Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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OxfordWinchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)
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OS grid ref: SP 515 065

County town of Oxfordshire; university town

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Winchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)


OS grid ref: SU 485 295

Historic capital of Wessex; former capital of England; county town of Hampshire; cathedral city

352 [329]

Straungers banished the realme. The prouisions of Oxforde. Noble men.

ning, might sufficiently induce vs to vnderstande MarginaliaLitle peace in the Popes Church.what small peace and agreemēt was then ioyned with that doctrine and religion in those dayes, during the state & raigne of Antichrist.

These with many such other matters moe, which here might be discoursed and storied at large, being more forein then Ecclesiastical, for breuity I do purposely contract and omitte, cutting of all such superfluities as may seeme more curious to wryte vpon, then necessary to be knowen.

This that foloweth concerning the pitiful & turbulent commotion betwene the king and the nobles, which lasted a long season: 

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Henry III and the barons

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

because it is lamentable, MarginaliaHistories profitable for example.& conteineth much fruitfull example, both for Princes and subiects to beholde and looke vppon, to see what mischiefe and inconuenience groweth in common weales, where study of mutuall concorde lacketh, that is: where neither the Prince regardeth the offending of his subiects, and where the subiects forget the office of christian pacience, in suffering their princes iniuries, by Gods wrath inflicted for their sinnes. Wherfore, in explaning the order and storie thereof, I thought it not vnprofitable to occupy þe reader with a little more tariance in perusing the ful discourse of this so lamētable a matter, and so pernitious to the publicke weale.

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And first to declare the occasions and first beginnings of this tumult, here is to be vnderstode, which before was signified: MarginaliaThe occasions of commotion betweene the kyng and the Nobles.howe king Henry maried with Alinor daughter of the Earle of Prouince, a stranger, which was about the yere of our Lord 1234. Wherupon, a great doore was opened for strangers, not only to enter the land, but also to replenish the court: to whome þe king seemed more to incline his fauour, aduancing them to more preferment, then hys owne naturall English Lordes, which thing was to them no litle greuance. Moreouer, before was declared, how the king by Isabel hys mother who was a straunger, had diuers brethren: Whom he nourished vp with great liuings and possessions, and large pensions of money, which was an other hearts sore to diuers, & also an hinderance. Ouer & beside hath also ben declared, what vnreasonable collectiōs of mony from time to time, as quindecims, subsidies, tenthes, mersements, fines, paiments, lones and taxes, haue bene leuied by the king, as well of the spiritualtie, as of the lay sort, partly for maintaining the kings warres against Wales, against Scotlande and Fraunce, to recouer Normandie: partly for helping the kings debtes, viagies & other expenses: partly for the kingdom of Apulia, which was promised the kings sonne by the pope: partly for moneying and supporting the Pope in his warres against the Emperour. By reason of all which sundrie and importable collections, the common wealth of the Realme was vtterly excoriate, to the great impouerishment of poore English men. Neither did it a little vexe the people to see the king call in so many Legates from Rome euery yeare, which did nothing els but transporte the English money vnto the Popes cofers. Besides all thys, what variaunce and altercation hath bene betweene the king and hys subiects about the liberties of Magna charta, & de foresta, graunted by king Iohn, and after confirmed by thys king, in the former councel holden at Oxford, hath bene afore declared.

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Perhaps thys might be also some peece of a cause, that the king considering and bearing in minde the olde iniuries done of the Lordes and Barons to his father Kyng Iohn before him: did beare some grudge therefore, or some priuie hatred vnto the Nobilitie, to reuenge hys fathers quarel. But of things vncertaine I haue nothing certainly to affirme. This is certaine, by truth of historie, that the yeare next ensuing, which was 1260. MarginaliaAnno. 1260. thus wryteth Nicho. Triuet, that the kings Iustices called Itinerarij, being sent thether to execute their office, were from thence repelled: the cause being alledged for that they were against the king in proceeding and enterprising against þe forme of the prouisions enacted and stablished a little before at the Towne of Oxford.

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MarginaliaStraungers hauing all the wealth of the realme vnder the kyng. Ex Gualt. Gisburnensi.It befell moreouer the same yeare, aboue other times (as Gualt. Hemmingford wryteth) that a great number of aliens comming out of Fraunce and other prouinces, resorted into England: and had heere the doing of all principall matters of the Realme vnder the king. Vnto whome the rewards and reliefes, & other emoluments of the land did most chiefly redound, which thing to see did not a little trouble & vexe the nobilitie and baronage of England. In so much, that Simon Montfort Earle of Leicester, offering to stande to death for the liberties and wealth of the Realme, conferred together with other Lordes and Barons vpon the matter. MarginaliaThe wordes of the Nobles to the kyng.Who then comming to the king after an humble sort of petition, declared to him howe all the doings of his Realme and his owne affaires, were altogether disposed by the handes, and after the willes of strā-gers, neither profitable to him, nor to the weale publicke: for so much as hys treasures being wasted and consumed, he was in great debt, neither was able to satisfie the prouision of his owne house, but driuen to tale for his owne cates, to no small dishonour to his owne state. And nowe therfore said they, pleaseth your highnes to be informed by our aduise, and to commit your house to the guiding and gouernment of your owne faithfull and naturall subiects: And we will take vppon vs to discharge your whole debt within one yere, of our owne proper goods and reuenues, so that we within 5. yeares may cleare our sleues againe. Neither wil we diminish your familie, but rather increase it with a much greater retinue: prouiding so for the safety and seeing to the custodie of your royall person, as your highnes shal finde and vnderstand our diligence most trusty and faithfull vnto you in the ende.

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MarginaliaThe K. graūteth to his Lordes.To these woordes so louingly declared, so humbly pretensed, so heartely and freely offered, the king as willingly condescended: MarginaliaA sitting of the king and Lordes at Oxford.assigning to them both day and place, where to conferre & to deliberate farther vpon the matter, which shoulde be at Oxforde, the 15. day after Easter. MarginaliaThe prouisions or lawes made at Oxforde.At which day and place, all the states and Lordes wyth the bishops of the realme were summoned to appeare at the sayd town of Oxford, for the behalfe of the king, and the Realme conuented together. Where first of the King himselfe, then of the Lordes an oth was taken: MarginaliaThe King sweareth to the prouisions made at Oxford.that what decrees or lawes in the said assembly should be prouided to the profite of the king and of the realme, the same vniuersally shuld be kept and obserued to the honor of God, & vtilitie of his church, and wealth of the Realme. Besides these Lordes and the King, were also 9. Bishops, which swearing to the same, did excommunicate all such as should gainstand the sayde prouisions there made, the King holding a burning taper in his hand, and the Lordes openly protesting, to rise with all their force, against all them that shall stande against the same.

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MarginaliaThe kinges brethren against the prouisions of Oxford.There were at that present in the Realme, foure brethren of the kings (most part of them by the mothers side) which would in no case agree heereunto, but in anger departed priuely vnto Wint. The nobles hearing thereof, in all spedy wise pursued them, fearing least they should take the Citie of Wint. and forceably keepe the same. Wherfore, the Lordes preuenting their purpose, and seeing them stiffely to persist in their stubburne sentence, wrought no other violence against them, but returning to Oxforde againe, prescribed to them these cōditions, that they departing the realme should repaire to their owne lands & possesions, which they had beyōd the sea. And that foorthwith they should put this iniunction in execution. Notwtstanding that the King made for them great intercession, yet it tooke no place. And because this should seeme to procede of no speciall displeasure against thē, MarginaliaThe prouisions of Oxforde.they enacted moreouer, that all strangers and aliens of what state or condition soeuer, should forthwith auoid the realme in paine of death. Diuers other prouisions the same time were ordeined and stablished: that if any did holde of the king in whole or in part, and should chance him to depart (his heire being vnder age) the wardship of him should belong to the king, as hath partly before bene specified.

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MarginaliaEx historia Gualteri Gisburnensis.Moreouer it was there decreed, that the wooll of England should be wrought onely wythin the realme, neither should it be transported out to straungers.

Item, that no man should weare any cloth, but which was wrought and made onely within the realme.

MarginaliaGod graunt this lawe might take place againeItem, that garments too sumptuous, shoulde not be brought in nor worne.

MarginaliaGod graunt the like law againe for the wealth of the realmItem, that all excessiue and prodigall expenses wasted vpon pleasure and superfluity, should be eschued of al persons.

Many other lawes & decrees (sayth the author) in this assemble were ordeined, wherein they continued the space of 15. daies: MarginaliaDiuers in this counsell impoisoned.and many of them were impoysoned, of whom was the Abbot of Westminster, a man in that order much commended. Also William brother to the Earle of Glocester. Also the Earle himself being empoisoned hardly escaped wt life, his heare and nailes falling of his body, wherof the author not long time after was taken, and duely executed at Wintchester. In the meane time, þe nobles considering those dangers and ieoperdies, were constrained to breake off for that time, appoynting the 14. day of Octob. next folowing to conuent together at London with weapon and harnes: to prosecute & finish the residue, that was in the said counsaile to be concluded. All which at the time & place appointed was fully accomplished, and the actes thereof in order of wryting promulged, and so committed to execution.

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MarginaliaThe kyng repenteth of his othe.After the promulgation whereof, many things therein displeased the king, and it began to repent him of hys othe.

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