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Canterbury
Cant., Canterb., Canterbury, Caunterbury, Caunterburye,
NGR: TR 150 580

An ancient city and county of itself, having separate jurisdiction. Locally in the hundred of Bridge and Petham, lathe of St. Augustine, eastern division of the county of Kent. 26 miles south-east by east from Rochester. The city comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Alphege, St. Andrew, St. George, The Holy Cross, St. Margaret, St. Martin, St. Mary Bredman, St. Mary Bredin, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Mary Northgate, St. Mildred, St. Peter and St. Paul, all in the Diocese of Canterbury, and with the exception of St. Alphege and St. Martin within the Archdeaconry of Canterbury. The living of All Saints is a rectory with St. Mary in the Castle and St. Mildred attached; St. Alphege is a rectory exempt, united with the vicarage of St. Mary Northgate; St. Andrew is a rectory with St. Mary Bredman annexed; St. George is a rectory with St. Mary Magdalene annexed; St. Martin's is a rectory exempt with St. Paul's annexed; St. Peter's is a rectory with Holy Cross annexed; St. Mary Bredin is a vicarage; and St. Margaret's is a donative in the patronage of the Archdeacon

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Constance (Konstanz)

[Constaunce]

Freiburg, Germany

Coordinates: 47° 39' 48" N, 9° 10' 31" E

 
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Prague (Praha) [Parga]

Bohemia, Czech Republic

Coordinates: 50° 5' 0" N, 14° 25' 0" E

 
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York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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473 [449]

K. Richard. 2. The bookes and articles of Wickliffe condemned in the councell of Constance.

stifneckednesse. And by and by after, M. Iohn Stokes in his intimation sayth, that M. Iohn Wickliffe in Englād, is counted for an hereticke. This seemeth also false by the letter testimoniall of the Vniuersity of Oxforde: vnto the which there is more credit to be geuē, then vnto him 

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Since Hus wrote this defence in 1411, and since Hus is citing the 'testimony' from Oxford, it follows that the 'testimony' was written before 1411 and that its 1406 date may well be genuine.

. And this shall suffise for this present 
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If Hus is correct about this, it may indicate that the 'testimony' from Oxford was produced by English supporters of Wiclif.

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Now as we haue declared the testimony of the Vniuersity of Oxford, & Iohn Hus, concerning the praise of Iohn Wickliffe: It followeth likewise, that we set forth and expresse the contrary censure and iudgementes of his enemies, blinded with malicious hatred and corrupt affections against him: especially of the Popes Councel gathered at Constance, MarginaliaThe councell of Cōstāce against I. Wickliffe.proceeding first in condemning hys bookes, then of his articles, and afterward burning of his bones. The copy of which theyr sentē ce geuen against him by that counsell here foloweth 

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Wiclif and the Council of Constance

The list of followers of Wiclif who were persecuted after his death, is taken from John Bale's notes in the Fasciculi Zizaniorum, and was first printed in the Commentarii. Most of the material that Foxe has on Wiclif and the Council of Constance, however, was added in the Rerum. The reason for this is that Foxe acquired the two sources that he would use for this material, Ortwin Gratius's collection of documents, the Fasciculis rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535) and Matthias Flacius's edition (anonymously edited) of Jan Hus's writings, Johannis Hus et Hieronymi Pragensis confessorum Christi Historia et Monumenta (Nuremburg, 1558), while he was in exile, working on the Rerum. Foxe would use the former for the documents coming out of the Council of Constance and the latter for Hus's defense of Wiclif's doctrines. The material in the Rerum was translated into the 1563 edition without much change, apart from the articles of Wiclif which were condemned at Constance; Foxe saw fit to emend these. In the 1570 edition this material was somewhat re-arranged and Hus's long defence of Wiclif dropped. However, Foxe did add, in this edition, articles alleged against Wiclif by the Franciscan William Woodford, a contemporary of Wiclif's at Oxford and a bitter critic of his teachings. Woodford's articles were taken from Ortwin Gratius's compilation. There was no change made to the material on Wiclif and the Council of Constance in the 1576 edition. In the 1583 edition, Hus's defense of Wiclif, which had been omitted since 1563, was reinserted into the text.

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Foxe's purposes in producing these documents were twofold. First of all, in many cases (and Foxe generally removed the exceptions), the teachings of Wiclif denounced as heretical, accorded reasonably well with Protestant beliefs and practices, thus helping to make the case that Protestantism was not an invention of Martin Luther's. Jan Hus's warm embrace of Wiclif's doctrines only strengthened this position. And the condemnation of Wiclif, the burning of his remains and the persecution of his followers helped establish Wiclif - somewhat against the odds - as a martyr and his enemies as members the False Church.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

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The sentence geuen by the Councell of Constance, in condemning the doctrine and 45. Articles of Iohn Wickliffe 
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Foxe first printed this sentence in the Rerum (pp. 21-22) ; it was then translated and reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe was reprinting this sentence, accurately, from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 150r-v.

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MarginaliaThe sentēce of the councell of Constāce against I. Wickliffe. THe most holy and sacred councell of Cōstance, making and representing the catholick church for the extirpation of this present schisme, and of all other errors and heresies, springing and growing vnder the shadow and pretence of the same: and for the reformation and amendment of the Church, being lawfully congregate and gathered to gether in the holy Ghost, for the perpetuall memory of the time to come.

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We are taught by the acts and historyes of the holy fathers, that the catholicke fayth without the which, as the holy Apostle S. Paule saith, it is vnpossible to please God hath bene alwayes defēded by the faythfull and spirituall souldiors of the Church, by the shield of fayth, agaynst the false worshippers of the same fayth, or rather peruerse impugners: which through their proude curiosity will seeme to know more, and to be wiser then they ought to be, & for the desire of þe glory of þe world, haue gone about oft times to ouerthrow the same. These kindes of warres and battelles haue bene prefigured to vs before in those carnall warres of the Israelites agaynst the Idolatrous people. For in those spritiuall warres the holy catholick Church, through the vertue & power of fayth, being illustrate with the beames of the heauenly light, by the prouidēce of God, and being holpen by the helpe and defence of the Saints & holy men, hath alway continued immaculate, & (the darcknes of errours, as her most cruell enemyes being put to flight) she hath most gloriously triumphed ouer all. But in these our daies, the old and vnclean enemy hath raysed vp new cōtētions & strifes, that the elect of this world might be knowne, whose Prince and captayne in time past was one Iohn Wickliffe a false Christian. Who during his life time, taught and sowed very obstinatly many articles, cōtrary and agaynst the Christian Religion, and the Catholicke fayth. MarginaliaThe dialoge and trialoge of I. Wickkliffe.And the same Iohn Wickliffe wrote certayne bookes which he called a Dialogue, & a Trialogue, besides many other treatises and works, the which he both wrot and taught, in the which he wrot the aforesayd, and many other damnable & execrable articles: The which his books for the publication and aduauncement of his peruers doctrine, he did set forth opēly for euery man to read. Wherby beside many offēces, great hurt & damages of soules, hath ensued in diuers regions & countryes, but specially in the kingdomes of England and Boheme. Against whom the maisters and Doctors of the Vniuersities of Oxforde and Prage, rising vp in the truth and verity of God, according to the order of schooles, within a while after did reprooue and condemn the sayd Arcicles.

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MarginaliaThe bookes of Wickliffe cōdemned to be burned. Moreouer, the most reuerent fathers, the archbishops, and bishopes, (for that time present) of Cāterbury, Yorke, and Prage, Legats of the Apostolick sea, in the kingdome of England and Boheme, did condemne the bookes of the sayd Wickliffe to be burnt. And the sayd Archbishoppe of Prage, commissarye of the Apostolicke sea, did likewise in this behalf determin & iudge. And moreouer he did forbid, that any of those bookes whiche did remayne vnburned, should not be hereafter any more reade. And agayne these things being brought to the knowledge & vnderstanding of the Apostolicke sea, aud the generall councell: The Bishop of Rome in his last Councell, condemned the sayde bookes, treatises and volumes, commaunding them to be openly burned. Most straightly forbidding, that any men which should beare the name of Christ, should be so hardy either to keep, read, or expound any of the sayde bookes or treatises, volumes, or workes, or by any meanes to vse or occupy them: either els to alledge thē opēly or priuely, but to their reproofe & infamy. And to the intent that this mostdaūgerous and filthy doctrine should be vtterly wiped away out of the Church, MarginaliaWords of authoritie with without due probation.he gaue commaundemēt through out al places: that the Ordinaries should diligētly enquire and secke out by the Apostolick authority and Ecclesiasticall censure 

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I.e. a favourer or supporter, but also a protector or patron.

, for all such bookes, treatises, volumes, & workes. And the same so being found, to burne & consume thē with fire: prouiding withall, that if there be any such foūd, which will not obey the same: processe to be made agaynst them, as agaynst the fauourers and mayntayners of heresies. MarginaliaAske my fellow if I be a theefe.And this most holy Synode hath caused the sayd 45. Articles to be examined and oft times perused, by manye most reuerend fathers of the Church of Rome, Cardinals Bishops, Abbots, maisters of diuinitye and Doctours of both lawes, besides a great number of other learned men: MarginaliaSo we hear you say.the which Articles being so examined, it was found (as in truth it was no lesse) that many, yea a great number of thē to be notoriously for heretical reproued and condemned by the holy fathers: other some not to be Catholick, but erroneous: some full of offence and blasphemy: Certayn of thē offensiue vnto godlye eares and many of thē to be rashfull and seditious. It is found also, that his bookes do contain many Articles of like effect and quality, and that they doe induce and bring into the Church,.vnsoūd and vnwholesome doctrine, MarginaliaVnholsome, because they teach against the pompe of the pope.contrary vnto the fayth and ordinance of þe Church. Wherefore in the name of our Lorde Iesu Christ, this sacred Synode, ratefying and approuing the sentēces and iudgements of the Archbishops & counsell of Rome: do by this theyr decree and ordinance, perpetually for euer more condemne and reproue, MarginaliaSo thought the souldiours perpetually to keep downe Christ from rising.the sayd Articles and euery one of them, his bookes which he intituled his Dialogue and Trialogue, & all other bookes of the same author, volumes, treatises & workes, by what name so euer they bee entituled or called, the which we wil here to be sufficiently expressed and named. MarginaliaO merueilous sacred Synode.Also we forbid the reading, learning, exposition, or alledging of any of the sayd bookes, vnto all faythfull Christians, MarginaliaRub a galde horse on the backe and he will winse.but so farreforth as shall tend to the reproofe of the same: forbidding all and singular Catholick persons vnder the payn of curse, that from henceforth they be not so hardy openly to preach, teach or holde, or by any meanes to alledge the sayd Articles or any of them, except (as is aforesayd) that it do tend vnto the reproofe of them: commaunding all those bookes, treatises, works, and volumes aforesayd to be openly burned, as it was decreed in the Synode at Rome, as is afore expressed. MarginaliaAt Rome &c. neither barrell better hearing.For the execution wherof duely to be obserued and done, the sayd sacred Synode doth straitly charge & commaund the ordinaries of the places, diligently to attend & looke vnto the matter, MarginaliaThough the sepulchre be watched Christ will rise.according as it appertayneth vnto euery mās duty, by the Canonicall lawes and ordinaunces.

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What were these articles here condemned by this coūcell, collected out of all his workes, and exhibited to þe sayd Coūcell, to the number of 45. The copy of them foloweth vnder written.

Certaine other Articles gathered out of Wickeliffes bookes by his aduersaries, to the number of 45. exhibited vp to the Councell of Constance, after his death, and in the same Councell condemned 
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This list of articles is taken from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos 140v-148r. This list is printed accurately in Rerum, pp. 25-7, except that Foxe dropped the Council's commentary on each article, and he garbled the final article beyond recognition. But beginning with 1563 edition, Foxe felt free to omit or modify certain articles.

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MarginaliaOther articles of Wickliffe to the number of 45. condemned by the councell of Const. BEsides the 24. Articles aboue mentioned, there were other also gathered out of his books, to þe number of 45. in all, which his malicious aduersaryes peruersly collecting, and maliciously expounding, did exhibite vp to the Coūcel of Constance: which to repeat all, though it be not here needfull, yet to recite certayn of them as they stand in that Councell it shall not be superfluous 

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Caveat lector, this phrase is a warning that Foxe is not reproducing all of these articles.

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25. All such as be hyred for temporall liuing to pray for other, offend and sinne of simony.

26. The prayer of the reprobate preuayleth for no man 

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In every edition of the Acts and Monuments, Foxe omitted an article following this one, which condemned the doctrine, supposedly held by Wiclif, that all things happen from necessity (i.e. and not by God's will); cf. Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 144r and Rerum, p. 26.

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27. Halowing of Churches, confirmation of children, the Sacrament of orders, be reserued to the Pope & Bishops onely for the respect of temporall lucre.

28. Graduations, and Doctorships in Vniuersities and Colledges as they be vsed, cōduce nothing to the church.

29. The excommunication of the Pope and his Prelates, is not to be feared, because it is the censure of Antechrist.

30. Such as foūd and build Monasteries, do offend & sinne, and all such as enter into the same be mēbers of the deuil.

31. To enrich the Clergy, is agaynst the rule of Christ.

32. Siluester the Pope, & Constantine þe Emperor were deceiued in geuing & taking possessions into the Church.

33. A Deacon or Priest may preach the word of God with out the authority of the Apostolick sea 

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Foxe omits the key words here 'vel episcopi autoritate' [or by the authority of a bishop]; cf. Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculis rerum expetendarum et fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fo. 147r and Rerum, p. 27. The reason for this alteration was that, in the Church of England, preachers needed to secure licenses from the bishops to preach.

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34. Such as enter into order, or religion monasticall, are therby vnable to keep Gods commaundements, and also to atteine to the kingdome of heauen except they reurne from the same.

35. The
Qq. iij.
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