Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Morgan

(d. 1559)

Bishop of St David's (1554 - 1559). (DNB)

Henry Morgan was appointed to support Thomas Watson in the disputes in the 1553 convocation. He debated with James Haddon, Richard Cheney and debated very extensively with John Philpot (1563, pp. 912-16; 1570, pp. 1576-78; 1576, pp. 1344-47; 1583, pp. 1415-17).

He was appointed Bishop of St David's c. January 1554, (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1369; 1583, p. 1467).

Together with Edmund Bonner and Gilbert Bourne, Morgan condemned Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535.

He interrogated and tried Robert Ferrar in Carmarthen 26 February - 11 March 1555. Morgan condemned Ferrar on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1098-1100; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

John Rough, in the presence of the bishop of London, the bishop of St David's and John Feckenham, was degraded and condemned. 1563, p. 1648, 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

After his condemnation of Ferrar, Henry Morgan fell ill and suffered greatly until his death. 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2101.

He died after Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2101.

[1563, p. 1704, incorrectly lists him among those who died before Queen Mary.]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hugh Foxe

Martyr. Of London.

Hugh Foxe was arrested for heresy in Islington with Cuthbert Symson and John Rough and examined by Bonner on 19 March 1557. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2034.

He gave answers to articles brought against him. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, pp. 1926-27, 1583, p. 2034.

He was burned at Smithfield on 28 March 1558. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2034.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
James Austoo

(d. 1557)

Of unknown occupation. Of London.

James Austoo appeared before Bonner 16 July 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, pp. 2208, 2214, 1576, pp. 1905, 1910, 1583, pp. 2013, 2019.

He was condemned 10 September 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2214, 1576, p. 1910, 1583, p. 2019.

Austoo was burned at Islington on 17 September 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2013, 1576, p. 1910, 1583, p. 2018.

[Husband of Margery Austoo.]

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John Feckenham

(1518? - 1585)

Dean of St Paul's. Last abbot of Westminster. [DNB]

Feckenham was made dean of St Paul's on Midsummer's Day, 1554. 1563, p. 1151; 1570, pp. 1636 and 1760; 1576, pp. 1396 and 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1467 and 1587

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554 trying to persuade him to recant. 1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583, pp. 1588-89

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference was made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Feckenham traveled to Colchester with Bishop Bonner to try to win Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed back to catholicism. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He tried to persuade Hooper to recant after he was condemned on 29 January 1555. The effort was unsuccessful but false rumors spread that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

Feckenham was one of those who presided over an examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was one of those who examined first Thomas Causton, and then Thomas Higbed, in Bonner's palace on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He wrote a ballad, Caveat emptor , on the subject of the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1497; 1583, p. 1559.

Feckenham received a letter from William Paulet. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He discussed eucharistic doctrine with Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

Feckenham claimed that Green was converted by Peter Martyr's lectures and that Zwingli, Luther, Oecolampadius and Carolostadius could never agree doctrine. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26,, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Bartlett Green told John Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A letter by the thirteen prisoners reproaching Feckenham for his slander dated Feckenham's sermon as 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of John Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

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Thomas Watson

(1513 - 1584)

Chancellor of Cambridge University (from 25 September 1553); Master of St. John's (Cambridge) (from 28 September 1553); Dean of Durham (from 18 November 1553); Bishop of Lincoln (1557 - 1559) (DNB)

In the 1553 Convocation, Thomas Watson engaged in a long debate with James Haddon on the meaning of a passage in Theodoret, regarding the Eucharist (John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hows at London the XVIII day of Octobre MDLIIII, [Emden, 1554], STC 19890, sigs. C8v - D14; 1563, p. 912; 1570, p. 1576; 1576, p. 1344; 1583, p. 1414; also see Rerum, p. 227. Philpot's account, reprinted by Foxe, abridges this argument. It is given in BL Harley 422, fols. 38r - 40r, which was not printed by Foxe, but is printed in R. W. Dixon, A History of the Church of England (6 vols, London, (1884 - 1902), IV, pp. 81 - 85).

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Watson, supported by Henry Morgan and John Harpsfield, debated with Richard Cheney on the Real Presence on the fifth day of the 1553 Convocation (1563, pp. 912-17; 1570, pp. 1576-1576 [recte 1577]; 1576, pp. 1344-45; and 1583, pp. 1415-16).

Watson was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 932, 936-38, 973-76; 1570, pp. 1591-93 and 1618-21; 1576, p. 1358-59 and 1381-83; 1583, pp. 1428-30 and 1451-54).

[NB: A brief account of the Oxford disputations of 1554 mentions Watson's debating with Ridley (1563, p. 934; 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; 1583, p. 1441).

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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On 20 August 1553, Watson preached a sermon at Paul's Cross where, to protect him from a potentially hostile crowd, he was guarded by two hundred soldiers (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Thomas Watson was chosen by Pole to be a persecutor of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Watson was sent to examine certain scholars at St John's College, Cambridge, on 9 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

He gave answer to an oration made by a fellow of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

He thanked the fellows of Trinity College for their oration at the arrival of the commissioners. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

The reformation of the University of Cambridge commanded by the queen's commissioners in 1557 was to take place at Watson's discretion. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1958.

Scot, Watson and Christopherson discussed and agreed to the exhumation of Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1958.

Watson preached a sermon on Candlemas day. 1570, p. 2150, 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1963.

Watson was present at the examination of John Rough and denounced him as a heretic. 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

Thomas Rose was imprisoned in the bishop of Lincoln's house in Holborn. 1576, p. 1978, 1583, p. 2083.

Watson was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Watson was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
NGR: SE 086 253

A parish in the wapentake of Morley, West Riding of the county of Yorkshire, comprising the market town, five chapelries and nineteen townships. 42 miles south-west from York. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of York

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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2054 [2030]

Queene Mary. The condemnation and degradation of Iohn Rouhgh Martyr, with his letters.

MarginaliaAnno 1558. March.8. To the eight he aunswered and confessed that sithens his last comming into England (which was aboue the x. day of Nouember) he had in sundry places in the suburbes of London prayed and read such prayers and seruice, as is appoynted in the booke of the communion, and hadde willed others to doe the like, both men and women, which he did know by sight, but not by name. Howbeit he didde neyther cause any to withdrawe themselues from the Latine seruice, but he sayed that it were better to pray in a tongue that they didde vnderstande, then in an vnknowne tongue.

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9. To the ninth, he confessed that the time and place articulate he was present to heare and see a playe, and there was apprehended by the Queenes Maiesties Vicechamberleyne, with one Cutbert a taylour, and one Hugh a hosier, and diuers other both men and women, whose names he knewe not, and by him was brought before the Counsell, who sent him vnto Newgate, and from thence he was brought to the bishop. And othewise he denieth the contentes of this Article.

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Vpon these answeres he was dismissed, MarginaliaAn other appearance of Iohn Rough before the Bishop.and the nexte day (being the xix. of December) he was agayne brought before the sayd Byshop and others. Who, when they perceiued his constantnesse, determined the nexte day after to bring him openly into the Consistory, there to adiudge, & condemne him as an hereticke. Whiche purpose they accomplished. For the xx. day at afternoone, in the presence of the Byshops of London, and S. Dauides, with Fecknam Abbot of Westminster, and others he was there produced. Where, after muche and many fayre perswasions, Boner read vnto him the articles, and aunsweres before mentioned, in the which they charged him to haue receyued the orders of the church, and therefore might not mary, and that he had refused to consent vnto the Latine seruice then vsed in the Church. Whereunto he then aunswered and sayde, that theyr orders were nothing at all, and that he being a Prieste might lawfully mary, and that hys children whiche he had by his wife, were lawfull. And as touching the seruice then vsed, he vtterly detested it, saying, that if he should liue as long as did Methusalach yet he would neuer come to the Church to heare the abhominable Masse and other seruice, being as it was then. MarginaliaIoh. Rough condemned and degraded by Boner.Vpō which wordes the Bishop proceeded to the actuall degradation of the sayde Rough, exempting him from all the benefites and priuiledges of theyr Church, and after condemning him as an hereticke, committed his body to the secular power, who taking him into their charge and custody, caried him vnto Newgate.

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MarginaliaA note of Maister Rough.Moreouer, 

Commentary  *  Close

This anecdote was added to the 1570 edition.

as touching the sayde M. Rough, this is further to be noted, that he being in the North country in the dayes of king Edward the sixt, was the meane to saue Doctor Watsons life (who in queene Maryes tyme was Byshop of Lincolne) for a Sermon that hee made there. The sayd Watson after that, in the sayde dayes of Queene Marye, being with Boner at the examination of the sayde M. Rough, to requite the good turne in sauing his life, de, tected him there to be a pernicious hereticke who did more hurt in the North partes, then an hundreth besides of hys opinions. Vnto whom M. Rough sayd agayne. Why sir, is this the rewarde I haue for sauing your life, when you preached erroneous doctrine in the dayes of king Edward the sixt? This M. Rough sayd, he had liued thirty yeares, and yet had neuer bowed his knee to Baall: and being before Boner, among other talke, he affirmed that he hadde bene twise at Rome, and there had sene playnely with his eyes, whiche he had manye times heard of before, namelye that the pope was the very Antichrist, for there he saw him caried on mens shoulders, and the false named sacrament borne before him. Yet was there more reuerence geuen to him, then to that which they counted to be theyr GOD. Whē Boner heard this, rising vp, and making as though he would haue torne his garmentes: hast thou (sayd hee) bene at Rome, and sene our holy father the Pope, & doest thou blaspheme him after this sort, MarginaliaB. Boner plucked of halfe the beard of Ioh. Roughand with that flying vpon him he plucked of a piece of his beard: and after making speedy haste to his death, he burnt him half an houre before sixe of the clocke in the morning, because the day (belike) shoulde not be farre spent, before he had done a mischieuous deed.

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MarginaliaAn other note concerning Iohn Rough.Furthermore note that this Mayster Rough being at the burning of Austoo in Smithfield, 

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Actually James and Margaret Austoo were burned at Islington, not Smithfield.

and returning home ward agayne, met with one Mayster Farrar, a Marchant of Hallifaxe, who asked him where hee had beene. Vnto whō he aunswered: I haue bene (saith he) where I would not for one of mine eyes, but I had bene. Where haue you bene, sayd M. Farrar? Forsoothe sayth hee to learne the way. And so he tolde hym hee had bene at the burning of Austoo, where shortly after he was burned hymselfe.

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¶ A letter written by Iohn Rough, vnto certeine of his godly frendes, confirming and strengthning them in the truth, which he had before taught. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter was printed in every edition of the Acts and Monuments and also in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 658-59.

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 448, fn 1

In Coverdale's "Letters of the Martyrs," it is "addressed to the Christian Congregation in London." - ED.

MarginaliaA letter of Iohn Rough.THe comfort of the holy Ghost make you able to geue consolation to others, in these daungerous dayes, when Sathan is let lose, but to the triall onely of the chosen, when it pleaseth our God to sift his wheat from the Chaffe. I haue not leysure & tyme to write the great tēptations I haue bene vnder. I speak to Gods glory: my care was to haue the senses of my soule open, to perceiue the voyce of God, saying: Who so euer denyeth me before men, him will I deny before my father and his aungels. And to saue the life corporall, is to lose the life eternall. And he that will not suffer with Christ, shall not reigne with him. Therefore most tender ones, I haue by Gods spirite geuen ouer the flesh, with the sight of my soule, and the spirite hath the victory. The fleshe shall now ere it be long, leaue of to sinne: the spirite shall reigne eternally. I haue chosē the death to confirme the truth by me taught. What can I do more? Consider with your selues, that I haue done it for the confirmation of Gods trueth. Pray that I may continue vnto the end. The greatest part of the assault is paste, I prayse my God. I haue in all my assaultes felt the present ayde of my God, I geue him most harty thankes therefore. Looke not backe, nor be ye ashamed of Christes Gospell, nor of the bonds I haue suffered for the same: thereby ye may be assured it is the true word of God. The holy ones haue bene sealed with the same marke. It is no time for the losse of one man in the battell, for the campe to turne backe. Vp with mennes hartes, blowe downe the dawbed walles of heresies: Let one take the Banner, and the other the Trumpette, I meane not to make corporall resistaunce, but pray, and ye shall haue Elias defence, and Elizeus company to fight for you. The cause is the Lordes. Nowe my brethren I can write no more, time will not suffer, and my harte with panges of death is assaulted: but I am at home with my God yet aliue. Pray for me, & salute one another with the holy kisse. The peace of god rest with you all. Amen. From Newgate prison in haste, the day of my condemnation.

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Iohn Rough.

An other letter of Iohn Rough written vnto the Congregation two dayes before he suffered. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter first appeared in the 1583 edition.

THe spirite of all consolation be with you, ayde you and make you strong to runne to the fight that is layde before you: wherewithall God in all ages hath tryed his elect, and hath found them worthy of himselfe, by copling to theyr head Iesus Christ: in whome, who so desireth to liue Godly, the same must needes suffer persecution. For it is geuen vnto them not onely to beleeue, but also to suffer. And the Seruaunt or Scholer can not be greater then his Lord or Mayster: but by the same way the head is entered, the members must folow: no life is in the members which are cutte from the body, likewise we haue no life, but in Christ: for by him we liue, moue, and haue our being. My deare sonne, now departing this life to my great aduauntage, I make chaūge of mortality with immortality, of corruption, to put on incorruption, to make my body like to the corne cast into the ground, which except it die first, it can bring forth no good fruite. Wherefore death is to my great vauntage, for therby the body ceaseth from sinne, and after turneth into the first originall: but after shall be chaunged, and made brighter, then the Sonne or Moone. What shall I write of this corporall death, seeing it is decreed of God, that all men shall once die: happy are they that die in the Lord, which is to dye in the fayth of Christ, professing and confessing the same before many witnesses. I prayse my God I haue passed the same iourney by manye temptations, the deuill is very busye to perswade, the world to entise with promises and fayre wordes, which I omitte to write, least some might thinke I did hunt after vayne glorye, whiche is farthest from my hart. Lastly the daunger of some false brethren who before the Byshop of London purposed to confesse an vntrueth to my face: yet the God that ruled Balaam, moued theyr hartes, where they thought to speake to my accusation, hee made them speake to my purgation. What a iourney (by Gods power) I haue made, these eight dayes before this date, it is aboue flesh and bloud to beare: but as Paule sayth, I may do all thinges in hym which worketh in me, Iesus Christ. My course brethrē haue I run, I haue fought a good fight, the crowne of righteousnes is layd vp for me, my daye to receiue it is not long too. Praye Brethren, for the enemye doth yet assaulte. Stande constaunt vnto the ende, then shall you possesse your Soules. Walke worthely in that vocation, wherein you are called. Comfort the Bretheren. Salute one another in my name. Be not ashamed of

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