Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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397 [373]

K. Edw. 2. Ludouicus the Emperour deposed by the Pope. The Emperour poysoned.

iurisdiction in things temporall is largely disputed & the vsurped authoritie of that see set forth to the vttermost. MarginaliaThe Emperour crowned against the will of the pope. It is found in some wryters, that a great cause of this variaunce first began, for that one of the Emperours secretaries, vnknowing to the Emperour: in certayne of hys letters, had likened the Papal see to the beast rising out of the sea in the Apocalips. At length, when the Emperour after much sute made to the pope at Auinion, could not obtayne his coronation: comming to Rome, was there receaued wt great honour, where he with his wife were both crowned by the full consent of all the Lordes and Cardinals there, and moreouer, an other pope there set vp, called Nicholas the fift. After which thinges done, the Pope not long after departed at Auinion in France, after whom succeeded then MarginaliaPope Benedictus 12. a Monke of Benedictes order.Benedictus 12. a monke of Benedicts order, and rayned 7. yeares. Who by the counsayle of Phillip the French kyng confirmed and prosecuted the censures and cursinges that Iohn his predecessour had published agaynst Lewes the Emperour: MarginaliaLudouicus the Emperour depriued and deposed by Pope Benedict. 12.Moreouer depriued him of his Emperiall Crowne, and also of hys Dukedome of Bauaria. The Emperour vpon this commeth to Germany, and assembling the Princes electors, Dukes, Bishops, Nobles, and the learned in a councel at Francford: MarginaliaA councel at Frankford. The Emperours protestation to the councell of Germany. there declared before them out of the auncient lawes and customes of the Empire, how it standeth onely in the Princes Electours, and in none other to elect the K. or the Emperors of the Romaines (for in both these names was no difference) so that the same Electors in chusing the king of the Romaynes, did also elect and chuse the Emperour. Whiche Emperour so by them constitute had lawfull right, without any information of the Apostolicall see, to exercise the administration of the Empyre. And if he were lawfully elect, ought to be annoynted of the Romayne Byshop: which if hee doe refuse, then might hee be annoynted and declared Emperour and Augustus by any other Catholicke Bishoppe thereunto appoynted (as by the olde maner and custome hath bene) especially seeing these iniunctions, are but certaine solēnities added and inuented by the bishops, onely for a token of vnitie betweene the church & Empire, to gouerne and defend the fayth together. MarginaliaEx Hieron. Mario. Et ex Crātzio. Wherefore in that the Emperour sweareth to the bish. of Rome: in that is to be vnderstand no homage or fealtie made to the Bishop, but onely is a Sacrament & a promise geuē to defend the faith. The which oth or sacrament so geuen, giueth no maioritie to the Pope in any temporal rule, but only byndeth þe Emperour to be priest and ready to defend the fayth & churche of Christ, when need shall require obedience. Wherefore, where as the Pope leaneth onely to the electors authoritie to make the K. of Romaynes, and taketh vpon himselfe alone to make the Emperor that as it is newly brought in & deuised a late by pope Clemēt the 5. so is it contrary both to all auncient order, and also derogatorie to the libertie & maiesty of the sacrate Empire. Agayne, neither is that also lesse absurd and contrary to all right and reason: þt the pope in time of the imperiall seat being vacant, taketh vpon him to haue the whole & full doinges of the Empyre, as lawful Emperour for the time. Which prerogatiue and function, by auncient orders of our foreelders, shuld properly & onely appertayne to the Palatine of Rhene, the Constitution Clementine of the foresayd Pope Clement to the contrary notwithstanding. Then in the end for his own excuse, he in the presence of them al reciteth the publike confession of his fayth, to answere & purge himself of those obiections layde to him by the pope. This did the meeke Emperour Ludouicke in that Councell: yet all this not withstanding, the sayd Emperour remayned still excommunicate, till tyme variaunce fel betweene this pope Benedict and Philip the French king. Wherfore to make his party good, at least to haue some friendes to flee to: he began to pretend fauour & absolution, rather for necessitie, then for anye good will to the Emperour. But not long after, this Pope died: of whō this Epitaph was made.

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MarginaliaEx Chron. de 6. mundi ætatibus, intitulus: Rudimentum nouitiorum.
Hic situs est Nero laicis mors, vipera clero,

Deuius a vero, cupa repleta mero.

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Epitaph on Pope Benedict XII
Foxe text Latin

Hic situs est Nero ... repleta mero.


John Wade, University of Sheffield

Here lies Nero, death to the laymen, a viper to the clergy, a deviant from the truth, a cask filled with unmixed wine.

MarginaliaPope Clement. 6.After whome followed Pope Clement the sixt, a man most furious and cruell. Who renuing agayne the former excommunications of hys former predecessors, caused hys letters to be set vp on Church dores, wherein he threatned & denounced most terrible thunderboltes agaynst the sayd Lewes the Emperour, MarginaliaThe trouble of Ludouick the Emp. vnlesse within three dayes he shold satisfie to God and the Church, and renounce the Imperiall possession of the crown. The Emperour vpon this, cōmeth to Francford, and there ready to stand in al things to the ordinaunce of the pope: sendeth his Oratours to the court of Rome, to entreat the pope of his fauour and good will towardes him. To the whiche messengers the Popeanswered againe, that he would neuer pardon the Emperor, before he gaue ouer and confessed his errors & heresies and resigning vp his Empire to his handes, woulde submit himselfe, his children, and all his goods to the will and pleasure of the bishop, promising that he shuld not receiue agayn any part of the same, but vppon his good grace, as his will should be to restore them.

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MarginaliaHeresie of the Popes making obiected against the Emperour.The heresie here mentioned, which was to this Emperour obiected by the pope was this: because (as is aboue touched) he vsed and executed the Imperiall dignitie after his election, before he was of the pope confirmed. Ouer & besides the Pope sendeth to the Emperour by the sayd Oratours, a certayne forme of a bill contayned in writing wt certaine conditions, which he commaunded to be geuen to the handes of the Emperor. Here if the Emperour Lewis had had as much minde to set vpon the Pope with dint of sword, as he lacked neyther occasion nor power so to doe: what bloud might here haue bene spilled? But the good Emperour sparing the effusion of bloud, receiueth gently the bill: and not onely with his seale doth confirme it, but also sweareth to obserue all þe conditions therof. MarginaliaThe proude heart of the Pope.Which the pope hearing of, doth greatly maruel. But yet al this wold nothing help to mollifie the modest heart of this Pharao.

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The Princes and electors seeing the bill of the articles and conditions, whereof some sounded to malicious defacing and destructiō of the Empire, abhorring the wickednes thereof: desired the Emperour to stande to the defence of the Imperial Dominion, as he had begon: promising that their assistance & ayde, to the vttermost thereunto should not lack. Vpon that other Orators were sent to P. Clement from the Princes, desiring hym to abstaine from such maner of articles conceaued agaynst the state and maiesty of the Empyre. The pope surmising all this to spring from Lewes the Emperour, to the vtter subuersion of him and all his posteritie: MarginaliaLewes the Emperour accused by the Pope for an hereticke.on Maundy thursday blustereth out most black curses agaynst hym, also renueth al the former processes of his prodecessor agaynst hym, as agaynst both an hereticke & a schismaticke, commaunding moreouer the Princes electors to proceede in chusing a new Emperour. MarginaliaA good & faithfull Archbish. of Mentz.The Archbishop of Mentz seeing the innocency of the emperour, would not consent to the violating of his maiesty, wherefore was depriued by the Pope of all his dignities. wherefore was depriued by the Pope of all his dignitie, MarginaliaBribers corrupted with mony.The other bishops electors, as the Archb. of Cholē, which tooke 8. thousande markes, with the Duke of Saxonye whiche tooke 2. thousand markes, beyng corrupted with mony by Iohn king of Boheme: elected Charles the sonn of the sayd Iohn, whome Pope Clement eftsoones in hys consistory did approue. Who seeth not here what matter was ministred by the P, of warre and bloudshed betwene these 2. Emperours, MarginaliaThe pope sower of discord and bloudshed. if the patience of Ludouicke had not bene more prudent to quench the fire, then the pope was to kindle it? Charles then the new Emperour elect, sped hym to Aquisgraue, according to the custome, there to be crowned. But by the Cittizens there, and the Empresse (Ludouicus wyfe keeping there about) was repelled. All this happened in the time and raigne of Edward the 3. Ring of England, MarginaliaThe pope again stirreth vp war.with whō the sayd Charles, with the French k. and king of Boheme, set on by the P. encountred in warre where the king of England, had agaynst them a noble victory, and slue a great number of the Frenchmen and Almaynes, MarginaliaCharles the new Emperor put to flight by the Englishmen.and put Charles the new Emperor to flight. In the meane tyme, among the Princes and Citties of Germany what sorrow and what complayntes were agaynst pope Clement and those electors, it cānot be expressed. For as they were altogether at Spires congregated in a general assembly, so there was none among them al: þt allowed the election of Charles, or that cared for the popes processe, promising all to adhere & continue faithful subiects to Ludouicke theyr lawful Emperour. MarginaliaLudouike the right Emperour resigneth vp hys Empyre.But Ludouicke remembring his oth made before to the popes bill, voluntary and willingly gaue ouer his Emperiall dignitie, and went to Burgrauia, where shortly after, through the procured practise of pope Clement (as Hieronimus Marius doth write) poyson was geuen him to drinke. MarginaliaLudouike the Emperour impoysoned. After the whiche beyng dronke, when he would haue vomitted out, and could not: took hys horse & went to hunt the beare, whereby through the chafing & heat of his body to expell þe venim. And there the good & gentle Emperour wickedly persecuted & murdered of the P. fel downe dead, whom I may wel recount among the innocent and blessed martyrs of Christ. MarginaliaLudouicus Emperor & martyr. For if þe cause being righteous doth make a Martyr, what Papist can iustly disprooue hys cause or fayth? if persecution ioyned thereunto causeth martyrdome, what martyre coulde be more persecuted thē he? who hauing 3. popes, like 3. bāddogs vpō him, at length was deuoured by the same. The princes then hearing of his death, assembled thēselues to a

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