Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Berwick
Barwicke
NGR: NU 00 0528

Not identified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Canterbury
Cant., Canterb., Canterbury, Caunterbury, Caunterburye,
NGR: TR 150 580

An ancient city and county of itself, having separate jurisdiction. Locally in the hundred of Bridge and Petham, lathe of St. Augustine, eastern division of the county of Kent. 26 miles south-east by east from Rochester. The city comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Alphege, St. Andrew, St. George, The Holy Cross, St. Margaret, St. Martin, St. Mary Bredman, St. Mary Bredin, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Mary Northgate, St. Mildred, St. Peter and St. Paul, all in the Diocese of Canterbury, and with the exception of St. Alphege and St. Martin within the Archdeaconry of Canterbury. The living of All Saints is a rectory with St. Mary in the Castle and St. Mildred attached; St. Alphege is a rectory exempt, united with the vicarage of St. Mary Northgate; St. Andrew is a rectory with St. Mary Bredman annexed; St. George is a rectory with St. Mary Magdalene annexed; St. Martin's is a rectory exempt with St. Paul's annexed; St. Peter's is a rectory with Holy Cross annexed; St. Mary Bredin is a vicarage; and St. Margaret's is a donative in the patronage of the Archdeacon

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Huntingdon

[Huntington; Huntyngton]

Cambridgeshire

OS grid ref: TL 245 725

Historic county town of Huntingdonshire

 
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Leicester
Lecester, Leycester
NGR: SK 590 045

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, in the county of Leicester, of which it is the capital. 97 miles north-north-west from London. The borough comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Leonard, St Martin, St Nicholas, and parts of St Margaret and St Mary. St Margaret is within the peculiar jurisdiction of the prebend of that stall in Lincoln cathedral. The rest are in the Archdeaconry of Leicester, Diocese of Lincoln

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Lyon

[Lions; Lyons]

Rhône-Alpes, France

Coordinates: 45° 46' 1" N, 4° 50' 3" E

Cathedral city

 
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Norwich
NGR: TG 230 070

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Humbleyard, county of Norfolk, of which it is the capital. 108 miles north-east by north from London. The city comprises 33 parishes, and the liberty of the city a further four. Of these 37, three are rectories, 12 are discharged rectories, three are vicarages, one is a discharged vicarage, and 18 are perpetual curacies. St Andrew, St Helen, St James, St Paul and Lakenham are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter; the rest are in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Norwich, of which the city is the seat.

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Further information:

Andrews church (now St Andrews Hall) is at the junction of St Andrews Street and Elm Hill.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Nottingham [Notingham; Notyngham]

County town of Nottinghamshire

OS grid ref: SK 565 415

 
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Toulouse

[Tholous; Tholouse; Theolouse; Tule]

Haute-Garonne, France

Coordinates: 43° 36' 19" N, 1° 26' 34" E

Historic capital of Languedoc

253 [230]

K. Henry. 2. Decrees in the councell of Laterane. The history of the Waldenses.

the table and dyet of my Bishopricke: MarginaliaAnd howe be not those Byshops then periured which at the death of Q. Mary, set and let out a great part of their possessions, frō their successors.I shall neither sell, nor geue, nor lay to morgage, nor leise out, or remoue away by any maner of meanes, without þe consent & knowledge of the Byshop of Rome, so God help me and the holie Gospels of God.

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A note vpon the same.

¶ Hereby thou hast by the way (gentle Reader) to note and consider among other thinges which here may be vnderstand, that since the time the othe began to be layd and thrust vpō Byshops, all generall Coūcels began to loose theyr liberty. For how could any freedome remayn for men to speake theyr knowledge in redresse of things: being by their othe so bound to the Pope to speake nothing but on his side, to maintayne the Papacy and the church of Rome in all times and places? Coniecture by thy selfe (Christen Reader) what is more hereby to be considered.

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BEsides this it was also decreed in the sayd Councell at Rome of 310. Byshops, by pope Alexander: that no mā should haue any spirituall promotion, except he were of lawful age, and born in wedlock. That no parish Church should be voyd aboue 6. moneths. That none within orders should meddle with temporall busines. That priests should haue but one benefice. And that the Bishop should be charged to finde the priest a liuing till he be promoted.

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That open vsurers should not cōmunicate at Easter, nor be buried within the Churchyard.

That nothing should be taken for ministring Sacraments, or burying.

Item, that euery cathedrall church should haue a master to teach children freely, without taking any thing for the same.

MarginaliaThe vowe of chastitie layde vpon priestes.In this councell the vow of chastitye was obtruded & layd vpon Priestes. Thomas Becket also, and Bernard were canonised for Saintes.

During the raigne and time of this king Henry the second: the City of Norwich was destroyd and burnt by the men of Flaunders. Also the town of Lecester. Notingham wasted, and the Burgeses slayne by the Earle of Ferers. The towne of Barwick destroyd by the Scots. The king of Scottes was taken in warre by Englishmen, an. 1174. The towne of Huntington taken and burned. The towne of Canterbury by casualty of fire, burnt with all þe Churches, specially with the Trinity church, where Becket was worshipped. an. eod. The yeare of our Lord. 1170 Williā king of Scots with Dauid his brother, and all the Barons of the realm did homage to the king of England. Ireland made subiect to England. Decreed in a councell in Normandy, that no boyes or childrē should posses any benefice. A coūcell of Lateran was holdē at Rome, where were 33. articles cōcluded. an. 1179. The French king came in pilgrimage to Thomas Becket, the king of England meeting him by the way. an. 1184. After the death of MarginaliaRichardus Baldwinus Archb of Canterb.Richard Archbishoppe of Caunterbury, who followed after Thomas Becket, succeeded Baldwinus, who of a Cistercian monk being made a byshop, is sayd neuer to eat flesh in his life. To whom a certein poore woman (bare & lean) meeting him in the street: desired to know of him whether it were true that was sayd of him, that he neuer eat flesh. Which thing when he had affirmed to be true: Nay, sayth she that is false: for ye haue eaten my flesh vnto the bone. For I had but one cow wherewith I was sustayned, and that hath your Deanes taken from me. True, true sayd the Bishop and thou shalt haue an other Cow as good as that. &c. Iornalens.

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Moreouer, in the raigne of þe sayd king Henry, about the yeare of our Lord. 1178. I find in the story of Rog. Houeden and other, that in the city of Tholouse was a great multitude of men and womē, whom the popes Commissioners, to wit, Peter Cardinal of S. Crisogoim, and the Popes Legate: with the Archbishops of Narbone & Byturiensis: Reginald Bishop of Bathe, Iohn Bishoppe of Pictauia, Henry Abbot Clareuallēsis. &c. did persecute & condēne for hereticks: Of whom some were scourged naked, some chased away, some compelled to abiure. Concerning whose articles & opinions I haue no firme groūd to make any certain relation: for so much as I see þe Papistes many times so false in their quareling accusatiōs, vntruly collecting mens sayinges, not as they ment, & meanings, not as they sayd: but wresting and deprauing simple mēs assertions after such a subtle sort as they lust themselues to take them. But this I finde how one of the sayd commissioners or Inquisitors (Henry the Abbot) in a certaine letter of his, writ thus of them: Nam & panem sanctum vitæ æternæ sacerdotis ministerio in verbo Domini consecratum non esse corpus Domini, nouo dogmate contendebat asserere. Thatis: After a new opinion he affirmed, that the holy bread of eternall life, cōsecrated by the ministery of the Priest, was not the body of the Lord. &c.

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In the time of this Alexander sprong vp the doctrine and name of them: which were then called MarginaliaValdenses seu pauperes de LugdunoPauperes de Lugduno which of one Waldus a chiefe Senatour in Lyons were named, Waldenses: Item MarginaliaLeonistæ, Insabbatatis.Leonistæ, & Insabbatati: about the yeare of our Lord. 1109. or (as Laziardus writeth) an. 1170.

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Marginalia4. Arch pillers of proud papistry.Not long before this time (as is exprest aboue) rose vp Gratianus maister of the decrees, & Petrus Lombardus, maister of the sentence, both archpillers of all papistry. After whom followed also two as euill, or worse then they, Franciscus and Dominicus, maintayning blinde hypocrisie, no lesse thē the other maintayned proud prelacy. As these labored one way, by superstition and worldly aduaūcement to corrupt the sincerity of Religion: So it pleased Christ the contrary way, laboring against these, to raise vp therfore the sayd Valdēsians, against the pride and hypocrisy of the other. 

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Waldensians

The Waldensians were of crucial interest and importance to Protestant historians and martyrologists. They traced their origins to Peter Waldo, a wealthy twelfth-century merchant of Lyons, who gave away his money and became a wandering preacher. He began to attract followers, but the ecclesiastical authorities were suspicious and denied Peter and his followers permission to preach. In 1215, the Waldensians were condemned as heretics and this, in turn, radicalized the movement. Much of what is known about the Waldensians comes from reports by Reinerius Saccho (d. 1259), a former Cathar who became an informant for the Inquisition. The Waldensians were almost completely suppressed in southern France but they spread into the Piedmont, northern Italy, southern Germany and Bohemia. Aeneas Sylvius, in his influential history of the Hussites, linked them to the Waldensians. The importance of the Waldensians to Protestant historians stems from their relative antiquity and geographical diffusion. This made them a useful counter-example to Catholic challenges that there were no Protestants before Luther. They were even more useful because, in contrast to the Albigensians, their beliefs were compatible with those of the Reformers. Interestingly, Catholic writers like Reinerius and Aeneas were particularly useful to the Protestants because both groups of writers, albeit for different reasons, wished to emphasize the continuity between the early Waldensians and late medieval heresies.

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Foxe's account of the Waldensians first appeared in his 1563 edition and itwas reprinted without change in subsequent editions. It began with a history of Peter Waldo and the genesis of the Waldensians, which was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1562), pp. 705-9. The list of Waldensian articles is taken directly from Flacius, although one article, stating that only baptism and communion were sacraments was - accidently? - dropped by Foxe. (Cf. Flacius, Catalogus testium, pp. 709-10). The letter from the Waldensians to the king of Hungary is excerpted from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 87v-88r, 92r and 92v-93r. All of the remaining material in the account of the Waldensians is reproduced accurately from scattered items in Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 711-12, 721-7, 757-6 [recte 759], and 760-1. It is worth noting that the one item in this account, the letter to the king of Hungary, not from Flacius, argued against any real or corporal presence of Christ in the sacramental bread. This belief was offensive enough to Flacius not to print (Flacius was well aware of Gratius's book) and important enough to Foxe for him toinsert it into the other material Flacius had provided on the Waldensians.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

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Thus we neuer see any great corruptiō in the church, but that some sparkle, yet of the true light of the Gospell, by Gods prouidence doth remayne. Whatsoeuer Doctor Augustinus, Reinerius, Siluius, Cranzius with other in their popish histories, do write of them (defaming them through misreport) and accusing them to Magistrates, as disobedient to orders, rebels to the Catholick church, and contemners of the virgin Mary: Yet they that cary iudgement indifferent, rather trusting trueth then wauering with times, in Weying their Articles, shall finde it otherwise: that they mayntayned nothing els, but the same doctrine, which is now defended in the Church. And yet I suppose not contrary, but as they did with the Articles of Wickliffe, and Hus: so the Papists did in like maner with their articles also, in gathering and wrasting them otherwise then they were ment.

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The history of the Valdenses, concerning their originall, and doctrine, with their persecutions.

MarginaliaThe history of Waldenses or Albingenses.THe first originall of these Valdenses came of one Valdus, a man both of great substance, and no lesse calling in the City of Lyons: the occasion whereof is declared of diuers writers, thus to come. About the yeare of the Lord 1160. it chaunced that diuers of the best and chiefest heades of the Citty of Lyons, talking and walking in a certayne place, after their olde accustomed maner, especially in the Sommer time, conferred and consulted together vpon matters, either to passe ouer time, or to debate thinges to be done. Amongst whom it chaunced one (the rest looking vpon) to fall downe by sodeine death. In the number of whom this foresayd Valdus there being amongest them was one. Who beholding the matter more earnestly then the other, and terrified with so heauy an exāple, being (as is sayd) a rich man, and Gods holy spirit working withall: was stroken with a deepe & inward repētance wherevpon folowed a new alteratiō, with a carefull study to reforme his former life. In somuch that first he began to minister large almes of his goods, to such as needed. Secōdly, to instruct himselfe and his familye, with the true knowledge of Gods word: Thirdly, to admonish all that resorted to him, by any occasion, to repentaunce and vertuous amendment of life.

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Wherby, partly through his large geuing to the poore, partly through his diligent teaching, & wholesome admonitions: more resort of people daily frequēted about him. Whom when he did see ready and diligent to learne, begā to geue out to them certayne rudiments of the Scripture, which he had translated himselfe into the French tongue. For as he was a man welthy in riches, so he was also not vnlearned.

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Although Laziardus, Volateranus, with other: note him vtterly vnlearned, & charge him with ignoraunce, as who should procure other to write and translate for him, By other that haue seene his doings, yet remaining in old parchment monuments, it appeareth he was both able to declare and translate the books of scripture, also did collect the doctors mind vpon the same.

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But whatsoeuer he was (lettred, or vnlettred) the byshops and prelats seing him so to intermeddle with scriptures, and to haue such resort about him: albeit it was but in his own house, vnder priuate conferēce: MarginaliaThe true nature of Antichrist, neither him selfe to further the word nor suffer other men to do it.could not abide either that the scriptures should be declared of any other, neither would they take the paines to declare it thēselues. So being moued wt great malice against the man: threatned to excommunicate him, if he did not leaue so to doe.

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Valdus
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