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St Benet Paul's Wharf [S. Bennets by Paules warfe]

Queen Victoria Street, City of London

OS grid ref: 51° 30' 42.09" N, 0° 5' 55.34" W

731 [707]

K. Hen. 6. The Popes legate not admitted. The inuention and benefite of Printing.

facti priuilegij, & consuetudinis prædictorum, absq; interruptione quacunq;, toto & omni tempore supradicto, pacificè & quiete Romanis pontificibus per totum tempus supradictum, præmissa omnia & singula, scientibus, tolerantibus, & iisdem consentiētibus tam tacite quam expresse, ac extra omnem & omnimodam possessionem, quasi iuris & facti, Legatū huiusmod (vtpræfertur) in regnum Angliæ aut alias suas terras et dominia mittendi, nisi ad vocationem, petitionem, requisitionem: & Rogatum Regis Angliæ, pro tempore existentis. Et quia reuerendis. in Chri. pat. & D. D. Henricus Dei gratia &c. sancti Eusebij præsbyter, Cardinalis sanctæsedis Romanæ, Legatum se affirmans, more Legati, insignijs Apostolicæ dignitatis vtens, absq; vocatione, petitone, requisitine, inuitatione, aut rogatu Christianissimi domini nostri Regis prædicti, inclytum regnum Angliæ de facto est ingressus, protestor igitur palam, & publico in his scriptis nomine & vice quibus supra, ac omnium ipsius domini nostri Regis subditorum, quod non fuit, aut est intentionis, præfati Christianiss. principis, domimini supremi, ac dictorum dominorum meorum de cōsilio in derogationem legum, iurium, consuetudinum, libertatum & priuilegiorum dicti D. nostri Regis ac regni, ingressum huiusmodi dicti reuerendiss. patris, vt Legati in Angliam, authoritate ratificare, vel approbare, seu ipsum vt Legatum sedis Apostolicæ in Angliam, contra leges, iura, consuetudines, libertates & priuilegia prædicta quouismodo admittere seu recognoscere: aut exercitio legationis suæ huiusmodi, aliquibusue per ipsum, vt Legatum sedis Apost. actis, seu agendis, attentatis, seu attentandis, aduersus præmissa, leges, iura, consuetudines, libertates, & priuilegia, in aliquo consentire, sed dissentire: sicq; dissentit dictus domin9 noster Rex, atq̀; dissentiunt dicti domini mei de consilio, per presentes &c,

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MarginaliaAn instrument by the king against the admitting the popes legate.The summe and effecte whereof in Englishe is this, that in the yeare of our Lord. 1428. as the King with Duke Humfrey Lord protectour, & the rest of the counsayle, were in the Dukes house in the Parish of S. Bennets by Paules warfe, one Richard Candray procuratour, in the kinges name and behalfe did protest and denounce by thys publicke instrument, that where as the kyng and all hys progenitours, kinges before him of thys realme of Englād haue bene heretofore possessed tyme out of mynde, with speciall priuiledge and custome vsed and obserued in thys Realme from tyme to time, that no Legate from the Apostolicke sea should enter into thys land or anye of the kynges dominions, without the calling, petition, request, inuitement or desire of the kyng, and for so much as Henry byshop of Wint. and Cardinall of S. Eusebius, hath presumed so to enter as Legat from the Pope, beyng neyther called, sent for, required, or desired by the kyng: therfore the sayd Richard Candry in the kynges name doth protest by this instrument, that it standeth not with the kinges minde or intent, by the aduise of hys counsayle to admit, approue, or ratifie the cōming of the sayd Legate in anye wise, in derogation of the rightes, customes and lawes of this hys realme: or to recognise, or assent to any exercise of this hys authoritie Legantine, or to anye actes, attempted, or hereafter by hym to be attempted in this respect cōtrary to the foresayd lawes, rightes, customes, and liberties of this Realme, by these presentes. &c.

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And thus much as an Apendix, annexed to the story of Duke Humfrey, and the Cardinal of Wint. extracte out of an olde written volume, remaining in the handes of maister William Bowyer.

¶ The benefite and inuention of Printing. 
Commentary  *  Close
Invention of Printing

Foxe's account of the invention of printing is one of the most famous and often-quoted sections of the Acts and Monuments. However, most citations of it and quotations from it, fail to appreciate a crucial dimension to these passages: Foxe saw the invention of printing as a milestone in the unfolding of the end times. In the 1563 edition (p. 362), Foxe printed a declaration that the invention of printing had been prophesied by the Sibyls. This declaration was never reprinted, but was replaced in a much longer and more detailed account in the 1570 edition. Although no mention was made of the Sibyls in the revised account, Foxe insisted on the providential timing of the invention, which he saw as a divine response to the burnings of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague. Foxe never lost his belief in the apocalyptic significance of printing. In his commentary on Revelation, he maintained that the invention of printing had been prophesied by St. John (See John Foxe, Eicasmi seu meditationes in sacram Apocalypsim [London, 1587}, STC 11237, p. 107). Foxe's narrative of the invention of printing contains a great deal that was his own opinion and his own writing - including the well-known passage that printing-presses were blockhouses against the Castel St Angelo. He also provided the first account of Gutenberg and the invention of printing in English. Foxe drew this material from two sources. The first was a treatise, De typographiae inventione by the Lutheran reformer, Matthaeus Judex. This provided almost all of Foxe's narrative of Gutenberg, Schaeffer and Faust. (See Matthaeus Judex, De typographiae inventione [Copenhagen, 1566], pp. 14 and 29). The citations of Wimpheling and Ziegler came fom Caspar Hedio's continuation of the chronicle attributed to Conrad of Lichtenau, the abbot of Ursperg. Also from Hedio is the material on John Mentell, Ulrich Han and the Latin poems in this account. (See Abbatis Urspergensis Chronicum, ed. Caspar Hedio [Basel, 1569], pp. 403-4).

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Thomas S. Freeman

MarginaliaAnno. 1450.IN following the course and order of yeares, we find this foresayd yeare of our Lord. 1450. to be famons and memorable, for the diuine and miraculous inuention of printing. Marginalia

The arte of printing inuented.

Ex Tipographia per Mattheum iudicem.

Nauclerus, and Wymselingus folowing him, referre the inuention thereof to the yeare 1440. In paralipom. Abbatis Vrsp. it is recorded this facultie to be found. an. 1446. Auentinus and Zieglerus do say, an. 1450. The first inuētour thereof (as moste agree) is thought to bee a Germayne dwelling first in Argentine, afterward Cittizen of Mentz, named Iohn Faustus, a goldsmith. The occasiō of this inuention first was by engrauing þe letters of þe Alphabet in mettal: who then laying blacke incke vpon the mettall, gaue the forme of letters in paper. The man being industruous, and actiue, perceiuing that, thought to proceed further, and to proue whether it woulde frame as well in words, and in whole sentences, as it did in letters. Which when he perceaued to come well to passe, he made certayne other of his counsaile, one Iohn Guttemberge & Peter Schafferd, binding them by their othe, to keepe silence, for a season. After x. yeares, Iohn Guttemberge compartner wt Faustus, began then first to broch the matter at Strausbrough. The Arte beyng yet but rude, in processe of tyme, was set forward by inuentiue wittes, adding more and more to the perfection thereof. In the number of whome, Iohn Mentell, Iohn Prus, Adolphus Ruschius, were great helpers. Vlricus Han, in latine called Gallus,first brought it to Rome. Whereof þe Epigram was made.

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MarginaliaCarmen Ant. Campani.
Anser Tarpeij custos, vigilando quòd alis

Constreperes, Gallus decidit vltor adest

Vlricus Gallus, nequem poscantur in vsum,

Edocuit pennis nil opus esse tuis.

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
An epigram on Ulricus Han (Gallus)
Foxe text Latin

Anser Tarpeii custos ... opus esse tuis.


J. Barrie Hall

Because the geese which were guardians of the Tarpeian rock kept watch and made a din with their wings, the Gaul fell. The avenger is at hand. Ulricus Gallus, lest they should be called upon for any service, taught that there was no need of your quills.

Notwithstanding, what man soeuer was the instrument, MarginaliaPrinting came of God.without all doubt God himselfe was the ordayner and disposer thereof, no otherwise then he was of the gifte of tongues, and that for a singuler purpose. And well may this gift of printing be resembled to the gift of tongues: MarginaliaPrinting likened to the giftes of tongues. for like as God then spake with many tongues, and yet all þt would not turne the Iewes, so now, when the holy ghost speaketh to þe aduersaries in innumerable sorts of bookes, yet they will not be conuerted nor turne to the Gospell.

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Now to consider to what ende and purpose the Lorde hath geuen this gift of Printing to the earth, and to what great vtility and necessity it serueth, it is not hard to iudge who so wisely perpendeth both the time of the sending, & the sequele which therof ensueth.

MarginaliaThe time considered when Printing was founde.And first, touching the time of this faculty geuen to the vse of man, this is to be marked: that when as the Byshop of Rome, with all the whole & ful consent of the Cardinals, Patriarches, Archbishops, byshops, Abbots, Priours, Lawyers, Doctors, Prouostes, Deanes, Archdeacons, assembled together in the councell of Constance, had condemned poore Iohn Hus, & Hierom of Prage to death for heresie, notwithstanding they were no heretickes, and after they had subdued the Bohemians, and all the whole world vnder the supreme authority of the Romish sea: and had made all Christē people abedienciaries & vassals vnto the same, hauing (as one would say) all the worlde at theyr will, so that the matter now was past not only the power of al men, but the hope also of any man to be recouered. In this very time so daungerous and desperate, where mans power could do no more, there the blessed wisedome & omnipotent power of the Lord began to work for his church: not with sword and tergate to subdue his exalted aduersary, but with Printing, writing, and reading to couuince darkenes by light, errour by truth, ignorance by learning MarginaliaDouble confusiō vpon the Pope by printing.So that by this meanes of printing, the secret operatiō of God hath heaped vpon that proud kingdome a double cōfusion. For where as the byshop of Rome, had burned I. Hus before, and Hierome of Prage, who neither denyed his transubstantiation, nor hys supremacie, nor yet hys Popishe Masse, but sayd Masse, and heard masse themselues, neither spake agaynst his purgatory, nor anye other great matter of his popishe doctrine, but onely exclaymed agaynst his excessiue and pompous pride, hys vnchristian or rather Antichristian abhomination of life: thus while he could not abide his wickednes onely of life to be touched but made it heresie, or at least matter of death, what soeuer was spoken agaynst hys detestable conuersation, and maners, God of hys secret iudgement, seing tyme to helpe his Church, hath found a way by this facultie of Printing, not onely to confound his life, and conuersation, which before he could not abide to be touched, but also to cast downe the foundatiō of his standing, that is, to examine, confute, and detect his doctrine, laws, and institutions most detestable in such sort, that though his life were neuer so pure: yet his doctrine standing, as it doth, no man is so blinde, but may see, that eyther the pope is Antichrist, or els that Antichrist is neare cosine to the pope: And al this doth, and wil hereafter more and more appeare by Printing.

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MarginaliaThe fruit & profite of printing.The reason whereof is this: for þt hereby tongues are knowne, knowledge groweth, iudgemēt increaseth, books are dispersed, the Scripture is seene, the Doctours be read, stories be opened, times compared, truth decerned, falshod detected, and with finger poynted, and all (as I sayd) thorough the benefite of printing. Wherfore I suppose that eyther the pope must abolish printing, or he must seek a new world to raygne ouer: for els, as this world standeth, printing doubtles will abolish hym. But the pope, and all hys Colledge of Cardinals, must this vnderstād, that through the light of printing, the worlde beginneth nowe to haue eyes to see, and heades to iudge. He cannot walke so inuisible in a net, but he will be spyed. And although thorough might he stopped the mouth of Iohn Hus before, and of Hierome, that they might not preache, thinking to make his kingdome sure: yet in stede of Iohn Hus & other God hath opened the presse to preach, whose voyce the Pope is neuer able to stop with all þe puissance of his triple crown. By this printing, as by the gift of tongues, and as by the singular organe of the holy Ghost, the doctrine of the Gospell soundeth to all nations and countryes vnder heauen: and what God reuealeth to one man, is dispersed to many

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