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(Maguntiacum) [Mentz; Moguntia; Moguntina]

Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 0' 0" N, 8° 16' 16" E

Cathedral city; seat of the prince-elector of Mainz

756 [732]

K. Ed. 4. Hieronimus Sauonarola with 2. other Friers martyrs. The complaintes of Germaines.

3. That the indulgences and pardons of the pope, were of no effect.

4. For preaching against the filthy and wicked liuing of the Cardinals and spiritualtie.

5. For denying the popes supremacie.

6. Also that he had affirmed, that the keyes were not geuen vnto Peter alone, but vnto the vniuersal Church.

7. Also, that the pope did neither follow the life nor doctrine of Christ, for that he did attribute more to his owne pardons and traditions, then to Christes merits, and ther for he was Antichrist.

8. Also, that the popes excommunications are not to be feared, and that he which doth feare or flye them, is excommunicate of God.

9. Item, that auriculer confession, is not necessary.

10. Item, that he had moued the Cittizens to vprore and sedition.

11. Item, that he had neglected and contemned the popes Citation.

12. Item, that he had shamefully spoken agaynst, & slandered the pope.

13. Itē, that he had taken Christ to witnes of his naughtines and heresie.

14. Also, þt Italy must be clensed through Gods scourge, for the manifold wickednes of the princes and clergy.

These & such other like Articles, were layd vnto them & read before them. Then they demaunded of the said Hierome and his companions, whether they would recant & geue ouer their opinions. Whereunto they answered, that through Gods help, they would stedfastly continue in the manifest truth, and not depart from the same. Then were they disgraded one after an other, by the byshop of Vasion and so deliuered ouer to the secular rulers of Florence, wt straight commaundement, to cary them forth, and handle them as obstinate and stifnecked heretickes, MarginaliaHierome with his 2. companions hanged and brent for the Gospells truth.

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The Martyrdome of Hierome and his two companions.
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The burning and hanging of Savonarola, together with two other friars, on 23 May 1498, was represented in a small, evidently custom-made image that recalls that of the Lollards in 1414, likewise condemned for secular and spiritual transgression. While they are clearly distinguished by their dress from those earlier offenders, the illustrator has avoided portraying these religious with the characteristics (tonsure, fat girth etc) commonly assigned to members of religious orders. All three were too be seen as godly reformers. The scene is very different from the great display in the piazza in Florence as portrayed in Italy, showing the burning taking place in the civic centre on an impressive specially constructed platform. Note that this is the second illustration to depict the martyrs as apparently deceased (they all have their eyes closed), rather than at the point of suffering or prior to it. CUL: All three men are in white have brown hair and beards. WREN: the same details appear in this copy.

Thus, was the worthy witnesse of Christ, with the other two aforesaid, first hanged vp openly in the market place, and afterward burnt to ashes, and the ashes gathered vp, & cast into the Riuer of Arum, the 24. day of May in the yeare of our Lord 1499. Ex Catal. testium. Illyrici.

MarginaliaThe prophesies of Hierome Sauonarola.This man foreshewed many thinges to come, 

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The statement that Savanorola prophesied the destruction of Florence and Rome and also the renewal of the Church comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565; the claim that he prophesied thatthe Turks would convert to Christianity and that Charles VIII would cross the Alpsand conquer Italy comes from Philippe de Commynes, De Carlo Octavo…et belloNeapolitano Commentarii {Paris, 1561], pp. 106-7.

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as the destruction of Florence and Rome, and the renuing of the Church: which three things, haue happened in these times within our remembraunce. Also he foreshewed that the Turkes and Mores in the latter dayes, should be conuerted vnto Christ. He also declared that one shoulde passe the Alpes into Italy, like vnto Cirus, which should subuert and destroy all Italy. Whereupon 
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The description of the learned men who hailed Savanorola as a prophet, including Commynes, is translated word-for-word from Matthias Flacius,Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565.

MarginaliaEx Ioan. Francis. Mirandula.Ioannes Franciscus Picus, Erle of Mirandula, called him a holy prophet, and defended him by his writings against the pope. Many other learned men also, defend the innocencie of the saide Sauonarola. MarginaliaEx Marsilio Ficino.Marsilius Ficinus also in a certayne Epistle doth at-tribute vnto him the spirit of prophecie, greatly commending and praysing him. In the like maner Philippus Comineas MarginaliaEx Philip. Cominea. a French historiographer, which had conference with him witnesseth that he was a holy man, and full of þe spirit of prophecie, for so muche as he had foreshewed vnto hym so many thinges, which in euent had proued true.

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There were besides these, many other, not to be passed ouer or forgotten: 

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This brief mention of Philip Norice is based either on Bale's mentionof Norrice in his Catalogus (p. 608) or Bale's note on Norice in Bodley library MS e Musaeo 86, fo. 63v.

as Phillip Norice an Irishman, professour 
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John Bale, Foxe's source for his account of Norice, did not say that Norice was a professor or even that he taught at Oxford.

at Oxford, who albeit he was not burned (yet as it is sayd) he was long time vexed and troubled by the religious route. But would to God, that such as haue occupied themselues in writing of histories, and haue so dilligently committed vnto memory all other thinges done in foreign common wealthes, had bestowed the lyke dilligence & labour, in noting and writing those thinges, which pertayn vnto the affayres of the Churche: whereby the posteritie might haue had fuller and more perfecte vnderstanding & knowledge of them.

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This Sauonarola aboue mencioned, suffered vnder pope Alexander the 6. of which pope, more leysure & oportunitie shall serue hereafter (Christ willing) to entreat, after that we shall first make a little digression to entreate of certayn cases and complayntes of the Germaynrs, incidēt in the meane time, which as they are not to be ouerpast in silence, so can they haue no place nor tyme more conueniēt to be inferred. What complayntes of the Germaines were made and moued vnto the Emperour Fredericke agaynst the popes suppressions and exactions, mencion was made before pag. 724. where also was declared, howe the sayde Germaines at that time, were twise put backe and foresakē of the Emperour: whereby they continued in þe same yoke and bondage, vntill the time of Luther. MarginaliaThe complaintes of the Germaines against the Popes greuances renued.Wherefore it commeth now to hand, and we thinke it also good, here briefly to declare, how the sayd Germaynes, in the tyme of Maximilian the Emperour: renuing their complayntes agayn, deliuered vnto the Emperour, x. principall greuaunces. whereby the Germaynes haue bene long time oppressed; shewing also the remedies agaynst the same, with certayne aduisements vnto the Emperours maiesty, how he might withstand and resist the popes subtleties and craftes: The order and tenour whereof here ensueth. 

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This list of grievances is translated from Matthias Flacius, Catalogustestium veritatis (Basel, 1562), pp. 321-22.

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¶ The x. greuaunces of the Germaines.

MarginaliaTen greuances complayned of by the Germaines.1. THat the Bishops of Rome, successors one vnto an other, do not thinke themselues bound to obserue & keepe the bulles, couenauntes, priuiledges, and letters, graunted by theyr predecessours, without all derogation: but by often dispensation, suspension and reuocation, euen at the instance of euery vile person, they doe gaynsaye and withstand the same.

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2. That the elections of prelates are oftētimes put back.

3. That the elections of Presidentships are withstande, which the chapterhouses of many churches haue obtained with great cost and exp the Churche of Spyre and Hasell do well know: w touchyng the election of theyr president, is made frustrate, he being yet aliue which graunted the same.

4. That benefices and the greatest ecclesiasticall dignities, are reserued for Cardinalles and head notaries.

5. That expectatiue grraces, called vowsans, 

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Advowson is the English term - inserted by Foxe - for an expective grace, a lien or claim upon a particular benefice

are granted without number, and many oftentimes vnto one man: Whereupon continuall contentions do ryse, and much money is spent, both that whiche is layd out for the Bulles of those vowsōs which neuer take effet, and also that whiche is consumed in goyng to lawe. Whereupon this prouerbe is risen, whosoeuer will get a vowson from Rome, must haue C. or CC. peeces of golde layde vp in his chest, for the obtayning of the same, which he shall haue neede of, to presecute the law withall.

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6. The Annates 

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First fruits are an English term for an annate, which is a tax of the entire first year's income upon the incoming holder of a benefice. But in England, first fruits were paid to the Crown, in Germany annates were paid to the Papacy.

or yearly reuenewes, are exacted wtout delay or mercy, euen of the bishops lately dead, and oftentimes more extorted then ought to be, through new offices and new seruauntes, as by the examples of the churches of Mentz and Strausburgh, may be seene.

7. That the rule of the churches are geuen at Rome vnto those that are not worthy, which were more fitt to keep and feede Mules, then to haue the rule and gouernance of men.

8. That new indulgences and pardons, with the suspension and reuocation of the old, are graunted to gather and scrape money together.

9. That tenthes are exacted vnder the pretēce of making warre agaynst the Turke: when as no expedition doth follow thereupon.

10. That the cause whiche might be determined in Germany, wheras there are both learned and iust iudges, are

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