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Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (St Gregory)

(c . 1020 - 1085 [Kelly]

Benedictine monk; treasurer of Roman church; archdeacon of Roman church 1059; chancellor of the see of Rome; pope (1073 - 85)

Hildebrand approached the emperor, Henry III, to nominate Gebhard of Dollnstein-Hirschberg as pope after the death of Leo IX. 1563, p. 12.

Hildebrand was sent as papal legate to France. He brought Berengar of Tours before a council at Tours. 1570, p. 1311; 1576, p. 1121; 1583, p. 1147.

Hildebrand supported the election of Alexander II and persuaded the imperial ambassador Anno to support him. 1563, p. 14.

Hildebrand fought for Alexander II against Cadalous (Honorius II). 1570, p. 1312; 1576, p. 1122; 1583, p. 1148.

Foxe records that Alexander II repented not having the emperor's consent to his election, and that Hildebrand imprisoned and deposed Alexander. In fact, Hildebrand remained Alexander's chancellor and supporter until his death. 1563, p. 14; 1570, p. 6; 1576, p. 5; 1583, p. 5.

Berengar of Tours recanted at a council in Rome under Gregory VII. 1570, p. 1311; 1576, p. 1121; 1583, p. 1147.

At the time of Gregory VII's synod in Rome, Henry IV held the right to invest archbishops, bishops and abbots. Gregory decreed that all those invested by the emperor had obtained their offices through simony. He decreed that all simonical clergy and those with wives were to be shunned. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1153.

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Opposition to clerical marriage increased greatly under Gregory VII. 1570, p. 1329; 1576, p. 1134; 1583, p. 1163.

Gregory VII deposed Emperor Henry IV. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583, p. 6.

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Innocent III (Lotario de' Conti)

(1160/61 - 1216) [Kelly]

Theologian, jurist; cardinal-deacon of SS Sergio and Bacco; pope (1198 - 1216)

Chose Otto IV HRE, then excommunicated and deposed him when he invaded Italy; excommunicated King John; made several kingdoms papal fiefs; acted against heresy; promoted crusade.

Innocent III appointed Stephen Langton archbishop of Canterbury against the will of King John. 1563, p. 446; 1570, p. 1154; 1576, p. 988; 1583, p. 1015.

Transubstantiation was made a point of doctrine at the fourth Lateran council under Innocent III or earlier in the time of Lanfranc. 1570, pp. 1298, 1299; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, pp. 1136, 1137.

Confession to a priest was made a point of doctrine at the fourth Lateran council under Innocent III. 1570, p. 1340; 1576, p. 1144, 1583, p. 1172.

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John Hus

(1369 - 1415) [D. Hay, Europe in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (London, 1966) pp. 324-5]

Bohemian theologian and reformer. BA Prague 1393, MA 1396; rector of Prague University; priest. Excommunicated 1410; called to the Council of Constance in 1414, where he refused to recant; burnt at Constance

The life of John Hus, the Council of Constance and his execution. 1563, pp. 183-241, 1570, pp. 701-42, 1576, pp. 567-602, 1583, pp. 588-626.

The letters of John Hus. 1570, pp. 742-48, 1576, pp. 602-08, 1583, pp. 626-31.

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John Wyclif (Wycliffe)

(d. 1384) [ODNB]

Theologian, philosopher, religious reformer; studied at Oxford; master of Balliol by December 1360-61; promoted to college's benefice of Fillingham, Lincolnshire 1361-68; returned to Oxford for study: DTh 1372/73. Rector of Lutterworth, Leicestershire (1374-84)

John Wyclif's career. 1570, pp. 524-28; 1576; pp. 421-24, 1583; pp. 424-28.

The pope condemned Wyclif. 1563, pp. 89-95; 1570, pp. 529-34; 1576; pp. 425-26, 1583; pp. 430-34.

Wyclif and Urban VI. 1563, pp. 98-101; 1570, pp. 545-48; 1576; pp. 440-42, 1583; pp. 445-47.

Wyclif and the Council of Constance. 1563, pp. 103-30; 1570, pp. 548-53; 1576; pp. 443-46, 1583; pp. 448-64.

Wyclif preached repentance but was disregarded. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Wyclif was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

Thomas Patmore reported that a well sprang up where Wyclif's bones were burned. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

24 [1]

Actes and Monumentes of Christian Martyrs, and matters Ecclesiasticall, passed in the Church of Christ from the Primitiue beginning, to these our dayes, as well in other Countreys, as namely, in this Realme of England, and also of Scotland, discoursed at large.

CHRIST our Sauiour in the Gospell of S. Mathew, Cap. 16 

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Difference between early Church and Roman Church

The commentary on this block is at a preliminary stage. The project has not yet completed all its work on this portion of the text. Foxe's title to the first book of the 1563 martyrology foreshadowed that it was to concentrate on 'things DONE AND PRACTISED BY THE Prelats of the Romishe Churche, specially in this Realme of England and Scotland, from the yeare of our Lord a thousand vnto the tyme nowe present.' The revised title for the 1570 edition contained a much more ambitious agenda: 'the ful History of thinges done and practiced in the same, from the time of the first Christened King Lucius, King of this Realme of England, which is from the yeare of our Lord 180. vnto the tyme now present'. The shift of emphasis indicated in the title is a measure of the extent to which Foxe reorchestrated the whole underlying architecture for the martyrology between these two editions. The full measure of that change is reflected in this early section of the text. The first paragraph, however, remained unchanged. Like all the Renaissance humanist historians, Foxe aspired to follow the 'leges historiae' famously expounded in Cicero's De Oratore (books I-II). The first 'law' was the priority of truth. As Cicero put it: 'For who does not know history's know history's first law to be that an author must not dare to tell anything but the truth? And its second that he must make bold to tell the whole truth?' (De Oratore, II, xi). These 'laws' had frequently been adduced by humanist historians in precisely the way that Foxe already does in his opening paragraph: to scorn the credulity of medieval chroniclers. He takes the argument one step further, indicating that it was not mere credulity. The 'barbarousnes of those daies, and partly negligence in the learned sort' had contributed to creating a willful silence which had 'misshadowed & corrupted' the past. By recovering the truth, Foxe expected to 'profit the Church of Christ' and contribute to the 'sweete and mercyful reformation' of 'these reformed daies'.

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Mark Greengrass and Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

. MarginaliaMath. 16hearing the confessiō of Simon Peter, who first of all other openlye acknowledged him to be the sonne of God, and perceauing the secret hād of his father therin, aunswered agayne and alludyng to his name, called him a Rocke, vpon which Rocke hee would buylde his Church so strōg, that the gates of Hell should not preuaile against it. &c. In which wordes three things are to be noted: Marginalia Three thinges noted in Christes wordes.First that Christ will haue a Churche in this world. Secondly that the same Church should mghtely be impugned, not onely by the world, but also by the vttermost strength & powers of all hell. And thirdly, that the same Church notwithstādyng the vttermost of the deuill & all his malice should continue. Which Prophesie of Christ, we see wōderfully to be verified. In somuch that the whole course of the Churche to this day, may seeme nothyng els but a verifying of the sayd Prophesie. First that Christ hath set vp a Church needeth no declaration. Secondly, what force, what sides and sortes of men, of Princes, Kynges, Monarches, Gouernours, and rulers of this world, with their subiectes publikely & priuately, with all their strength & cunnyng haue bent them selues against this Church. And thirdly, how the sayd Church all this notwithstandyng hath yet endured & holden his owne. What stormes & tempestes it hath ouerpast, wonderous it is to behold. For the more euident declaration wherof, I haue addressed this present history, entendyng, by the fauorable ayde of Christ our Lord, not so much to delight the eares of my countrey in readyng of newes, as most especially to profite the harts of the godly in perusing antiquities of auncient times, to the ende, that the wonderfull workes of God first in his Church might appeare to his glory. Also that the continuaunce and proceedings of the Church from tyme to tyme beyng set forth in these Actes and Monumentes, more knowledge and experience may redound therby to the profite of the Reader, and edification of Christian faith.

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For the better accōplishyng wherof, MarginaliaThe order of the disposition of this history. so to prosecute the matter, as may best serue to the profite of the Reader, I haue thought good first, begynnyng from the tyme of the primitiue Church, & so continuyng (by the Lordes grace) o these latter yeares, to runne ouer the whole state and course of the Church in generall, in such order as digesting the whole tractation of this history, into fiue sundry diuersities of tymes:

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First, I will entreat of the suffring tyme of the Church Marginalia1. The suffering time of the church.which continued from the Apostles age about. 300. yeres.

Secondly, of the florishyng time of the Church, Marginalia2. The florishing time of the Church. which lasted other 300. yeares.

Thirdly, of the declinyng or backeslidyng tyme of the Church, Marginalia3. The declining time of the church. which comprehendeth other 300. yeares, vntill the loosing out of Sathan, which was about the thousand yeare after the ceasing of persecution. During which space of tyme, the Church, although in ambition & pride, it was much altered from the simple sinceritie of the Primitiue tyme, yet in outward profession of doctrine and religion, it was somethyng tollerable, & had some face of a Church: notwithstanding some corruption of doctrine, with superstition and hypocrisie was then also crept in. And yet in comparison of that as followed after, it might seeme (as I sayd) somethyng sufferable.

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Fourthly, foloweth the tyme of Antichrist, Marginalia4. The time of Antichrist in the Church.and loosingof Sathan, or desolation of the Church, whose full swyng conteineth the space of 400. yeares. In which tyme, both doctrine and sinceritie of life, was vtterly almost extinguished, namely, in the chiefe heades and rulers of this West church, through the meanes of the Romaine Byshops, especially countyng from Gregory the vij. called Hildebrand, Innocentius the iij. and Friers which with him crept in, til the tyme of Iohn Wickliffe, & Iohn Husse, duryng 400. yeres.

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Fiftly and lastly, after this tyme of Antichrist, raigning in the Church of God by violence and tyranny, followeth the reformation & purgyng of the church of God, Marginalia5. The reformation of the Church.wherein Antichrist begynneth to be be reuealed, and to appeare in his coulors, and his Antichristian doctrine to be detected, the number of his Church decreasing, and the number of the true Church increasing. The durance of which tyme hath continued hetherto about the space of 280. yeres, and how long shall continue more, the Lord and gouernour of all tymes, he onely knoweth. For in these fiue diuersities & alterations of tymes, I suppose the whole course of the Church may well be comprised. The which Church, because it is vniuersall, and sparsedly through all countreys dilated, therfore in this history standing vpon such a generall argument I shall not be boūd to any one certaine nation, more then an other: yet notwithstandyng keepyng mine argument aforesayd, I haue purposed principally to tary vpon such historicall actes and recordes, as most appertaine to this my country of England and Scotland.

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And for somuch as the Church of Rome, MarginaliaThe Church of Rome. in all these ages aboue specified, hath chalenged to it selfe the supreme title, and ringleadyng of the whole vniuersall Church on earth, by whose direction all other Churches haue bene gouerned; in writyng therfore of the Church of Christ, I can not but partly also intermedle with the actes and proceedynges of the same Church, for somuch as the doynges & orderyngs of all other Churches from tyme to tyme, as well here in England, as in other nations, haue this long season, chiefly depended vpon the same. Wherfore, as it is much needefull and requisite to haue the doynges & orderyngs of the sayd Church to be made manifest to all Christen congregations: so haue I framed this history, accordyng to the same purpose. First in a generall description briefly to declare as in a summary Table, the misguidyng of that Church, comparyng the former primitiue state of the forenamed Church of Rome, with these later tymes of the same. Which done, then after in a more speciall tractation, to prosecute more at large all the particulars therof, so farforth as shall seeme not vnprofitable for the publike instruction of all other Christen Churches, to behold and consider the maner & dealyng of this one. In the which one church of Rome foure things, as most speciall points, seeme to me chiefly to be considered. To wit, Title, Iurisdictiō, Life, and Doctrine, MarginaliaFoure thinges to be considered in the Church of Rome. 1. Title. 2. Iurisdiction. 3. Lyfe. 4. Doctrine.wherin I haue here to declare, first concernyng the title or primacie of the Church, how it first began, and vpon what occasion. Secondly, concernyng the iurisdiction and authoritie therof, what it was, and how farre it did extend. Thirdly, touchyng the misorder of lyfe and conuersation, how inordinate it is. And fourthly, the forme of doctrine, how superstitious & Idolatrous of late it hath bene. Of the which foure þe first was preiudiciall to all Byshops; the second, derogatorie to Kings and Emperours. The third detestable to all men. The fourth iniurious agaynst Christ.

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For first, the title and stile of that church was such, that it ouerwent all other churches, beyng called the holy vniuersall mother Church, which could not erre, and the Byshop therof holy father þe Pope, MarginaliaThe title of the Pope.Byshop vniuersal, prince of Priestes, supreme head of the vniuersall Church, and Vicare of Christ here in earth, which must not be iudged, MarginaliaThe iurisdiction of the Pope.hauyng all knowledge of Scripture and all lawes cōtayned with in the chest of his brest.

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