Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
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Names and Places on this Page
James PilkingtonGloucester
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James Pilkington

(1520? - 1576)

First protestant bishop of Durham (1561 - 1576). [DNB]

James Pilkington's preaching in Lancashire in Edward VI's reign was mentioned by George Marsh. 1570, p. 1744; 1576, p. 1489; 1583, p. 1572.

Pilkington's exile was mentioned in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

James Pilkington gave a sermon denouncing Bucer and Phagius at their exhumation and condemnation. 1563, p. 1555, 1583, p. 1966.

Foxe refers to his installation after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

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NGR: SO 830 187

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Dudstone and Kings Barton, county of Gloucester. 34 miles north-north-east from Bristol. The city comprises the parishes of St. Aldate, St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt, St. Mary de Grace, St. Nicholas, St. Owen and Holy Trinity; also parts of St. Catherine, St. Mary de Lode and St. Michael, all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Gloucester, of which it is the seat. St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt and St. Michael are discharged rectories; St. Mary de Lode and Holy Trinity are discharged vicarages; St. Aldate, St. Catherine, St. Mary de Grace and St. Nicholas are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1990 [1966]

Queene Mary. Oration of M. Acworth in Cambridge. A Sermon of Doctor Pilkenton.

MarginaliaAnno 1557. Maye.rable thurst which coulde not be quenched with shedding the bloud of them that were aliue, might at the least be satisfied in burning of dead mens bones. These (my bretheren) these I say, are the iust causes which haue so sore prouoked the wrath of God agaynst vs, because that in doing extreme iniury to the dead, we haue bene prone and ready: but in putting the same away, we haue bene slow and slacke. For verely I beleue (if I may haue liberty to saye freely what I thinke) ye shall beare with me (if I chaunce to cast forth any thing vnaduisedly in the heat and hasty discourse of my Oration) that euen this place, in the whiche we haue so often times assembled, being defiled with that new kinde of wickednesse, such as man neuer heard of before, is a let and hindraunce vnto vs, when we call for the helpe of God, by meanes whereof, our prayers are not accepted, which we make to appease the Godhead, & to win him to be fauorable to vs agayne.

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The bloud of Abell shed by Cain, calleth and crieth frō the earth that sucked it vp: likewise, the vndeserued burning of these bodyes, calleth vpon God almighty to punish vs, and cryeth, that not onely the Authours of so greate a wickednesse, but also the Ministers thereof are vnpure, the places defiled, in which these thinges were perpetrated, the ayre infected which we take into our bodyes, to the intent that by sundry diseases and sickenesses we may receiue punishment for so execrable wickednesse. Looke well about ye (my deare brethrē) and consider with your selues the euils that are past: & ye shall see how they tooke theyr beginning at Bucers death, following one in anothers necke euen vnto this day. First and formost whē we were euen in the chiefest of our mourning and scarcely yet recomforted of our sorrow for his death, the sweating sickenesse lighted vpon vs, the whiche passed swiftly thorow all Englande, and as it were in haste dispatched an innumerable company of men: Secondly, the vntimely death of our most noble king Edward the sixt (whose life in vertue surmounted the opinion of all men, and seemed worthy of immortality) happened contrary to mens expectation in that age, in which vnlesse violence be vsed, fewe do dye. The conuersion of Religion, or rather the euersion and turning therof into papistry. The incursiō and domination of straungers, vnder whose yoke our neckes were almost subdued. The importunate cruelty of the Byshops agaynst the Christians, which executed that wickednesse, for making satisfaction whereof, we are gathered together this daye. These are the thinges that ensued after his death: but after his burning ensued yet greeuouser thinges. Namely newe kinde of plagues, and contagious diseases, vnknowne to the very Phisitians, whereby eyther euerye mans health was appayred, or els they were brought to theyr graues, or elles very hardly recouered: bloudy battelles without victory, whereof the profite redounded to the enemy, and to vs the slaughter with great losse. The which thinges doe euidently declare, that God is turned from vs, and angry with vs, and that he geueth no eare to our prayers, and that he is not moued with our cries and sighes, but that he looketh, that this our meeting and assembly shoulde be to this end, that for as muche as we haue violated theyr coarses, we should doe them right agayne: so that the memoriall of these most holy men, may be commended to posteritye vnhurted and vndefamed. Wherefore amende yet at length (my brethren) which hytherto by reason of the variablenesse and vnconstancy of the times, haue beene wauering and vnstedfast in your hartes: shew your selues chearefull and forwarde in making satisfaction for the iniury you haue done to the dead, whome with so greate wickednesse of late ye endomaged and defiled: not by censing them with the perfumes of those odours and spices now worne out of vre, and put to flight, but with a true and vnfained repētance of the hart, and with prayer: to the intent that the heauenly Godhead, prouoked by our doinges to be our enemy may be our hūble submission be entreated to be fauorable and agreable to all our other requestes.

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When Acworth had made an ende of his Oration, M. Iames Pilkinton the Queenes reader of the diuinity lecture, going vp into the Pulpite, MarginaliaThe Sermō of D. Iames Pilkington.made a Sermon vpon the 111. Psalme, the beginning whereof is. Blessed is the mā that feareth the Lord.

Where intending to prooue that the remembraunce of the iust man shall not perishe, and that Bucer is blessed, & that the vngodly shall fret at the sight therof, but yet that all theyr attemptes shall bee to no purpose, to the entent this saying may be verifyed: I will cursse your blessinges, and blesse your curssinges, he tooke his beginning of hys owne person, that albeit he were both ready and willyng to take that matter in hande, partly for the worthinesse of

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the matter it selfe, and inespecially for certayne singuler vertues, of those persons, for whome that Congregation was called, yet notwithstanding he sayde he was nothing meet to take that charge vpon him.

For it were more reason that he which before had done Bucer wrong, should now make him amendes for the displeasure. As for his owne part, he was so farre from working any euill agaynst Bucer, eyther in worde or deede that for theyr singular knowledge almost in al kind of learning, he embraced both him and Phagius with all hys harte. But yet hee somewhat more fauoured Bucer, as with whom he had more familiarity and acquayntaunce. In consideration whereof, although that it was scarce conuenient, that he at that time should speake, yet notwtstanding he was contented for frendshippe and curtesye sake, not to fayle them in this theyr businesse. Hauyng made this Preface, he entered into the pith of the matter, wherein he blamed greatly the barbarous crueltye of the Court of Rome, so fiercely extended agaynst the dead. He sayd it was a more heynous matter then was to be borne with, to haue shewed such extreme cruelnesse to them that were aliue: but for any manne to misbehaue himselfe in such wise towarde the deade, was such a thing as hadde not lightly bene heard of. Sauing that he affirmed this custome of excommunicating and curssing of deade folke, to haue come first from Rome. For Euagrius reporteth  

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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 292, line 14

Hist. Eccles. iv. 38. Eutychius closed any discussion on the subject, by pronouncing the matter too clear to need any debating.

in his wrytinges, that Eutichius was of the same opinion, induced by the example of Iosias, who slew the Priestes of Baall, and burnt vppe the boanes of them that were deade, euen vppon the Aultars. Whereas, before the time of Eutichius this kinde of punishment was welneare vnknowne, neither afterwarde vsurped of any manne (that euer he heard of) vntill a nine hundreth yeares after Christ. In the latter times (the whiche howe muche the further they were from that golden age of the Apostles, so much the more they were corrupted) this kinde of cruelnesse beganne to creepe further. For it is manifestlye knowne, that Stephen the sixt Pope of Rome, digged vp Formosus, his last Predecssour in that Sea, and spoyling him of hys Popes apparell, buryed him agayne in lay mans apparell (as the call it) hauing first cut off and throwne into Tyber his two fingers, with which, according to theyr accustomed maner, he was woont to blesse and consecrate. The whiche his vnspeakeably tyrannye vsed against Formosus, within sixe yeares after, Sergius the third encreased also agaynst the same Formosus. For taking vp his dead body and setting it in a Popes chayre, hee caused his heade to be smitten of, and his other three fingers to be cut from his hand, and his body to be cast into the ryuer of Tyber, abrogating and disanulling all his decrees, which thinge was neuer done by any man before that daye. The cause why so great crueltye was exercised (by the reporte of Nauclerus 
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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 292, fn 1

Cronica Joh. Naucleri Præpos. Tubing. Coloniæ, 1579. Vol. ii. Generat. 31. p. 721. - ED.

) was this: because that Formosus had beene an aduersarye to Stephen and Sergius when they sued to be made Bishops.

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This kinde of crueltye vnharde of before, the Popes a while exercised one agaynst an other. But nowe, or euer they had sufficiently felte the smarte thereof themselues, they had turned the same vpon our neckes. Wherefore it was to be wished, that seeing it began among thē it might haue remayned still with the Authors thereof, & not haue bene spread ouer thence vnto vs. But such was the nature of all euill, that it quickely passeth into example, for others to do the like. For about the yeare of our Lord 1400. Iohn Wicklyfe was in lyke maner digged vp, and burnte into ashes, & throwen into a brooke that runneth by the towne where he was buryed. 

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The incident is described in 1563, pp. 104-06; 1570, pp. 551-52; 1576, p. 445 and 1583, p. 464. Pilkington could have found the episode described inFoxe's Latin martyrologies.

Of the which selfe same sauce tasted also William Tracye of Gloucester, a man of a worshipfull house, because he had written in his laste will that he shoulde be saued onely by fayth in Iesus Christe, and that there needed not the helpe of any manne thereto, whether he were in heauen or in earth, and therefore bequethed no legacye to that purpose as all other men were accustomed to doe. This deede was done sithens we may remember, aboute the 22. yeare of the raigne of Henry the 8. in the yeare of our Lord. 1530.  
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For this episode see 1563, pp. 510-11; 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015 and 1583, pp. 1042-43. Tracy's exhumation was well known and recounted in The treatment of master Wylliam Tracie (Antwerp: 1535), RSTC 24167.

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Now seeing they extended suche crueltye to the dead, he sayde it was an easye matter to coniecture what they would doe to the liuing. Whereof we had sufficient tryall by the examples of our owne men, these fewe yeares past. And if we woulde take the paynes to peruse thinges done somewhat lenger ago, we might find notable matters out of our owne Chronicles. Howbeit, it was sufficient for þe manifest demonstration of that matter, to declare the beastly butchery of the Frenche King executed vppon the Waldenses, at Cabryer, and the places nere thereabout, by his captayne Miner, aboute the yeare of our Lorde. 1545. 

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See 1570, pp. 1084-86; 1576, pp. 924-26 and 1583, pp. 951-53. The massacre of the Waldensians had already been described in several works, Sleidan's Commentaries being the most popular.

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