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190 [167]

K. Harold. William Conquerour. Pope Siluester. 3. Popes at one time in Rome.

surety, that he & his people should passe through the Citie without tarying: which promise he well obseruing, passed the bridge, and went ouer vnto Sussex. From whence he sent a Monke vnto Harold, & profered to him three maner of wayes. MarginaliaThree conditions offered to Harold by D. William.1. Either to render to him the possession of the land, and so take it againe of hym vnder tribute, raigning vnder him. 2. or els to abide and stand to the Popes arbitrement betwixt them both: or thirdly to defende hys quarel in his own person against the Duke, and they two onely to trie the matter by dinte of sworde, wythout any other bloudsheding.

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But Harold refused all these offers, saying: it should be tried by dinte of swordes, & not by one sworde. And so gathered his people, & ioyned battaile with the Normands, in the place where afterwarde was builded the Abbey of Battaile in Sussex. MarginaliaThe fight betweene Harold and Duke William.In the beginning of which fight the englishmen kept them in good array, like to vanquishe the Normandes. Wherefore Duke William caused hys men to geue backe, as though they fled: wherby the englishmē followed fast and brake their array. Then the Normanes fiercely geuing a charge vpon them, in cōclusion obtained the victorie, through the iust prouidence of God. Where king Harolde, who before had murdered Alfrede the true heire of the Crowne, with his company of Normandes so cruelly: was now wounded of the Normandes, in the left eye with an arrow, and therof incontinent died: MarginaliaK. Harold slayne. although Gerardus sayeth, hee fled away to Chester, and liued after that a Monke in the monasterie of S. Iames. Whyche is not like, but rather that he was there slaine, after that he had raigned nine moneths, and was buried at Waltham (which prooueth that he died not at Chester) and so was he the last that raigned in England of the bloud of Saxons: the which continued (to recken from Hengistus his firste raigne in Kent) by the space of 591. yeres. And if it be reckened from the yeares of the Westsaxons, then it endured the space of 565. yeres.

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MarginaliaThe consanguinitie betweene K. Edward and William Conquerour.This William Duke, and king Edward, were by the fathers side, cousin germaines remoued. For Richard the first of that name, which was the thirde duke of Normandy after Rollo: was father to Duke Richard the second of that name, & brother to Emma mother to king Edward. Which Duke Richarde the seconde, was father to Duke Robert, this Duke Williams father.

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Albeit in this matter, other some may gather otherwise and better, perchance, yet if I may say what I thinke, verely I suppose, that there is no consanguinitie so muche here the cause, why God of hys vnknowen iudgementes suffered the Normandes here to preuaile: as was rather the cruell murder of Alfred, & of the innocent Normands, wrought by the cruel despight of Harold and the englishmen, as is before declared. MarginaliaMurther iustly recompensed.The which merciles murther, God here iustly in this conquest recompensed.

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Now remaineth also to these forein affaires of kings & Princes, to adde somthing likewise concerning the continuation of the Archbishops of Caunterburie, beginning there where we last left: MarginaliaArchbishops of Caunterb.that is with Elphegus, whome we declared a little before to be stoned by the Danes at Grenewich After which Elphegus next succeeded MarginaliaLiningus. Egelmothus. Robertus. Stigandus.Liningus, after him Egelnothus also aboue mentioned. Then Robertus a Normand, a great doer (as is declared) about king Edward, and a faithfull counsailer vnto him: but he abode not long. After whom, Stigandus inuaded the sea (as they report) by simony: being both Archbishop of Cāt. Byshop of Winchester, and also Abbot in an other place. Wherin he cōtinued a great space, gathering and heaping goodes together, till at length Duke William clapt him in prison, and there kept him: placing in his roume, Lancfrācus a Lombard borne, of whom more shall follow (Christ willing) hereafter to be declared.

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MarginaliaThe decay of the Church.¶ Although the Church of Christ, and state of religion first founded and groūded by Christ and his Apostles, did not continually altogether remaine in his primatiue perfection, wherein it was first instituted: 

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Pope Sylvester to the end of Book III

Having introduced so much additional, detailed and substantial material on the history of the Anglo-Saxon state and church in the 1570 edition of the martyrology, Foxe chose to use the end of the new 'book three' to offer a reinforcement of the implicit periodisation which had begun to emerge. Rather than the 'third age of the church' (or 'the latter age of the church') in which, with the accomplishment of the first millennium of Christian history, 'the fresh flowering blood of the church' began to 'faint, and strength to fail, oppressed with cold humours of worldly pomp, avarice, and tyranny; here now cometh in blind superstition, with cloaked hypocrisy, armed with rigorous laws, and cruel murdering of saints', Foxe now offered a more nuanced picture, in which the affairs of the world 'began from better to worse, to decrease & decline into much superstition & incōuenience: partly through the comming in of Mahumet, partly through the increase of wealth and riches, partly through the decrease of knowledge & diligence in such as should be the guides of Christes flocke: yet the infection & corruption of that time (though it were great) did not so abounde in such excessiue measure, as afterwarde in the other latter times nowe following, about the thousand yeares expired after Christ'. Having nuanced and historicised the more explicitly presented millennial determinism of the 1563 text, Foxe was all the more concerned, however, to let the overwhelming evidence that he presented do the work for him. Few stories relating to the history of the medieval papacy did it better than that of Pope Sylvester II, who became pope in succession to Gregory V in 999, the first French pope. The surviving chronicles were rich in apparently documented rumours of his being in league with the devil, and speculation concerning his Jewish ancestry. The subject is explored at greater length in [hyperlink here:] Thomas Freeman, '"St Peter Did not Do Thus": Papal History in the Acts and Monuments', the prefatory essay to this edition. As we demonstrate there, despite the impressive range of sources that Foxe appears to display, the material had essentially come from Matthias Flacius' Catalogus testium veritatis (1556) (pp. 230; 200) and from Bale's Catalogus, pp. 143; 145-159; 156-7.

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Interestingly, however, Foxe did not close the book at this point. As a last-minute addition to the book, he added to the 1570 edition the 'Oration of K. Edgar to the Cleargie'. Foxe strongly implies that the material had arrived in his hands just as his volume was going through the press ('…chaunced in the meane time to come to my handes…'). Foxe highlights what he saw as the particular significance of the text. It indicated the 'religious zeale and deuotion of kynges' (Foxe wanted, wherever possible, to lay the groundwork historical justifications for the English monarchy's determining role in the reformation). It documented the 'dissolute behauiour and wantonness of the clergie'. And it revealed the 'blynd ignoraunce and superstition of that tyme in both states: as wel ecclesiastical, as temporal' (thereby strengthening points which had emerged, albeit tangentially, in the preceding narrative). There is a clear indication, therefore, here that Foxe continued right up to the last moment to work on the early books of the martyrology in 1570. Where had the text come from? Our hypothesis currently is that the manuscript had been discovered, probably by someone in Archbishop Matthew Parker's household, and passed to Foxe, who placed it in the book where he could. The manuscript in question might well be Corpus Christ College, Cambridge MS 56. This is a compilation of statutes, charters and miscellanea, among which (at fol. 253) a manuscript described as 'Monitio Regis Edgari prelates et abbatibus' is listed, a text which lacks the end passage (in the way that Foxe's does). In John Joscelyn's list, this part of the manuscript is described as 'Edgarus Anglorum Rex habuit orationem', and it appears to have come into the archbishop's possession from John Twyne. T. Graham, and A. G. Watson, The recovery of the past in early Elizabethan England. Documernts by John Bale and John Joscelyn from the Circle of Matthew Parker, Cambridge Bibliographical Society Monograph, No. 13 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998) believe that the text had originally come from Ailred of Rievaulx, De genealogia regum Anglorum (Ælfred of Rievaulx: The Historical Works (Kalamazoo, 2005), ch. 17, pp. 98-102., ch. 17, pp. 98-102). It had been printed in the first edition of Matthew Parker's De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae (1569), pp. 57-8. Historians now incline to the view that its ascription to Edgar is false.

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Foxe ended the book with a continuation of the ordo successionis of the archbishopric of Canterbury from the time of King Edgar through to the Norman Conquest. The table complements earlier ordines in book 3. It was possibly derived from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium (N.E.S.A. Hamilton, ed. William of Malmesbury. Willemesbiriensis Momnachi De Gestis pontificium Anglorum [,,,] [London: Rolls Series, 1870]., book 1, chs 12-24) although it is likely that this was also connected to research undertaken in Parker's household for the publication of the De Antiquitate.

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Matt Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

But in processe of time, began from better to worse, to decrease & decline into much superstition & incōuenience: partly through the comming in of Mahumet, partly through þe increase of wealth and riches, partly through the decrease of knowledge & diligence in such as should be the guides of Christes flocke: yet the infection & corruption of that time (though it were great) did not so abounde in such excessiue measure, as afterwarde in the other latter times nowe following, about the thousand yeares expired after Christ: whereof we haue to intreat, Christ so permitting. About the which time and yeare came Siluester the seconde of that name, MarginaliaPope Siluester. 2. who next succeeded after Gregorie the v. before mentioned. pag. 159. and occupied the sea of Rome about the yere of our Lorde1000. lacking one or two.

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MarginaliaSiluester the 2. a foule sorcerer.This Siluester was a Sorcerer, which after the sorte of them, that worke by familiars (as they cal them) and by cōiuration, cōpacted with the deuil, to be made pope. And so he was (through he operation of Sathan) according to his request. Which thing some histories say, he did greatly repent before his death. But for a more ample declaration heereof, I will bring in the wordes of Ioannes Stella, a Venetian, translated from Latine into English, cōcerning the said Siluester: to the entent that our inchaunters and sorcerers now a dayes (wherof there be to many in England) may the better through his example be admonished. The words of Stella be these, agreeing also with the narration of Benno, Platina and many other. MarginaliaIoannes Stella. Platina. Petrus Præmonstratensis. Nauclerus. Antoninus. Robertus Barnus. Ioannes Baleus. Siluester the second of that name, being Pope, and a Frenchman, called Gibertus: sate in his Papacie iiij. yeares, one moneth and viij. dayes. He entred into his Papacie, through wicked & vnlawful meanes: who from his youth being a monke, and leauing his monasterie, gaue himself wholy to the deuill, to obtaine that which he required. And first comming to Hispalis a City in Spayne, there applied his booke and profited there in somuch, þt he was made Doctour, hauing amongst his auditours, Otho the Emperours sonne, and Robert the French King, Lotharius Archbyshop of Senon, with diuers other moe. By whose aduauncement he was promoted, first Bishop of Rheme, afterward Bishop of Rauenna, and at last through the operation of Sathan, was exalted to the Papacy of Rome, vpon this condition, that after his death, he should geue himselfe to the deuil, by whose procuremēt, he came to that promotion. Vpō a certaine time he demanded an answer of the deuill, how long he should enioy his Popedome, to whom he answered againe: vntill thou say Masse in Ierusalem thou shalt liue. At length the iiij. yeare of his Popedome, saying Masse at Lent time, in the temple of the holy crosse being called then Ierusalem, there he knewe the time was come, when hee should die. MarginaliaEx Ioan Stella.Wherupon being stroke with repentance, confessed his fault openly before the people: desiring al men to cut his body al in peeces (being so seduced by deceits of the deuil) & so being hewen in peeces, they woulde lay it vpon a cart, and bury it there, where soeuer the horses wold cary it of their accorde. And so the saying is to be, that by the prouidence of God (whereby the wicked may learne yet hope of remission wt God, so that they will repent them in their life) the horses of their own accord staid at the church of Laterane, and there he was buried: wheras commonly by the ratling of his bones within the tomb, is portended the death of Popes as the common reporte goeth. Thus much out of Ioannes Stella, concerning Siluester. MarginaliaAn admonition for sorcerers and wicked coniurers.By whō our sorcerers and inchanters, or magicians may learne to beware of the deceitfull operation of Sathan: who, at the ende deceiueth and frustateth al them, that haue to do with him: as the ende of all such doth declare commonly, which vse the like art or trade. The Lorde and God of al mercye, through the spirite of Iesus our redemer, dissolue þe works of Sathan, and preserue the hartes of our nobles, and of al other Englishmen from such infection. Amen.

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After Siluester succeeded Ioannes. xix. by whom was brought in (as Volteran sayth) the feast of all soules, MarginaliaThe feast of all soules brought into the church. an. 1004. through the meanes and instigation of one Odilo Abbot of Cluniake, to be celebrate, next after the feast of all Saintes. This Monke Odilo, thinking that Purgatory (as he heard) should be in the mount Aetna: dreamed vpō a time in the countrey of Sicile, that he by his Masses had deliuered diuers soules from thēce: saying moreouer, that he did heare the voyces and lamētations of deuils crying out, for that the soules were taken frō them by the Masses & Dirges funerall. Ex Bakenthorpo. in prolo. 4. Lib. Sentent. And not lōg after him came Iohn the xx. and Sergius the iiij. After whom succeeded Benedictus the viij. then Iohn the 21. who being promoted by art magike of Theophilact his nephew, Gratianus, Brazutus and other Sorcerers brought in first the fast of the euē of Iohn Baptist and S. Laurēce. After him followed pope Benedictus the 9. MarginaliaBenedictus the 9. likewise aspiring to his Papacy, by like magike, practising inchauntmentes and coniuration in woodes, after horrible maner. Who resisting the Emperor Henricus 3. sonne to Conradus, and placing in his rowme, Petrus the king of Hungarie wyth this verse. Petra dedit Romam Petro, tibi Papa coronam: Afterward for feare of Henricus preuailing in battaile, hee was faine to sell his seate to his successoure Gratianus, called Gregorius vi. MarginaliaGregorius the 6. for 1500. poundes. At which time were 3. Popes together in Rome, raigning & raging one against an other. Benedictus ix. Siluester 3. & Gregorius vi. For the whych cause Henricus surnamed Niger, the Emperour, comming to Rome: displaced these 3. monsters at one time, placing for them, Clemens 2. and

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