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Gaza [Gazara]
 
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Gaza [Gazara]

Gaza Strip, Palestinian Territories

Coordinates: 31° 31' 0" N, 34° 27' 0" E

761 [737]

K. Henry. 7. The Origine and history of the Turkes.

father in law, or as Bibliander affirmeth, his sonne in law who tooke vpon him the gouernmēt of the Saracens, and gotte the Cittye Gaza, MarginaliaHierusalem besieged.and besieged also Hierusalem two yeares. He raigned two yeares, hauing for his chiefe City, Damascus.

After him folowed Omar, or Ahumar, who conquered a great part of Syria, and got Egypt.

The 4. king of the Saracens after Mahumet, was Odmē, then folowed Haly, & after him Muhanias: Which after the siege of 7. yeares, obteined & got the christian Citty of Cesaria: MarginaliaCesaria got of the Saracens. also ouercame the Persians, MarginaliaThe kyngdome of the Persians subdued to the Saracēs. wyth theyr king Orimasda, and subdued that country to his law.

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MarginaliaArabia, Palestina, Phenicia, Syria, Egypt and Persia, subdued of the SaracensThus the wicked Saracens in the space of 30. yeares subdued Arabia, got Palestina, Phenicia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia: whiche came directly to the 666. yeares, prophecied of in the Reuelations of S. Iohn, as is aforesayd. And not long after they proceded further, and got Affrike, and then Asia, as in the processe of theyr story shal appeare, the Lord willing.

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Not long after, Heraclius 

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For the accounts of Heraclius and Constans, Foxe is following Sebastian Munster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 947.

Emperor of Constantinople, succeeded Constans his nephew, who in the 13. yere of his Empyre, fighting vnluckely agaynst the Saracens in Licia, MarginaliaConstance the Emperour ouercome by the Saracens.was ouerthrown of Muhanias aforesayd in þe yeare of our Lord 655. MarginaliaMurder cõmonly prospereth not with the Lord.Which Constans if he were not prospered by the Lord in his warres, it was no great maruell, considering that he had slaine his brother Theodosius before at home: moreouer liued in incestious matrimony: also being inclined to certayne new sects, could not abide the cõtrary teachers, but slew thē which admonished him thereof. The sayd Contans going afterward to Italy, was also ouercome of the Lumbardes. &c. MarginaliaRhodes spoyled of the Saracēs.the Saracens after this victory spoyled also Rhodes.

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Although these cursed Saracens 

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The following summary of pre-Ottoman Turkish history down to 1330,is taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 583-6.

, in these theyr greate victories & conquests, were not without domesticall seditions and deuisions among themselues, yet the princes of þe Saracens, being called then Sultans, MarginaliaSultanes first called. had in theyr possession, the gouernment of Syria, Egypt, Affrike, & of a great part of Asia, about the terme of 400. yeares: till at length the Saracen king which ruled in Persia, fighting agaynst the Saracene of Babilon, sought ayde of the Turkes, to fight with him agaynst þe Sultane of Babilon. MarginaliaThe first rysing of the turkes.The which Turks by litle and litle surprised vpõ þe Sultan of Persia, & not long after putting him out of place, vsurped the kingdome of Persia: which afterward went further, as ye shall heare the Lord willing. And this is the first beginning of the Turkes dominion.

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These Turks after they had thus ouercome great coūtryes and prouinces: and made their power large & mighty both in Asia and Europa, begã to deuide theyr kingdões & countryes amongest themselues. But when they coulde not agree, but with deadly war contended for the boundes of those kingdomes and dominions: MarginaliaThe turkes dominions parted into 4. familyes.in the meane tyme 4. of the principal families conquering and subduing all the rest, parted the whole Empyre amongst thēselues. And yet they also not so contented, fell to such cruell hatred, contētion, warre, and slaughter (no doubt by the iust iudgement of God against his blasphemous enemies) that there was no end thereof, vntill the remnant of the auncient Turkes was vtterly rooted out.

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For it is euident, that there are fewe nowe remayning which are Turkes in deed by birth and bloud, and that the state of that great empyre is not vpholdē, but by þe strength and power of souldyors, which haue bene Christians, and now are turned to Mahumetes Religion: so that euen theyr owne naturall language is now out of vse amongest them, sauing in certayne families of theyr nobility and gētlemen.

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These foure familyes aboue mentioned, with theyr Captaynes and Armyes, about the yeare of our Lorde. 1330. went raging throughout all Asia and Europa, and euery one of them conquered some parte of the countryes where they passed.

MarginaliaThe dissen-sention of the Christians do make the turkes so strong.The causes of these great inuasiõs and victoryes were the dissention and discorde, falsehoode, idlenese, vnconstancy, greedy auarice, lacke of trueth and fidelity among Christian men of al states and degrees, both high and low. For by the wilfull defection and backesliding of the Christians 

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Foxe is explaining the Turkish conquests as being due to the disunityand backsliding among the Christians whom they conquered. In part, this explanation fits Foxe's homiletic purposes. But it also fits in with his apocalyptic interpretation ofTurkish history and his exegesis of 2 Thess. 2..

, the Turkish power did exceedingly encrease, in that many drsiring the licentious life & liberty of war, & allured with the prosperous successe of thynges, forsooke the Churche of God, and made themselues bond slaues to Mahumet and his deuilish sect: both because that fleshy liberty is delighting to all men, and partly also because, as fortune fauoreth, so commonly the willes of men enclyne: And agayne suche as be prophane and without the feare of God, (whereof there is an infinite number in the Church) in all ages, are wont commonlye to iudge of Religion, according to thesuccesse of realmes and kingdomes. For if any, not onelye for the variety of opinions, but also for the diuersitye of euentes and fortune amongest men, haue inquired and doe inquire, whether there be any Churche of God distyncte from other nations: what it is, and where it is: especially, for so muche as the greatest part of men, bothe in the olde time, when as the foure Monarchyes flourished in order, was ignoraunt of this doctrine, whiche is peculier to the Churche alone, and nowe also the barbarity of Mahumet preuayleth & raigneth in the moste part of the worlde. And how standeth this with mans reason, that a small number both miserable and also feebled and broken with manye battayles, shoulde be regarded and loued of God, and the other flourishing in all wealth, prosperity, victoryes, authority and power, should be reiected and despised of God, seing there is no power and authoritye, but by the ordynaunce of God? Albeit therefore, the power of the Turkes hath bene, for these two hundreth yeares, of greater force, then any other Monarchy of the world besides: MarginaliaNo imperiall countrie in all the turkish dominions.yet is there no Imperiall dignity to be estemed in that Turkish tyrãny: but amongest those nations onely, where the heauenly doctrine of the Gospell is preached, & other disciplines necessary for the Churche of God, & the common life of man mayntayned and regarded: where the lawes of God, & other honest and ciuil ordinaunces agreable to the same, doe flourish and reigne: where lawful iudgement is exercised: where vertue is honoured and rewarded: where sinne and wickednes is punished: where honest familyes are mayntayned and defended.

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These thinges are not regarded amongest the Turkes, the enemies of the sonne of God, and all lawfull Empyres: because they dissolue and reiect all godly societyes, honest discipline, good lawes, pollicyes, righteous iudgemēts, the ordinaunce of matrimony, and godly familyes 

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This is a stark statement of Foxe's beliefs that the Ottomans represented a diabolical inversion of God's social order.

. MarginaliaThe description of the turkes vnordinate Empyre.For what hath the Empyre of the Turkes bene hetherto, but moste deadly, cruell, and perpetuall warre, to worke all mischief, destruction and desolation? to subuert good lawes, Cityes, kingdomes, policies, and to enlarge theyr cruell power & dominion? The stay and strength whereof, is not loue and fauour proceeding of vertue and iustice, as in lawefull and well gouerned Empyres: but feare, violence, oppression, swarmes and infinite thousandes of barbarous and most wicked people, ministers of Satans malice & fury. Whiche kinde of dominion and tyranny hath bene condēned by the voyce of God, many yeares agoe: MarginaliaEzech. 39. Apoc. 20.the testimonyes wherof the Lord would haue to remayne in the Church, least the godly being moued with þe power & successe therof, should fall away and forsake the sonne of God.

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Wherefore, let vs not seeke for any Imperiall state in that barbarity: but let vs be thankefull, & acknowledge the great benefite of God, for that he hath reserued to vs certayne remnaunts of the Romayn Empyre: And let vs call vpon him dayly with harty petitions and grones & wyth zeale and loue to the house of God, that this Turkish power ioined with the malice of Sathan, against the sonne of God, preuayle not agaynst the poore congregations & litle remnant of his Churche, as it hath hitherto done agaynste those strong and noble christian kingdoms and churches, were now we see the Turkish tyranny to raigne & Sathã to haue taken full possession. Whose state was once farre better then ours is now, and more like to continue without such horrible ouerthrowes and desolation MarginaliaThe Christen kingdomes and churches destroyed by the turkes, are a warning for vs, whom God hath yet spared.Oh that we might foresee a litle the great daunger that hangeth ouer our heades. For though the Turke semeth to be farre of, yet doe we nourishe within our brestes at home, that maye soone cause vs to feele his cruell hand and worse, if worse may be, to ouerrunne vs: to lay our land waste: to scatter vs amongest the Infidels, the enemies and blasphemers of the sonne of God.

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MarginaliaFoure principall families of the turke.Nowe, although these 4. families aboue mentioned, long continued together in bloudy warres and deadly hatred, yet one of them passed the rest in all crueltye and tyranny, and subduing the other 3. familyes, tooke vpon him the gouernement alone, and so became the first Monarch, or Emperour that reigned amõg thē, called Ottomannus, of whome all that raigned after him, were called Ottomanni. MarginaliaThe family of Ottomannus. Who succeeding orderly of his lyne, haue occupyed the same dominion and seate of the Turkes, from the yeare of our Lord 1300. vnto this present time, which haue bene to the number of 12. Of the which 12. in suche order as they liued and raygned, I intend (Christ so permitting) seuerally and compendeously something to entreat, briefely abstracting out of prolixe and tedious writers, such specialties, as for vs Christians, shall be chiefely requisite to be knowne.

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Ottomannus
SS.iij.
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