Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Names and Places on this Page
David WoodruffWilliam Chester
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
David Woodruff

Sheriff of London (1554 - 1555) (DNB, sub 'Sir William Chester').

Together with fellow sheriff Sir William Chester, David Woodruff escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, pp. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507.

After Rogers and Hooper were degraded, they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

Chester and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

Woodruff urged John Rogers, at his execution, to recant his 'abhominable doctrine'. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, p. 1493.

Together with William Chester, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Woodruff taunted Bradford at his burning and ordered Bradford's hands to be tied when he would not cease praying. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804 [with cross-ref to p. 1664], 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

He called John Rogers a heretic at his burning and said that he would never pray for him, although Rogers prayed for the sheriff. 1563, p. 1215, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In 1555 he was sheriff with William Chester. Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

Along with Bonner, Woodruff cried for Robert Smith to be taken away at his last examination. 1563, p. 1259, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, p. 1605, 1583, p. 1694.

David Woodruff insisted that Carman's head be broken for getting his cart in the way when Woodruff's children were being brought to him. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Woodruff was afflicted with a deadening of one side, which stayed with him for seven or eight years until he died. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[For further evidence of Woodruff's catholic sympathies, see Brigden, London, p. 554].

[Foxe also refers to him by the variants: 'Woodriff', 'Woodrofe', 'Wodroffe' and 'Wodriffe'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Chester

(1509? - 1595?)

Draper. Lord mayor, alderman and merchant of London. (DNB)

Sheriff with David Woodruff in 1555.

Together with his fellow sheriff David Woodruff, Chester escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during the process of their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, p. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507. After Hooper and Rogers were degraded they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p.1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508. He and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1036; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

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Chester escorted Rowland Taylor out of London on the first leg of Taylor's journey to Hadleigh for execution. Chester gave Taylor permission to speak with his wife and daughters and wept as Taylor said farewell to them. He 'gently' refused to let Taylor's wife speak further with her husband while Taylor was being detained in an inn, awaiting the arrival of the sheriff of Essex. Chester provided Margaret Taylor with an escort to her mother's house. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1700; 1576, pp. 1451-52; 1583, p. 1525.

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Together with David Woodruff, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

On 30 May 1555, John Cardmaker and John Warne were committed to Chester and Woodruff's custody for execution. At the stake, Chester and Woodruff called Cardmaker aside and talked with him secretly for a long time. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1751; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, p. 1579.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans are altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In a letter to Augustine Bernher, Bradford asked Bernher to ask Mrs Pierrpoint to ask Sheriff Chester what was planned for him. 1570, p. 1837, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1654.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

William Chester was persecuted during Mary's reign for his protestant beliefs. 1563, p. 1737.

1709 [1685]

Queene Mary. The godly confession of M. Denly, his Martyrdome.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iuly.speake with tongs more then ye all, yet had I rather in the congregation to speake fiue words with vnderstandyng, to the information of other, then ten thousand words with the tong. Also he sayth: Let all thyngs be done to edification.

Also it is written in the Psalme, 46. For God is kyng of all the earth: O sing praises vnto hym with vnderstandyng, &c. MarginaliaThe Popes seruice in the tongue which edifieth not the people.So it doth appeare that this Church of England now vsed, is not builded vppon Christ, if S. Paules wordes be true, and also the Psalmes: therefore this Church is not builded vpon the prophets, apostles, nor Christ, as I haue declared before.

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MarginaliaThe Masse abominable and Idolatrous.To this 4. Article I answer, and I do beleeue (as I haue aforesayd) that the masse now vsed in this realme of England, is naught and abhominable, idolatry and blasphemy against Gods word: for Christ in his holy supper instituted the Sacramentes of bread and wine, to be eaten together in remembraunce of his death till he come, & not to haue them worshipped, and make an Idoll of them: for GOD will not be worshipped in his creatures, but wee ought to geue him prayses for his cretures, which he hath created for vs. For he sayth in the second commandement: MarginaliaThe Masse agaynst Gods commaundement.Thou shalt not make to thy selfe any grauen image, nor the lykenes of any thing that is in heauen aboue, or in the earth beneth, thou shalt not bow down to them nor worship them So it appeareth by this commaundement, that wee ought not to worship the Sacrament of bread and wyne, for it is playn idolatry, for he sayth: No similitude, therfore Thou shalt not bow downe to them nor worship them. I pray you what doe you call kneelyng downe, holdyng vp the handes, knockyng of the brest, puttyng of the cap, and makyng curtesie, with other like superstition? You would make men to be so blynd, that this is no worshippyng.

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MarginaliaObiection of the Papistes remoued.Peraduenture you will obiect and say, you do not worship the bread & the wyne, but Christes body whiche was borne of the Virgine Mary, conteyned vnder the forme of bread and wyne. But that is a very lye: for Christes body that was borne of the Virgin Mary, is in heauen, if saint Paules words be true, as vndoubtedly they are: for hee sayth in the x. of the Hebrues: But this man, after hee hath offered one sacrifice for sinnes, is set down for euer on the right hand of God, and from henceforth tarieth till hys foes bee made his footestoole. MarginaliaHeb. 10.

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Also in the 9. chap. he sayth: For Christ is not entered into holy places that are made with hands, which are similitudes of true thyngs, but is entred into very heauen, for to appeare nowe in the sight of God for vs, &c. MarginaliaHeb. 9.Also Phil. 3. But our conuersation is in heauen, from whence we looke for the Sauiour, euen the Lord Iesus Christ, &c. MarginaliaPhilip. 3.Thes 1. For they themselues shew of you, what maner of entring in we had vnto you, and how ye turned to God from Images, for to serue the liuyng God, and for to look for his sonne from heauen, whom he raysed from death, euen Iesus, which deliuered vs from the wrath to come, &c. Marginalia
1. Thess. 1.
Scriptures prouing Christ not to be bodyly in the Sacrament.
Also Iohn 16. I went out from the father, and came into the world. Again, I leaue the world, and go to the father. &c. MarginaliaIoh 19. Iohn. 17. Now I am not in the world, and they are in the world, and I come to thee. MarginaliaIohn. 17.And these places of the Scripture with other mo, prooueth plainly to them that haue eares to heare, that Christes body that was borne of the Virgin Mary, is in heauen, and not in the Sacramentall bread and wyne, and therefore it is idolatry to worship them, &c.

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MarginaliaAgaynst auricular confession.To this fift Article I aunswer, that I do beleue as I haue aforesayd, that auricular confession is not good, as it is now vsed. Touching my sinnes wherein I haue offended God, I must seeke to hym for remission therof, for our Sauiour Christ sayth in the xj. of S. Mathew: Come vnto me all ye that labour and are laden, I will ease you, &c. MarginaliaMathew. 11.The riotous sonne, Luke. xv. sayth: I will arise and go to my Father and will say to him, Father, I haue sinned agaynst heauen and before thee, and am no more worthy to bee called thy sonne, &c. MarginaliaLuke 15.Psal. 31. I sayd, I will knowledge myne offences, and accuse my selfe vnto the Lord, and so thou forgauest me the wickednesse of my sinne. &c. MarginaliaPsalme. 31.Iob. 13. But I will reproue myne own wayes in hys sight: He shal make me whole, and there may no hypocrite come before hym. MarginaliaIob. 13.Syrach. 34. sayth: Who can be clensed of the vncleane? MarginaliaSirac. 34.And there was but one of the x. Lepers that were clensed, that came to Christ to geue hym thanks. He asked for the other ix. But if I haue offended my neighbour, I must reconcile my self to my neighbour: and if I be a notorious sinner, after the first & second admonition, it ought to be declared to the congregation, and the Minister of the congregation hath power by the word to excommunicate me, and I am to bee taken as a Heathen person, not for a day, or xl. dayes, but vnto such tyme as I do openly in the congregation knowledge my fault, then the minister hath power by the word, to preach to me or them the remission of our sins in the bloud of Iesus Christ, MarginaliaRemission of sinnes to be sought onely at the handes of Christ.as it is written in the 13. of the Acts of the Apostles, Math. 18. Other confession I know none.

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To this 6. Article, I the sayd Iohn Denley haue aunswered in the fift, &c.

To this 7. Article I answer, that as touchyng the sacrament of Baptisme, which is the christenyng of childrē, as it is altered and chaunged: MarginaliaBaptisme abused in the Popes Church.for S. Iohn Baptist vsed nothyng, but the preachyng of the word and the water, as it doth appeare, whē Christ required to be baptised of him and others also which came to Iohn to be baptised, as it appeareth Math. 3. Mark. 1. Luke. 3. and Act. 8. the chamberlaine sayd: See here is water, what letteth me to be baptised? MarginaliaAct. 8.It appereth here that Phillip had preached vnto him, for he sayd, here is water. We do not read that hee asked for any creame, or oile, not for spettle, nor coniured water, nor coniured waxe, nor yet crysome, nor salt: for it semeth that Phillip had preached no such thyngs to hym, for he would as wel haue asked for them as for water: & the water was not coniured, but euen as it was afore. Also Act. x. Thē answered Peter: Can any man forbid water that these shold not be baptised? &c. MarginaliaActes. 10.Actes. 16. And Paule and Silas preached vnto hym the word of the Lord, and to all that were in his house: & he took them the same houre of the night, and washed their wounds, & so was he baptised, and al they of his houshold straight way. MarginaliaActes. 16.Where ye see nothyng but preachyng the word & the water. The lyke also is to be sayd of the rest of the ceremonies of your Church.

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To the 8. Article I answer shortly, that there bee Sacraments no mo but two, Baptisme and the Sacrament of the body & bloud of Christ, except ye will make the rainbow a sacrament: MarginaliaThe Raynebow as good a Sacrament as some of the Popish Sacramentes.for there is no sacramēt but hath a promise annexed vnto it.

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To the 9. Article 

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This article is worded somewhat differently in Rerum, p. 513; this was notdue to Foxe tampering with the text but with his printing different versions of the document in the Rerum and in 1563.

I doe aunswer you, that ye haue my mynd written alredy. For it was found about me whē I was taken, and also ye know my mynd in the 4. Article, plainly expressed concernyng the bodily presence: for christes body is in heauen, & will not be conteyned in so small a piece of breade. And as the wordes which Christ spake are true in deede, so must they also bee vnderstanded by other of the Scriptures, whiche Christ spake hymselfe, and also the Apostles after hym. And thus I make an ende, &c.

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By me Iohn Denley.

The first day of the month of Iuly, the sayd thre prisoners were brought into the Consistory in Paules church, where he proceded against them after his vsual forme and maner of law, reading first their confessions, articles and answers, and then tempting them, sometyme with fayre promises, other whiles with threatnyngs, which were alwayes his chiefest argumentes and reasons to perswade withall. In the end, seeyng their vnmoueable constancye, vpon the 5. of Iuly he condemned them as heretikes, and gaue them vnto the shiriffes of London, as to his commō executioners, who kept them vntill they were commāded by writ to send them to their seuerall places of sufferyng: 

Commentary  *  Close

Early in 1555, the martyrs were sent to be executed in places where they had been active in preaching. But Denley and Patingham had no known connection to Uxbridge. They were being sent there rather than being burned in London where the crowds had become dangerously volatile.

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The Martyrdome of Maister Iohn Denley. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of M. Denley with a fagot cast at his face, at Vxbridge. An. 1555. August. 8.

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The image of Denley is as much about the executioners as the martyr. It belongs to Type 1 of the small woodcuts, and the emphasised plume of smoke characteristic of these cuts serves to form a kind of barrier between martyr and persecutors. The illustration shows the moment at which the faggot is hurled in Denley's face on the order of 'cruel Dr Story', whose profile and pointing hand reflect this repute, while the inscription of his name in the background ensures the identification. Denley's patient endurance is evident in his stance.

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