other like disease, to thinke herselfe with child, and was not: some thought she was with childe, and that it did by some chaunce miscarie, or els that she was bewitched: but what was the truth therof, the Lord knoweth, to whome nothing is secrete. One thing of mine owne hearing, and seeing I can not passe ouer vnwitnessed.

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There came to me, whom I did both heare and see, one Isabell Malt, a woman dwellyng in Aldersgate streete in Horne alley, 

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In other words, Isabel Malt lived within a stone's throw of John Day's printshop.

not far from the house where this present booke was Printed, who before witnes made this declaration vnto vs, that she beyng deliuered of a māchild vpō Whitsonday in the mornyng, whiche was the xi. day of Iune. an. 1555. there came to her the Lord North, and an other Lord to her vnknowē, dwellyng thē about old Fish streete, demaūdyng of her if she would part with her child, and would sweare that she neuer knewe nor had no such child. Whiche if she would, her sonne (they sayd) should be well prouided for, she should take no care for it, with many fayre offers if she would part with the child.

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After that came other womē also, of whō one she sayd should haue bene the Rocker, but she in no wise would let go her sonne, who at þe writyng hereof being aliue & called Timothe Malt, was of the age of xiij. yeares & vpward. 

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Rumours were circulating in the spring of 1555 that Mary was not truly pregnant and that she would try to substitute another woman's child and claim it as her own (see Brigden, p. 596).

MarginaliaEx testimonio eiusdam puerperæ Londinensis.Thus much (I say) I heard of the woman her selfe. What credite is to bee geuen to her relation, I deale not withall, but leaue it to the libertie of the Reader, to beleue it they that list: to them that list not, I haue no further warrant to assure them.

MarginaliaThe young Princes cradle.Among many other great preparations made for the Queenes deliueraunce of childe, there was a cradle very sumptuously and gorgeously trimmed, vppon the whiche cradle for the child appointed, these Verses were written, both in Latin and English.

Quam Mariæ sobolem Deus optime summe dedisti,
Anglis incolumem redde, tuere, rege.

MarginaliaVerses vpon the Cradle.The Child which thou to Mary, O Lord of might hast send.
To Englandes ioy in health preserue, keepe and defend.

 

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Censorship Proclamation

All of the material on the 1555 efforts by the Marian regime to censor anti-catholic literature was first printed in the 1563 edition and unchanged in subsequent editions. However, as was so often the case, in the 1570 edition Foxe moved this material to place it in its proper chronological order. Foxe apparently printed the proclamation and the articles from records of Bishop Bonner, now lost.

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About this tyme there came ouer into England a certaine English booke, geuing warnyng to English men of the Spanyardes, and disclosing certaine close practises for recouery of Abbay landes, which booke was called A warnyng for England. 
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Foxe himself had used A Warning for England to support his claims thatMary secretly planned to restore abbey lands.

Whereof ye shall vnderstand more (God willyng) when we come to the Spanish Inquisition. So that by the occasion of this booke, vppon the xiij. day of this moneth  
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 127, line 9

Machyn, in his Diary, published by the Camden Society in 1848, p. 90, says "the xiiii," which may be more correct, as a day would in all likelihood precede its actual publication.

came out a certaine Proclamation, set forth in the name of the Kyng and Queene, repealyng & disanullyng all maner of bookes writtē or Printed, whatsoeuer should touche any thyng the impayryng of the Popes dignitie, whereby not onely much godly edification was hyndred: but also great perill grew among the people. The copy of which Proclamation here foloweth.

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A Proclamation set out by the King and Queene for the restraining of all bookes and wrytings tending againg the doctrine of the Pope and his Churche. 
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Foxe probaly printed the proclamation from a copy transcribed in Bonner's records.

WHere as by the Statute made in the seconde yeare of king Henrie the fourth concerning the repressing of heresies, there is ordained and prouided a great punishment, not only for the authours, makers, and wryters of bookes containing wicked doctrine and erroneous and hereticall opinions contrary to the Catholicke faith, and determination of the holy Church, & likewise for their fautors & supporters, but also for such as shal haue or keepe any suche bookes or wrytings, and not make deliuerie of them to the Ordinarie of the Diocesse or his Ministers, wyth in a certaine time limited in the sayd Statute, which  

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Censorship Proclamation

The fact that the scriptural reference in the gloss 'Astiterunt reges terræ, & principes conuenerunt in vnum aduersus Dominum & Christum eius' is given in Latin is probably because it opposes royal intentions and God in such a stark way; if so, this tells us something about what Foxe felt should be kept from vulgar eyes and ears (however, it would be simple enough to follow up the reference in an English Bible).

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MarginaliaOf this Acte or statute, read before Pag. 507.Acte or Statute being by the authoritie of Parliament of late reuiued, was also openly proclaimed, to the intent the subiectes of the realme vpon such Proclamation should the rather eschew the danger and penaltie of the sayde Statute, and as yet neuerthelesse, in moste partes of the Realme the same is neglected, and little regarded: MarginaliaAstiterunt reges terræ, & principes conuenerunt in vnum aduersus Dominum & Christum eius. Psal. 2.The King and Queene our soueraigne Lord and Ladie, therefore. &c.  
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 127, line 31

In edit. 1563 (p. 1147): "Therefore *most entierly, and earnestly tenderyng the preservation, and safetye, as well of the soules, as of the bodies, lands, and substaunce of all their good and lovyng subjectes and others, and minding to roote out, and extinguish all false doctrine and heresies, and other occasions of schismes, divisions, and sectes that come by the same heresies and false doctrine,* straitly charge," &c.

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straightly charge and commaunde, that no persone or persones, of what estate, degreee, or condition soeuer he or they be, from hencefoorth presume to bring or conuey, or cause to bee brought or conueied into this Realme, any bookes, wrytings or woorkes heereafter mentioned: that is to saye, anye booke or bookes, wrytings or woorkes made or sette foorth, by, or in the name of Martine Luther, or any booke or bookes, wrytings or woorkes made or sette forth, by, or in the name of Oecolampadius, Zwinglius, Iohn Caluine, Pomerane, Iohn Alasco, Bullin- 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 127, line 17 from the bottom

The possession or retention of books of this class or similar exposed the individual, if a male, to decapitation, if a female, to burning alive, among the Belgic subjects of Charles V. in 1540; and a persistence in the sentiments to punishment by fire, and confiscation of goods; "Viros gladio feriendos, Mulieres vivas defodiendas esse, si modo errores suos tolerare aut defendere nolint. Si autem in erroribus et hæresibus perseverare velint, igne ad mortem adigendi sunt." (Cochlæi Comment. de actis et scriptis M. Lutheri, p. 300, edit. Mogunt, 1549.)

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MarginaliaGood bookes prohibited.ger, Bucer, Melancthon, Bernardinus Ochinus, Erasmus Sarcerius, Peter Martyr, Hugh Latymer, Robert Barnes, otherwyse called Frier Barnes, Iohn Bale, otherwise called Frier Bale, Iustus Ionas, Iohn Hoper, Myles Couerdal, William Tyndal, Thomas Cranmer late Archbishop of Canterburie, William Turner, Theodore Basill, otherwise called Thomas Beacon, Ihon Frith, Roy, and the booke commonly called MarginaliaAgaynst Halles Cronicle.Halles Chronicle, or anye of them, in the Latine toung, Dutch toung, English toung, Italian toung, or French toung, or any other like booke, paper, wryting, or woorke, made, printed, or sette foorthe, by any other persone or persones, containing false doctrine contrarie, and against the Catholicke faith, and the doctrine of the Catholicke Churche: MarginaliaWhat adoe is here to kepe downe Christ in his sepulchre, and yet will he rise in spite of al his enemies.And also that no person or persons presume to write, printe, vtter, sell, reade, or kepe anye, or cause to bee wrytten, printed, vttered, or kept, anye of the sayde bookes, papers, woorkes or wrytings, or any booke or bookes wrytten or printed in the Latine or English toung, concerning the common seruice and administration sette foorth in English to be vsed in the Churches of this Realme, in the time of king Edwarde the sixth, commonly called the Communion booke or booke of common seruice and ordering of Ministers, otherwise called The booke sette foorth by authoritie of Parliament, for common prayer & administration of the Sacramentes, or to be vsed in the mother tounge wythin the Church of England, but shall wythin the space of fifteene dayes nexte after the publication of this Proclamation, bring or deliuer, or cause the sayde bookes, wrytinges, and woorkes, and euerye of them remaining in their custodies and keeping, to be broughte and deliuered to the Ordinarie of the Diocesse, where suche bookes, woorkes, or wrytinges be or remaine: or to his Chauncellour or Commissaries, without fraud, coulour, or deceite, at the sayde Ordinaries will and disposition, to be burnt, or otherwise to be vsed or ordered by the sayde Ordinaries, as by the Canons or spiritual lawes it is in that case limitted and appoynted, vppon paine that euerye offender contrary to this Proclamation, shal incurre the daunger and penalties contained in the sayde Statute, and as they will auoide theyr Maiesties high indignation and displeasure, and further answere at their vttermost pearils.

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MarginaliaThe power of this world set agaynst Christ.And their Maiesties by this Proclamation geue full power and authoritie to all Byshops and Ordinaries, and all Iustices of peace, Maiors, Sheriffes, Bailiffes of Cities and Townes corporate, and other head Officers wythin this Realme and the dominions thereof, and expresly commaundeth and willeth the same and euery of them, that they and euerye of them within their seuerall limites and iurisdictions, shall in the default & negligence of the sayde Subiectes, after the sayde fifteene dayes expired, enquire and searche out the sayde bookes, wrytings and woorkes, and for this purpose enter into the house or houses, closets and secreate places of euery persone, of what so euer degree, beynge negligent in thys behalfe, and suspected to keepe any such boke, wryting, or woorkes, contrary to this Proclamation: And that the sayde Iustices, Maiors, Sheriffes, Bailiffes, and other heade Officers aboue specified, and euery of them wythin theyr sayde limites and iurisdictions, fineding any of the sayde subiectes negligent and faultie in this behalfe, shall commit euery such offender to Warde, there to remaine without baile or mainprise, till the same offender or offenders haue receiued such punishment, as the sayde Statute doeth limite and appoynte in this behalfe. Geuen vnder our Signes Manuel, at oure Honour of Hampton Courte, the thirteene day of Iune, the first and second yeares of our raignes.

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Imprinted by Iohn Cawood.
Anno. 1555.

Articles to be enquired vppon by the wardones of euery, companie, touching seditious bookes, especially touching the booke called A Warning for England. 
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Foxe almost certainly printed these articles from a copy in Bonner's records. The inquiries were duly made among the London companies and copies of banned books were found among members of the draper's company. (See Brigden, p. 595).

MarginaliaThis booke called a warning for England, looke for hereafter, when we come (God willing, to the Spanish Inquisition.

MarginaliaArticles to be inquired vpon.1 WHether they haue seene any of the forsaid bookes.

2 Whether they haue hearde of anye of the sayde bookes.

3 Where they were, and in what place they haue seene them.

4 Whome they know to haue lately come from beyonde the sea, especially from Zurik, Strausbrough, Frankford, Wezel, Emden, and Disburge.

5 Whome they knowe, or vehemently suspect to be common cariers of letters of money thether from hence.

6 That they bring to my Lord Maior all suche seditious bookes as they haue, or shall haue found hereafter.

 

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Our Lady's Psalter

The entire section on the passages on the Virgin Mary in the Sarum missal and the Psalter of Our Lady first appears in the 1570 edition. It takes as its logical starting point the previous section on the Marian government's attempts to ban seditious and heretical literature. Here Foxe is contrasting the literature which the Marian church championed with the literature it banned. This section is less of anattack on the cult of the Virgin Mary per se, than an attack on the popular Wayland primers which contained the versions of the Sarum primer quoted by Foxe. The Wayland primers were sponsored by the Marian government and were a popular and effective means of disseminating a Christocentric catholic piety to lay people (see Duffy, pp. 526-27, 538-39 and 542-43). Foxe sought to undermine the Wayland primers, partly through misquotation and partly through linking them to the Psalter of Our Lady, a thirteenth-century work which was attributed to St Bonaventure. The theology of the Psalter of Our Lady was sufficiently distinct from that of the catholic reformation to cause embarrassment. And Foxe was ready to alter the passages he was quoting to achieve the desired result. (For Foxe's polemical objectives in printing this section see Freeman [2004]).

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This section is a very revealing example of how clever and ruthless a propagandist Foxe could be.

In this proclamation thou hast hearde (Christian reader) the profounde and learned Censure of the Catholike Churche of Englande, what bookes they mislike and reiect as heretical, schismatical, and pernicious. Against the which Catholicke censure of these learned fathers, I haue

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