Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Alexander Barclay

(c. 1484 - 1552) [ODNB]

Poet; clergyman. Benedictine monk at Ely; Franciscan friar at Canterbury; vicar of Wookey, Somerset 1546; vicar of Great Baddow, Essex 1549

Princess Mary complained in a letter to the privy council of the indictment of two of her chaplains, Mallet and Barclay. 1576, p. 1292; 1583, p. 1334.

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Aachen (Aquisgranum; Aix-la-Chapelle)

[Aquisgraue; Akon]

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 46' 0" N, 6° 6' 0" E

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[Auinion; Auignia]

Vaucluse, France

Coordinates: 43° 56' 58" N, 4° 48' 32" E

Seat of the papacy 1309 - 77; seat of the antipopes during the Great Schism (1378 - 1415)

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Berkeley [Barkley] Castle


OS grid ref: ST 684 989

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Frankfurt am Main

[Francford; Franckforde; Frankford]

Hesse, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 6' 37" N, 8° 40' 56" E

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NGR: SO 830 187

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Dudstone and Kings Barton, county of Gloucester. 34 miles north-north-east from Bristol. The city comprises the parishes of St. Aldate, St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt, St. Mary de Grace, St. Nicholas, St. Owen and Holy Trinity; also parts of St. Catherine, St. Mary de Lode and St. Michael, all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Gloucester, of which it is the seat. St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt and St. Michael are discharged rectories; St. Mary de Lode and Holy Trinity are discharged vicarages; St. Aldate, St. Catherine, St. Mary de Grace and St. Nicholas are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Hereford [Herforde; Herford]

County town of Herefordshire; cathedral city

OS grid ref: SO 515 405

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Kenilworth [Kenelworth]


OS grid ref: SP 295 715

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Speyer (Spira) [Spire; Spyre; Spires]

Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Cathedral city

Coordinates: 49° 19' 10" N, 8° 25' 52" E

396 [373]

K. Edw. 2. The K. imprisoned. A parliament. Strife betweene the Emp. and the Pope.

Castle and the towne: and the king with Hugh Spenser the sonne, and Syr Robert Baldocke Chauncellour, & the Earle of Arundell went into Wales. And the Queene so pursued them, that first they tooke the towne yelded up to her: MarginaliaHugh Spenser the father, takē and hanged in chayne. Then they tooke syr Hugh Spenser the father, whom being drawn, and torne, they at last hanged vp at Bristow in chaynes of yron. As the king was thus flying, þe queene caused to be proclaymed through her army, that the Kyng should come and appeare, and so to receaue his kingdome agayne if he woulde be conformable to his liege subiectes. Who when he did not appeare, Prince Edward his sonne was proclaymed high keeper of the Realme.

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In the meane tyme Henry Earle of Lancaster, & brother to the good Earle Thomas which before was beheaded, also Lord William Souch, and M. Upphowell were sent by the Qneene into Wales to pursue the king: MarginaliaThe king taken in Wales.& there tooke him, and sent him to the Castell of Kenelworth: And tooke Hugh Spenser the sonne, and Sir Robert Baldock Chauncellour, and sir Iohn Earle of Arundell, & brought them all to the towne of Hereford, MarginaliaHugh Spenser the sonne taken and executed.And anone after, Hugh Spenser the sonne was drawn and hanged on a gallowes fiftye foote highe, and after beheaded, and quartered, whose quarters were sent into 4 quarters of the Realme. Syr Iohn of Arundel was beheaded, sir Robert Baldock was put in Newgate at London, where shortly after he pyned away and dyed among the theeues. This done, a Parliament was assembled at London, from whence message was sent to the Kyng, that if he would resigne vp his Crowne, hys sonne shoulde haue it after him: If not, an other shold take it to whom the lot would geue it. Whereupon, the king being constrayned to yelde up his Crowne to hys sonne was kept in prison and after had to Barkley: where he is sayd to take great repentance. After this message beyng sent, and the king halfe condescending thereunto (the Parliament notwithstanding prosecuting and goyng forward MarginaliaA bill exhibited in the parliament house against king Edward the secōd.there was a bill exhibited and put vp contayning certayne articles agaynst the sayd Kyng, then in prison in the Castle of Barkley, touching his misbehauiour and imprudent gouerning of the realme: whiche bill, openly before all the Lordes and commons by the speaker of the Parliament house was read. After long consultation thereof amongest themselues touching those articles, and also for the better and more circumspect gouernment of the Realme from that tyme forth: MarginaliaKing Edward deposed by consent of the parliament house, and his sonne Edw. chosen was consulted and agreed vppon by the Lordes spirituall and temporal, and commons there assembled: that they sayd Edward was a man not meete to be their Kyng, nor from that tyme forth anye more to beare the Crowne royall or title of a Kyng. But that Edward hys eldest sonne, who there in the same court of high Parliament was present, as he was rightfull heyre and inheritor therunto: so should he be crowned king therof in hys fathers steade, with these conditions thereunto annexed: That he should take wise, sage, and true Counsellers vnto him. That the Realme might be better and more circumspectly gouerned: then before in the tyme of Edward his father it was: That the old King his Father should be honourably prouided for and kept, so long as he liued, according as vnto his estate it appertayned. &c. These and other things thus finished and ended, the Parliament breaketh vp, and all thinges necessary to the coronation of a Prince appertayning were in speedy wise prepared, whereof more hereafter (Christ willing) shalbe specified.

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In the meane tyme as touching the king whiche was yet in prison, it is thought by some writers: that the next yeare following by the meanes of syr Roger Mortimer, he was miserably slayne, with a spit (as is sayd) being thrust vp into his body, and was buryed at Gloucester, after he had raigned xix. yeares.

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MarginaliaMichael house in Cambridge founded.In the time and raigne of this King, the Colledge of Cambridge called Michaell house was founded and builded by Syr Henry Stantō Knight, MarginaliaHenry Stauntō founder of Michael house in the vse and increase of learning: a thing in a common wealth very profitable And necessary to be had, the want and need wherof, many sondry times, is sooner felt in this realme of ours, and other Realmes abroad, then is the discommoditie therof, of most men commonly understoode.

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About the same time also, was Nicholaus de Lyra, MarginaliaNicolaus de Lyra. which wrote the ordinary glose of the Bible. Also Gulielmus Occham, MarginaliaGuilielmus Ocham.a worthy diuine, and of a right sincere iudgement, as the times then would either gene or suffer.

In the tractation of this kings history, before was declared what grudge did kindle in the harts of the Barons agaynst the king, for reuoking such actes and customes, as had bene before in the Parliament established, both for Peter Gauestō, (& for þe two Spensers. MarginaliaTyranny odious to the people.Also what seuere punishment the king did execute vppon them for the same, in suche cruell and rigorous sorte, that as he spared none of them, whom he could there finde: so he neuer ceased all hys life after to enquire out and to be reuenged of all suche, as had bene in any part or consenting to that matter. For the which his extreme and implacable tyranny, he was in such hatred of all the people: that as he sayd, he coulde not fynde one of all the commons to take his part, when need required. Among all other which were for that matter troubled was one Adam Byshop of Hereford: MarginaliaA spiritual Bish. called and arested before a secular iudge. who being impeached of treason with other moe, was at length arested in the Parliament, to appeare and answere to that should be to him obiected. MarginaliaEx Tho. Walsing.Many thinges there were layde agaynst him, for taking part with them that rose agaynst the Kyng with matters moe and haynous rebukes &c. Whereunto, the Byshop a great while aunswered nothing.

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At length, the Byshop clayming the liberties and priuiledges of the Church, answered to the king in thys form. MarginaliaThe forme of wordes, when any Bish. docth chalenge the priuiledge of the church against a secular iudge.The due reuerence of your Princely maiesty euer saued, Ego SanctÆ EcclesiÆ Dei minister humilis, membrum eius, & Episcopus consecratus licèt indignus ad tam ardua nequeo respōdere nec debeo, absé; D. Cant. Archiepiscopi post summum pontificem mei directi iudicis, cuius etiam sum suffraganeus, autoritate, & aliorum parium meorum Episcoporum consensu. That is I an humble minister and member of the holy Churche of God, and Byshop consecrate (albeit vnworthy) cannot, neither ought to answere to these so hye matters without the authoritie of the Archbishop of Caunterbury my direct iudge, next vnder the high Bishop of Rome, whose suffragane also I am, and the consent likewise of the other my fellow Bishops. After which wordes by him pronounced, the Archbishop and other Byshops with him were ready to make humble intercession for hym to the king, and did. MarginaliaThe Bishop rescued by the Clergie. But when the king would not be wonne nor turned with any supplication: the sayd Byshops together wt the Archbishop and the Clergy, comming with their crosses: tooke him away, challenging him for the Churche, without any more answere making: charging moreouer, vnder the censures of the Churche and excommunication, none to presume to lay any further handes vpon him. MarginaliaThe K. proceedeth in iudgement against the B. the priuilegies of the church notwithstāding to the contrary.The king moued with thys boldnes and stoutnes of the clergy: cōmandeth notwithstanding to proceede in iudgement, and the iury of 12. men to go vppon the enquiry of his cause: who finding and pronouncing the Bishop to be gilty, the kyng caused immediately al his goods & possessiōs to be cōfiscate vnto himselfe: moreouer, made hys plate and all his housholde prouision to be throwne out of his house into the streete, but yet he remained so stil vnder the protection and defence of the Archbishop. &c.

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This Archb. was Walter Winchelsey, after whom succeeded MarginaliaSimon Mepham archb. of Cant.Simon Mepham in the same see of Caunterbury. an. 1327. Ex Thom. Walsingham

After pope Clement the 5. by whose decease the Romish see stood vacant (as ye heard) two yeares and 3. moneths next was elected Pope John 22. 

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John XXIII and Clement VI

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

MarginaliaPope John 22. a Monke Cistercian.a Cistercian monke, who sate in that papacy 18. yeares. He was stout and inflexible, geuen so much to the heaping of riches: that MarginaliaA new foŪd heresie. Heresy with the Pope to say that Christ & the Apostles had no proper possessions here.he proclaymed them heretickes, whiche taught that Christ and hys Apostles had no possessions of theyr owne in thys world.

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At this time was Emperour Ludouicus Bauarus, a worthy man: who with this Pope and other that folowed hym, had no lesse contention, then had Fredericus before mentioned in the time of king Henry the thyrd. Insomuch that this contention and variaunce continued the space of 24. yeares. The cause and first origene of this tragical conflicte, rose vpon the constitution of Clemēt the 5. predecessor to this pope, by whom it was ordayned as is afore mētioned, that Emperours by the Germayne Princes elected might be called kinges of the Romaynes, but might not inioy the title or right of the Empyre to bee nominated Emperour, without theyr confirmation geuen by the Pope. MarginaliaStrife betweene the pope & the Emperour.Wherefore, this foresayd Emperour because he vsed the emperiall dignitie in Italy, before he was authorised by the pope: the sayd Pope therefore excommunicated the Emperour. And notwithstanding, the Emperoure oftentimes did profer himself to make intreaty of peace and cōcorde, yet the Pope inflexible woulde not bend. The writinges of both partes yet be extant, wherein the sayd Byshop both make his auaunt: that he had full power to creat and depose kinges and Emperours at his pleasure. In the same time were diuers learned men, which seeing the matter: did greatly disalow the Bishop of Romes doynges, among whome was Guillerne Ocham, whose tractations were afterward condemned by the Pope, for writing agaynst the temporall iurisdiction of theyr see. And an other named Marselius Patauius, which wrote the booke intituled Defensor pacis, geuen vp to the handes of the sayd Emperour, wherein the controuersie of the popes vnlawful iu

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