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Bursa (Prusia)

northwest Turkey

1st Ottoman capital

Coordinates: 40° 11' 0" N, 29° 4' 0" E

 
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Edirne (Adrianopolis)

Thrace, Greece

2nd Ottoman capital to 1453

Coordinates: 41° 40' 0" N, 26° 34' 0" E

 
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Gallipoli (Kallipolis) [Callipolis; Calipolis]

Thrace, Turkey

Coordinates: 40° 24' 37 N, 26° 40' 15 E

 
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Izmit (Nicomedia)

[Philomilium]

Anatolia, Turkey

Coordinates: 40° 46' 0" N, 29° 55' 0" E

 
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Nicea (Iznik)

[Nice]

Turkey

Coordinates: 40° 25' 44" N, 29° 43' 10" E

 
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Pera-Galata

Constantinople

Genoese colony 1273-1453

Coordinates: 41° 1' 22" N, 28° 58' 25" E

 
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Plovdiv (Philippoupolis) [Philippopolis]

Thrace, Bulgaria

Coordinates: 42° 9' 0" N, 24° 45' 0" E

 
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Sinop (Sinope)

Paphlagonia, Black Sea, Turkey

Coordinates: 42° 2' 0" N, 35° 9' 0" E

 
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Sivas (Sebastia)

Capadocia, Turkey

Coordinates: 39° 45' 0" N, 37° 1' 0" E

762 [738]

K. Henr. 7. The history of the Turkes. Ottomannus Orchanes: Amurathes. Baiazetes.
¶ Ottomannus the first great Emperour or Tyraunt of the Turkes.

MarginaliaOttomannus the first Emperour of the Turkes.THis Ottomannus 

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Most of this account of Osman comes from Sebastian Munster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 957. The description of Osman's conquests, the length of his reign and his death are from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg,1580), p. 587.

was at the first, of poore estate and obscure amongest the common sort of men, comming of a base progeny and of rusticall parentes: but through hys valiantnes and actiuity in warre, he got him a great name amongest the Turkes. For he being a man of fearce courage, refusing no labour and delighting in warre, and gathering together by great subtlety and multitude of common souldiours, began to make warre, and by conquestes and victories, to aduaunce himselfe and his family. Fyrst he began to robbe and spoyle with a great band of rouers and afterward he attempted to set vpon all men. Neither did he vexe and destroy the Christians onely, but set vpon his owne nation also, and sought al occasion to subdue thē wholy vnto him 
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The following sentence is Foxe's opinion.

. MarginaliaInward warre amonge the Turkes.For now the Princes and Captaynes of the Turkes, inflamed with ambition and desire of rule, began to fall out and contend among themselues, in so much that they fell to domesticall and inward warre, with all the power they could.

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MarginaliaThe comming vp of Ottomãnus.Ottomannus hauing this occasion very fitte & meete to accomplishe that whiche he long had sought for, gathering vnto him all such as he thought to be geuē to robbing and spoyling, and sette all vpon mischiefe, in short time began to grow in authority, & first set vpon certayn townes, as he saw oportunity to serue him: Of which towns, some he tooke by force, some by yelding, other some he spoyled & ouerthrew, to terrify the rest, thus laying the first foundation of his rising. MarginaliaBithinia, Natolia, Ancyra, Sinope, Sebastia, subdued.In the meane time, the discorde whiche was among the Christians, was no small aduauntage to this Ottomannus, by occasion whereof, he within x. yeres space, subdued Bethinia, and al the prouinces about Pontus: Also Natolia, which comprehendeth all the dominion of the Greekes within Asia: Ancyra a City in Phrigia: Sinope a Cittye in Galatia: and Sabastia a Cittye in Capadocia: and thus still preuayling, he encreased in short time, to a mightye power, either through the secret iudgemente of God agaynst that nation, or els because God woulde haue them so farre & so cruelly to preuayle, for the punishmen of the sinnes of other nations, like as it was prophecyed before, MarginaliaEzech. 38. that such a kingdome there shoulde be of Gog and Magog.

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This Ottomannus, after he had raigned 28. yeares in the yeare of our Lord 1527 

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Actually Osman was dead by 1324.

. dyed, and departed to his Mahumet, leauing behind him three sonnes, of whom Orchanes being the youngest, killed his two brethren, whilest they were at variaunce betwene themselues 
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Orhan did not kill his brothers.

.

¶ Orchanes the second Emperour after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaOrchanes the second Emperour of the Turkes, after Ottomannus.ORchanes 

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The account of Orhan is taken entirely from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 587-8.

, the youngest of the sonnes of Ottomannus, after he had slayne his two brethren, tooke the regimēt of the turkes after his father. Who after he had drawne to him the hartes of the multitude, such as had theyr dispositions set vpon the licētious life of warre, cõuerted his power, further to enlarge his fathers dominion: MarginaliaMysia, Lydia, Lycaonia, Phrigia, Caria, Prusia, Nicia, Nicomedia.winning & subduing Mysia, Lydia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and Caria: All whiche countryes, being within the compasse of Asia, vnto the sea side of Hellespontus, and the sea Euxinus, he added to the Turkishe Empyre. Also he wanne Prusia: which was the metroplitane City of Bithynia, which thē he made the chiefe seate of the Turkes Empyre. Besides these moreouer, he conquered Nicea, & got Nicomedia: MarginaliaChristen Cities subdued of the Turkes.all which were before Christian Cities & regions. MarginaliaCiuil warre among the Grecians.And yet all this could not make the Christian Princes in Grecia, to cease theyr ciuill warres, & ioyne & accord among themselues: Such debate and variaunce was thē betwene Cãtacuzenus, on the Greeks part, & Paleologus þe Emperor of Constantinople 
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In 1341, a civil war broke out in the Byzantine Empire between two rival candidates for the imperial throne: John VI Kantakouzenes and John V Palaiologos. Kantakouzenes allied with Orhan and was successful. Further warfareensued in 1352 between Palaiologos and Kantakouzenes's son Matthew., who again called on Orhan for aid. In return for these interventions, the Ottomans were allowedto establish themselves on the Gallipoli peninsula.

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. By reason whereof, þe turkes ayd was sent for out of Asia, to helpe our Christians one to kil an other, and at length to get all those partes of Europe from them both. MarginaliaBy the discorde of Christians, the Turkes encrease.Who if they had according to theyr profession, so well ioyned in brotherly vnity, as they did in cruel hostility dissent, neither had Orchanes so preuayled in gettynge Prusia from the Grecians, neither had the turkes so soone presumed into Europe as afterward they did. Orchanes after these victories, when he had raigned 22. yeares was strokē, as some say, with a dart in the shoulder, at the siege of Prusia. The opiniõ of others is, that he fighting against the Tartariãs, where he lost a great part of his army, was there also slayne himselfe. an. 1349 
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Orhan died in 1360 from natural causes. He was neither wounded nor killed in battle.

.

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¶ Amurathes the 3. after Ottamannus.

THe Greeke writers doe holde that Orchanes had two sonnes, Solimannus, and Amurathes. 

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Foxe's account of Murad I is taken entirely from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 588-9.

Of which two,first Solimannus raigned albeit not long. 
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Murad I may have come to the throne after a civil war with his brother Hälil (the sparse sources for the period are unclear about this) but his elder brother Süleyman had died in 1358, two years before Orhan died.

MarginaliaAmurathes the third after Ottomannus.After him folowed Amurathes, who after that Asia nowe was subdued by his predecessors, sought by all meanes and wayes how to proceede further & to inuade Europe. MarginaliaAmurathes seeketh occasion to inuade Europe. To whose ambitious purpose the domestical warres of the Christians gaue vnprosperous occasion: which occasion is thus declared. Certaine discord fell betwene the princes of Greece (whose captayne was Cantaguzenus) and Paleologus Emperor of Constantinople. Wherupõ Paleologus, for that he was not able to make his party good with the Grecians, moste vnwisely sent for Amurathes, to helpe him. Who beinge glad to haue such an occasion offered, which he so long had sought, sent to ayde him 12000. Turkes into Thracia 
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In 1373 John V Palaiologos allied with Murad, not against the Kantakouzenes family, but against his rebellious son Andronikos. Andronikos was defeated and imprisoned. In 1376, he escaped and with Genoese and Ottoman assistance defeated and imprisoned his father. In 1379, John escaped and enlisted Ottoman aid against Andronikos. In 1381, John was restored to the throne. These civil wars enabled the Ottomans to expand their power in the Balkans.

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: but first vsed all delayes he could, of crafty pollicy to the entent that the Greekes first shoulde waste theyr strength and power vpon themselues, whereby he might be more able afterward to set vpõ them, and to accomplish his conceiued desire.

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MarginaliaThe first comming of the Turke into EuropeThe Turkes thus being called into Europe, by the Christians, whether they tasting the sweetnesse of the soyle incensed Amurathes theyr Emperor to make inuasion, or whether Amurathes of his owne head thought good to vse the time, in the yeare of our Lord 1363. he came himselfe ouer into Europe with 60000. Turkes, falling vpon the Grecians, being wasted and spent with their long warres and battelles before. The pretence of the deuilishe Turke was to ayd and to assist the Emperour Peleolgus, whether he would or no, and to subdue such as had fallen from him. MarginaliaThe couetousnes of Christians brought ouer the Turkes.The Christian shippes of the Ligurians for money were hyred to conduct them ouer, taking for euery souldiour a peece of gold. Ex Pucer. & alijs.

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MarginaliaCallipolis, Philippolis, Adrianopolis, Thracia, gotten of the Turkes.Thus the Turkes armye being conueyed ouer by the Grecians sea called Hellespõtus, first got Callipolis wyth other townes and Cityes bordering about the sea, & there planting themselues, and preparing shippes of theyr own for transporting theyr munitions out of Asia, aduaunced their power further into Thrasia, and there wanne Philippolis, then gotte Adrianopolis, which was not farre from Constantinople, & there Amurathes made his chiefe seat. Then beganne Paleologus the Emperour at lenth to bewayle his offer & couenaunt made with Amurathes. MarginaliaThe Turkes entreth into Mysia and Bulgaria, and Seruia.Whē the Turkes had expugned thus a greate part of Thrasia, they extended forth theyr armye vnto Mysia, whiche they soone subdued: from thence proceding and conquering the Bessos and Triballos, they entred in Seruia, and Bulgaria: MarginaliaLazarus Despota ouercome of the Turkes.where they ioyning battell with Lazarus Despota prince of Seruia, and with other Dukes of Dalmatia, and Epirus, wanne of them the field, & put them to the worse 

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This was the hard-fought, and decisive, Ottoman victory at Kossovo on 15 June 1389.

: where Lazarus Despota being taken, and committed to prison, ended his life 
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Prince Lazar died in the battle of Kossovo, but was not taken prisoner.

. MarginaliaExample of a faythfull seruant.This Lazarus had a certayne faythfull client or seruaunt, who to reuenge his maisters death, with a bolde courage, although seing death before his eies, yet ventred his life so far, that he came to the tyraūt & thrust him through with his dagger 
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Murad I died in battle at Kossovo.

. MarginaliaThe death of Amurathes.This Amurathes reigned. 23. yeares, and was slayne in the yeare of our Lord 1372.

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Baiazetes the 4. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaBaiazetes the 4. after Ottomannus.THe power of the Turkes began to encrease in Europe, what time Baiazetes 

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Except for brief excerpts from Munster's Cosmographia, the account of Bayezid is taken entirely from Caspar Peucer, Chroicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 642-6.

, the first of that name, after the death of his father, entred the possession of the turkes kingdome. This Baiazetes had 2. brethrē, Solimãnus & Sauces. Whiche Sauces had his eyes put out by his father for striuing for the kingdome. Solimãnus was slayne of hys brother. Thus Baiazetes beginning his kingdome wyth the murther of his brother, reduced his Imperiall seat frõ Prusia a city of Bithynia, vnto Adrianople, entēding with himself to subdue both Asia & Europe to his own power. First he set vpon the Seruians and Bulgarians, thinking to reuenge his fathers death, MarginaliaMarcus Despota slayne of the Turke.where he gaue the ouerthrow to Marcus Despota, with all the nobility of the MarginaliaSeruia, Macedonia. Bulgaria, Phocides, Thracia, Attica, Thessalia, with other Christian coūtries cõquered of the Turkes.Seruians and Bulgarians, and put all those partyes vnder his subiection vnto the fines and borders of the Illyrians. All Thracia moreouer hee brought likewise vnder his yoke, onely Constantinople and Pera excepted. That done, he inuaded the residue of Grecia, preuaylyng agaynste the countryes of Thessalia, Macedonia, Phocides, and Attica, spoyling and burning as he passed, without anye resistaunce: and so returning with innumerable spoyle of the Christians, vnto Adrianople, layd siege to Constantinople the space of viij. yeares, MarginaliaConstantinople besieged 8. yeares by the Turkes. and had expugned the same, but that Paleologus beyng brought to extremitye, was driuen to craue ayde of the frenchmen, and of Sigismund the Emperour. Who being accompanyed with a sufficient power of Frenchmen & Germaynes, came downe to Hūgaria & toward Seruia agaynst the Turk. Baiazetes hearing of theyr comming, raised his siege frõ Cõstantinople,

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