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Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum)

[August; Auguste; Ausburge; Auspurge]

Swabia, Bavaria

Coordinates: 48° 22' 0" N, 10° 54' 0" E

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Constance (Konstanz)


Freiburg, Germany

Coordinates: 47° 39' 48" N, 9° 10' 31" E

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Polus apud Æquicolos

Site unknown

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St Albans
S. Albones, Saint Albons
NGR: TL 155 075

Borough, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the Hundred of Cashio, Hertfordshire. 12.5 miles west-by-south from Hertford; 20 miles north-west-by-north from London. The town comprises the parish of St Alban, or the Abbey parish, and part of the parish of St Michael and St Peter, in the archdeaconry of St Albans, diocese of London

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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St Albans (Verulamium) [S. Albanes; S. Albons]


OS grid ref: TL 155 075

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[Wittenberge; Wyttenberge]

Saxony, Germany

Coordinates: 51° 52' 0" N, 12° 39' 0" E

Capital of the duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; university town

735 [711]

K. Edward. 4. Pope Pius. Pope Paulus. Sixtus. Jnnocentius. Duke of Yorke.

The like sentence to this he vttereth in his second book of the Councell of Basil before specified, saying, peraduenture it were not the worst, that the most part of priestes had theyr wiues: for many shoulde be saued in Priestly mariage, whiche now in vnmaryed Priesthoode are damned. The same Pius also, as Celius reporeth, dissolued certayne orders of Nunnes, of the order of S. Briget and S. Clare, bidding them to depart out, that they should burne no more, nor couer a Harlotte vnder the vesture of Religion.

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This Pius, if he had brought so much piety and godlinesse, as he brought learning vnto his Popedome, had excelled many Popes that went before him.

It shall not be impertinent here to touch, what the said Eneas called Pius, the Pope, writeth touching the peace of the church, vnto Gasper Schlick, the Emperors Chaūcellor, in his 54. Epistle.

MarginaliaEx epist. 54. Pii. secund. ad Gasparum Schlick.All men do abhorre and detest schisme. The way to remedye this euill Charles the French king hath shewed vs both safe and briefe, which is, that princes or their Oratours should conuent & assemble together in some cōmon place, where they may cōclude vpon matters amongest themselues. To bring this to passe, it were needfull, writinges to be sent agayne to all Kynges and Princes, to send theyr Oratours to Strawesborow, or to Constance, with theyr full authority: there to entreate of matters appertayning to the peace of the Church. Neyther woulde it require so great expenses: Forasmuch as we see the yeare before 300. gildernes to be sufficient. Constantine the Emperour bestowed not muche more in the congregation of the Councell of Nice. MarginaliaThe way to exclude schisme, is concord of princes.And this way could not be stopped: neyther could the Pope or the Councell withstād it, or make excuse: as though this might not easily be done without them. For why? the secular princes may conuent and assemble together, will they, nill they: and yet notwithstanding, vnity may there be concluded: For he should be an vndoubted Pope, whom all Princes would obey. MarginaliaThe Popes Clergie wil not abyde the fyre, eyther for prince or pope.Neyther do I see any of the clergy so constant to death, which wil suffer Martirdome either for the one part or the other. Al we lightly hold that faith which our princes hold, which if they would worship Idols, we would also do the same, & not onely deny the Pope, but God also, if the secular power strayn vs thereunto, for charitye is waxed colde, and all fayth is gone. Howsoeuer it be, let vs all desire and seeke for peace, the whiche peace, whether it come by a councell, or by assemblye of Princes, call it what you will, I care not: for we stand not vpon the terme, but vpon the matter. Call breade if you will, a stone, so you geue me to asswage my hunger. Whether you call it a Councell or a conuenticle, or an assembly or a congregation, or a synagogue, that is no matter, so that schisme may be excluded and peace established. Thus much out of the Epistle of Pius.

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MarginaliaThe breath of this pestilent seate corrupteth all that sit in it, whatsoeuer they were before.By this may it appeare, of what sentence and minde this Pius was in þe time of the Councell of Basill, before he was made Pope. But as our common prouerbe sayth, honors chaungeth maners, so it happeneth with this Pius, who after he came once to be Pope, was much altered from that he was before. MarginaliaAeneas Syluius now puffed vp with worldly pompe and glorie, impugneth the trueth whiche he did before both know and professe.For where as before he preferred generall Councels before the Pope, nowe being Pope, he did decree that no man should appeale from the high Byshop of Rome: to any generall Councell.

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And likewise for priestes mariage, where as before he thought it best to haue theyr wiues restored, yet afterward he altered his minde otherwise: In so much that in his book intreating of Germany, and there speaking of the noble city of August, by occason he inueyed agaynst a certayne Epistle of Hulderike once bishop of the sayd City, written agaynst the constitution of the single life of priests. Wherby it appeareth how the minde of this Pius was altered frō that it was before. This Epistle of Hulderick is before expressed at large in the pag. 137.

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MarginaliaDiscord betwene Pope Pius & the Archbishop of Mentz.Here also might I touch something concerning the discord betwixt this Æneas Syluius and Diotherus, Archbish. of Mentz, and what discorde was styrred vp in Germany vpon the same betwene Frederick the Palatine, and duke of Wittenberge, with others, by the occasion whereof, besides the slaughter of many, the City of Mentz, which was free before, lost theyr freedome, and became seruile.

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The causes of the discord betwixt Pope Pius and Diotherus, were these.

First, because that Diotherus would not consent vnto him in the imposition of certaine tallages and taxes, within his country.

Secondly, for that Diotherus would not be boūd vnto him, requiring that the said Diotherus being prince Electour, should not call the other Electors together, wythout hys licence: that is, without the licence of the Bishop of Rome.

And thirdly, because Diotherus would not permit tothe Popes Legates, to conuocate his Clergy together after theyr owne lust. MarginaliaAnno. 1458.This Pope Pius began his sea, about the yere of our Lord. 1458.

After this Pius secundus, succeded Paulus secūdus, MarginaliaPope Paulus. 2. a pope wholy set vpon his belly and ambition, and not so muche voyd of all learning, as the hater of all learned men. MarginaliaEx Stanislao Rutheno. Vide Cent. 8. Bal.Thys Paulus had a daughter begotten in fornication, which because he sawe her to be had in reproch, for that she was gotten in fornication, began (as the storyes reporte) to repent him of the law of the single life of priestes, and went aboute to reforme the same, had not death preuented him. Ex Stanislao Rutheno.

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After this Paulus, came Sixtus the fourth, whiche builded vp in Rome a stewes of both kindes, getting therby no small reuenues and rents vnto the church of Rome. This Pope amongest his other actes, reduced the yeare of Iubely from the 50. vnto the 25. MarginaliaThe feast of the conception and presentation of our Lady.He also instituted the feast of the Conception, and of the presentation of Mary & of Anna her mother, and Ioseph. Also he canonised Bonauenture, and S. Fraunces for Sayntes.

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By this Sixtus also, beades were brought in, MarginaliaBeades brought in. and instituted to make our Ladyes Psalter, thorowe the occasion of one Alanus and his order, whome Baptista maketh mention of in thys verse. Hic filo insertis numerant sua murmura baccis. That is, these menne putting theyr beades vpon a string number theyr prayers. This Sixtus the Pope made xxxij. Cardinals in his time, whom Petrus Ruerius, was the first, who for that time that he was Cardinall, which was but two yeares, spent in luxurious ryot, wasted and consumed, 2, hundred thousand Floreines and was left 60000. in debt. Marginalia

Wesellus Groningensis.

The pope licenseth the whole familie of a certaine Cardinall, to play the Sodomites three monethes in the yeare.

Wesellus Groningensis, in a certayne Treatise of his, de Indulgentijs papalibus, writing of thys Pope Sixtus, reporteth this, that at the requeste of the foresayd Peter Cardinall, and of Ierome his brother the sayd Pope Sixtus permitted and graunted vnto the whole family of the Cardinall of S. Lucy, in the iij. hoate monethes of sommer, Iune, Iuly, and August (a horrible thing to be spoken) free leaue and liberty to vse Sodomitry, with this clause, Fiat vt petitur: That is, be it as it is asked,

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Next after this Sixtus, came Innocentius the eight MarginaliaPope Innocentius. 8. as rude and as farre from all learning, as his predecessor was before him. Amongest the noble factes of this Pope, this was one, that in the towne of Polus apud Æquicolos, Marginalia8. men and 6. wemen condemned of heresie by Pope Innocentius. 8.he caused 8. men and 6. women, with the Lord of the place to be apprehended and taken, and iudged for hereticks, because they sayd that none of them was the vicare of Christ which came after Peter, but they which folowed onely the pouerty of Christ. MarginaliaGeorge king of Boheme condemned of heresie.Also he condemned of heresy, George the king of Boheme, and depriued him of his dignity, and also of his kingdome, and procured his whole stocke to be vtterly reiected and put downe, geuing his kyngdome to Mathias king of Panonia.

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Now from the Popes to descend to other estates, it remayneth likewise somewhat to write of the Emperours incident to this time, with matters and greuaunces of the Germaynes, as also of other princes, first beginning with our troubles & mutations here at home, perteining to the ouerthrow of this King Henry and of his seate nowe following, to be shewed. 

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Richard of York

With two minor exceptions, Foxe's account of Richard of York's bid for the throne, death and his son Edward's seizure of it, is based on an anonymous chronicle in a manuscript that he owned, which is now College of Arms MS Arundel 5. The chronicle (Arundel 5, fos. 121r-172v) is entitled 'Compilatio brittanorum et anglorum' but Foxe refers to it as 'Scala mundi' (from a chronology at the beginning of the manuscript tracing the history of the world from Adam and Eve to 1469). The concluding section of the 'Compilatio' covering the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV was printed as 'A Brief Latin Chronicle' in Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, ed. James Gardiner, Camden Society, Second series 28 (London, 1880), pp. 164-85. The unknown author of this chronicle almost certainly lived in London during the reigns of Henry VI and Edward IV and was probably a cleric. (Apart from the chronicle being written in Latin, it pays close attention to church affairs). There is no ready answer to the question of why Foxe used this chronicle when he had more detailed accounts at hand in the histories of Polydore Vergil and Edward Hall. Perhaps Foxe was demonstrating that he had other sources than the readily available Vergil and Hall; perhaps Foxe desired to be as independent as possible from these works, which he criticized in his account of Sir John Oldcastle.

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One of the two items in this section not contained in the 'Compilatio' is Parliament's rejection of papal bulls authorizing Louis of Luxembourg, the arch-bishop of Rouen, to hold the bishopric of Ely in commendam (This comes from Rotuli Parliamentorum, ed. J. Strachey et al., 6 vols. {London, 1783], IV, pp. 304-5 ). Both Foxe and Parliament were concerned to demonstrate that the Crown would not concede papal jurisdiction over English episcopal appointments. But in reality, the wealthy bishopric of Ely was Henry VI's reward to Louis, a key ally in the Hundred Year's War. The account of the Breton (the reader should not be confused by Foxe calling him a 'Briton') who murdered a widow is taken from Robert Fabian, Fabyan's cronicle (London, 1559), STC 10664, p. 418. Foxe's interest in the case comes from the fact that the culprit was able to claim sanctuary and abjure the realm without further punishment; to Foxe, these were clerical abuses.

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Finally, it is worth noting Foxe's emphasis throughout this account that the disasters which overwhelmed Henry VI came about because he no longer had the advice and protection of his uncle, Humphrey of Gloucester, to rely upon. (For Foxe's praise of Humphrey of Gloucester see 1570, pp. 832-7; 1576, pp. 678-81 and 1583, pp. 703-7. For the reasons for Foxe's favourable view of Duke Humphrey see the commentary to these pages).

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

And briefly to cōtract long proces of much tumult and busines, into a short narration, here is it to be remēbred, which partly before was signified, how after þe death of the Duke of Glocester, MarginaliaMischieues to England, after the death of the Duke of Glocester.mischiefes came in by heapes vpon the king and his realm. MarginaliaAngeow, Main, Normandy, and Gascoyne, recouered of the Frenchmen.For after the geuing away of Angeow, and Mayne to the Frenchmen, by þe vnfortunate mariage of Qneen Margaret aboue mentioned, the sayd frenchmen perceiuing now by the death of þe duke of Glocester, the stay and piller of this common wealth to be decayed, and seing morouer the harts of the nobility, amōg themselues to be deuided, foreslacked no time, hauing such an open way into Normandy, that in short time they recouered the same, & also gate Gascoigne, so that no more now remayned to Englād, of al the parts beyond þe sea but onely Calice. Neither yet did all the calamity of þe realme onely rest in this: For the king now hauing lost his frendly vncle, as the stay & staffe of his age, whiche had brought him vp so faythfully from his youth, was now therby the more open to his enemies, & they more emboldened, so set vpon him: MarginaliaIacke Cade.As appeared first by Iacke Cade, the Kentishe Captayne, who encamping first in Blackheath, afterward aspired to Londō, and had the spoyle therof, the king being driuen into Warwickshyre. After the suppressing of Cade, ensued not long after the duke of York, MarginaliaThe Duke of Yorke against kyng Henry. who being accompanied with 3. Erles, set vpon the king nere to S. Albons where the king was taken in the field captiue, & the Duke of York was by Parliamēt declared protector, which was

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