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Damascus

Syria

Coordinates: 33° 30' 49" N, 36° 17' 31" E

Capital of Syria

 
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Golubac (Golubački grad: Serbian; Galambóc vára: Hungarian; Columbarium: Latin) [Columbatium; Columbetz]

Serbia

Coordinates: 44° 39' 44" N, 21° 40' 42" E

 
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Nikopol (Nicopolis ad Istrum)

Thrace, Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 42' 0" N, 24° 54' 0" E

763 [739]

K. Henry. 7. The history of the Turkes. Calepinus. Orchanes. Mahumetes.

and with 60000. horsemen, came to Nicopolis, where he encountring with them, MarginaliaThe Christians ouerthrowen of the Turkes.ouerthrew all the Christian army, tooke Iohn the Captaine of the French power prisoner: Sigismundus, MarginaliaSigismund Emperour put to flight. which before in the Councell of Constance, had burned Iohn Hus & Hierome of Prage, hardly escaped by flieng. Baiazetes after the victory got, carried away Duke Iohn, with fiue other in bands, into Prusia, MarginaliaThe barbarous cruelty of the turks, against the Christians.where before his face he caused all the other christian prisoners to be cut in peeces.

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Afterwarde the sayde Iohn beeing raunsomed wyth 200000. crownes, was deliuered. Some authors referre this story to the time of Calepinus, as followeth heereafter to be seene.

Baiazetes the cruell tirant after this victory wonne, & tirannie shewed vpon the Christians, returned againe to his siege of Constantinople, fully bending himselfe to cõquere and subdue the same, whiche thyng no doubt he had accomplished, but that the prouidence of God had founde such a meanes that MarginaliaTamerlanes a Parthian stirred vp of God to reuenge the cause of the Christians.Tamerlanes King of Parthia, wyth an 100. thousand horsemen, and swarmes of footemen, like a violent floud, ouerunning Asia, and pressing vpon Siria and Sebastia, MarginaliaBaiazetes sonne taken and slaine.had taken Orthobules the sonne of Baiazetes, prisoner, and afterward slue him, exercising the like crueltie vpõ his prisoners, as Baiazetes had done before vpon the Christians: MarginaliaCruelty iustly reuenged with crueltyinsomuch that he spared neither sexe nor age of the Turkish multitude: of whome he caused xij. thousand at one time, to be ouerriden and troden downe vnder his horses feete. MarginaliaBaiazetes raiseth hys siege from Constantinople.By reason whereof, Baiazets the tirant was enforced to raise his siege from Constantinople, & to returne his power into Asia: where he, neere the hill called Stella, pitched his tents there to encounter with Tamerlanes.

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The fight betweene these ij. was long & great on both sides, which was in the yeare of our Lord 1397 

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The battle of Nicopolis was 25 September 1396; Bayezid was defeatedby Timur on 28 July 1402.

. and the second yeare after the slaughter of our Christians at Nicopolis in Ponnonia: MarginaliaBaiazetes ouercome of Tamerlanes king of Parthians.but the victorie of this battaile fell to Tamerlanes at lēgth. In the which battaile as Munsterus writeth, were slaine 2000000 Turkes 
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Sebastian Munster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 959.

. Among whome, Baiazetes the tirant, hauing his horse slaine vnder him, was takē prisoner, MarginaliaThe iust hãd of God vpõ a cruell persecutour.and to make a spectacle of his wretched fortune, was bounde in golden fetters, and so beeing enclosed in an iron grate (whome before all Grecia could not holde) was ledde about and shewed through all Asia, to be skorned & laught at: and moreouer was vsed in stead of a footestoole to Tamerlanes, or a blocke, as often as he mounted vpon his horse. MarginaliaBaiazetes made for a blocke for Tamerlanes to get vpon his horse. Some adde also, that he was made like a dogge to feede vnder Tamerlanes table. The tirannie of which Baiazetes against the Christians, as it was not much vnlike to the crueltie of Valerianus þe Romaine Emperour aboue mentioned, pag. 73. MarginaliaVid. supra. pag. 73. so neither was the example of his punishment much discrepant, for as Sapores King of the Persians did then with Valerianus in time of the eight persecution of the primatiue Church: so likewise was Baiazetes this persecutor worthely handled by Tamerlanes king of the Parthians, as in maner abouesayd.

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MarginaliaThe great victories of Tamerlanes in Asia.Tamerlanes after thys conquest, passed wyth hys army into Mesopotamia, to Egypt, and all Syria, where he victoriously subduing the Cities and munitions of the Turkes, at length also conquered Damascus. In his sieges his maner was, the first day to go all in white attire, the seconde daye in red, the third day in blacke: signifieng thereby mercie the first daye to them that yeelded, the seconde day the sword, the third day fire and ashes. At last, after great victories, and spoiles gotten of the Turkes, he returned into his Countrey againe, and there dyed, anno 1402.

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MarginaliaEx Seb. Mūstero lib. 4. CosmographSeb. Munsterus writing of this Tamerlanes 

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The passages on the numbers in Timur's army, on his conquests, andon his sons losing what their father had conquered, are taken from Sebastian Munster,Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), pp. 959-60.

, recordeth that he had in his army 200. thousand men: and that hee ouercame the Parthians, Scythians, Hiberians, Albans Persians, Medes, and conquered all Mesopotamia: and after he had also subdued Armenia, passing ouer the riuer Euphrates with sixe hundred thousande footemen, and 4000000. horsemen, he inuaded all Asia Minor, conquering and subduing from the floud Tanais vnto Nilus in Egipt, MarginaliaTanais is the vttermost floud in the North side: and Nilus the vttermost floud in the South side of Asia.and was called terror orbis, the terror of the world. He lefte behinde hym two sonnes, who falling in discorde for theyr possessions, lost all agayne that their father gotte.

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In the meane time Baiazetes in the second yeare of his captiuitie 

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Actually Bayezid died on 9 March 1403, less than seven months after his defeat.

, died, leauing behind him diuers sonnes, MarginaliaA generation of VipersIesus or Iosua the eldest, Mulsumanes, Moses, Celebinus, or Calepinus, Iesus the yonger, Mustaphas, and Hali, of whome first Iesus the eldest was ouercome and slaine of Mulsumanes: which Mulsumanes afterwarde was deliuered to Moses his brother, and by him was slaine likewise, which Moses had also the like ende by his brotherCalepinus, hauing his necke broken with a bowe string, which was then the vsuall maner among the Turkes in killing their brethren. The same Calepinus sparing onely the life of Mustaphas his other brother, condemned him to perpetuall prison. Iesus the younger was Baptised, & shortly after departed at Constantinople 
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These passages are taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis(Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 645-6 and they make a confused situation even more confusing. Bayezid's sons were: Süleyman (Calepine), Isa (Jesus; pace Peucer and Foxe there was only one son with this name), Mehmed, Musa (Moses) and Mustapha. There was no son named Hälil (or Hali). There was no son named 'Musulman'; if this is meant to be Mehmed, then the account in Peucer and Foxe is inaccurate from beginning to end. After Timur's victory, the Ottoman terriories were divided. Süleyman, the eldest, ruled the European territories, Mehmed, the youngest, ruled what is now northeastern Turkey. Isa ruled western Turkey. Musa and Mustapha had been taken prisoner along with Bayezid. Musa eventually fell into the hands of his brother Mehmed. Mustapha presumably died in Timur's custody. In 1403, Mehmed defeated Isa, seized his lands and drove him into exile. Isa secured Byzantine aid and re-invaded his former territories in 1404. Mehmed defeated him again, and Isa fled and disappeared from history. Later that year Süleyman invaded Turkey and occupied Isa's lands, driving Mehmed back into northeastern Turkey. In 1409, Mehmed took revenge against Süleyman by releasing their brother Musa and sending him against Süleyman. Musa entered into a marriage alliance with the Voyvode of Wallachia and, with troops supplied by his father-in-law, invaded Süleyman's teritories. Süleyman withdrew his armies from Turkey to deal with the threat and Mehmed overran these territories.

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. In these such disorders and diuisions among the Turkes, what occasions were geuen to the Christiãs to haue recouered agayne of the Turkes that they had lost, if they had not bene either negligent, or in their own priuate warres otherwise occupied with them selues.

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¶ Calepinus the 5. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaCalepinus the fift, after Ottomannus.CAlepinus, or Celebinus was the sonne of Baiazetes 

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The account of Süleyman (Calepine) is taken largely from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 645-6 with some material from Cuspinian. Despite Foxe's hailing him as an Ottoman emperor, Süleyman, is not generally considered one as he never ruled over the entire empire.

, and of foure brethren, the eldest: who beyng all taken captiues of the Parthians 
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The Partians were actually a nomadic people who created an empireextending from the Euphrates, which flourished from the second century BCE tothe the third century AD. Peucer and Foxe are using a classical term to describeTimur's armies.

, he onely escaped and obteined his fathers kyngdome 
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Actually Süleyman (Calepine) and his brother Mehmed retreated fromthe battle and abandoned their father. Neither brother was captured.

. This Calepinus encouraged by the sloth and negligence of the Princes of Europe, and by the discord of the Grecians amongest them selues and other nations neare about them, long troubled and vexed the Bulgarians, Seruiãs, and Macedonians, euen to the tyme of Sigismundus. Which Sigismundus seyng now Baiazetes to be ouercome and taken of Tamerlane, and the power of the Turkes weakened in Europe, & hauing such occasion offered him, as it were from heauen, to destroy and vtterly to roote out, not onely out of Asia but also all Europe, that barbarous nation, and cruell enemies to the name and Religiõ of Christ: and also to reuenge the great slaughter and discomfiture of his army fighting before with Baiazetes at Nicopolis a Citie in Mysia: with great power made warre agaynst Calepinus at Columbatium a Towne in Seruia, as is also before mentioned. pag. 719. MarginaliaVide supra. pag. 719. but as vnluckely and with as little successe as he did before agaynst Baiazetes his father 
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Foxe is taking his account from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorumorigine (Antwerp, 1541), fos. 14v-16v. Actually there was no such battle; it is probably a confused version of Sigismund's defeat at Nicopolis. Cuspinian admitsthat he does not know whether this battle took place in Murad's reign. This is from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 16v .

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: MarginaliaThe ouerthrow of Sigismund, fighting agaynst the Turke.For in that battaile were slayne of the Christiãs to the nūber of xx. thousand, and the rest vtterly discomfited, the kyng himselfe escaping so hardly, that he entred not agayne into his kingdome for the space of 18. monethes after. MarginaliaSome stories record this cõflict to be after the time of thys Turke.Some write that this was done vnder Baiazetes, other some referre this battaile to Amurathes, but howsoeuer it was, most pernicious was it to the Christiãs 
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This is from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 16v.

. He raigned but vi. yeares and dyed very young. an. 1404 
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Musa (see C 177/35) caught Süleyman by surprise and defeated him. Musa's troops caught up with Süleyman as he was fleeing and killed him. This was in 1411, not 1410.

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¶ Orchanes and Moses his vncle, the sixt after Ottomanus.

Marginalia

Orchanes and Moses his vncle.

Diuersitie in hystories.

AFter the captiuitie 
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Foxe took this very garbled account of Orhan and Musa from CasperPeucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 646-7.

of Baiazetes aboue mentioned, histories diuersly doe dissent. The Greeke writers making no mention at al of Calepinus, onely make mētion of the sonnes of Baiazetes, & of the contention among them. vntill the time of Muhumetes. The Latin stories writing of the children of Baiezetes and of their succession, doe not therein agree, some affirmyng that Baiazetes had two sonnes, Orchanes surnamed Calepinus, & Mahumetes his brother, which within two yeares slew the sayd Calepinus, and entred his dominion. Other attribute to Baiazetes moe sonnes, as is aboue rehearsed 
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These passages are taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis(Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 645-6 and they make a confused situation even more confusing. Bayezid's sons were: Süleyman (Calepine), Isa (Jesus; pace Peucer and Foxe there was only one son with this name), Mehmed, Musa (Moses) and Mustapha. There was no son named Hälil (or Hali). There was no son named 'Musulman'; if this is meant to be Mehmed, then the account in Peucer and Foxe, is inaccurate from beginning to end. After Timur's victory, the Ottoman terriories were divided. Süleyman, the eldest, ruled the European territories, Mehmed, the youngest, ruled what is now northeastern Turkey. Isa ruled western Turkey. Musa and Mustapha had been taken prisoner along with Bayezid. Musa eventually fell into the hands of his brother Mehmed. Mustapha presumably died in Timur's custody. In 1403, Mehmed defeated Isa, seized his lands and drove him into exile. Isa secured Byzantine aid and re-invaded his former territories in 1404. Mehmed defeated him again, and Isa fled and disappeared from history. Later that year Süleyman invaded Turkey and occupied Isa's lands, driving Mehmed back into northeastern Turkey. In 1409, Mehmed took revenge against Süleyman by releasing their brother Musa and sending him against Süleyman. Musa entered into a marriage alliance with the Voyvode of Wallachia and, with troops supplied by his father-in-law, invaded Süleyman's teritories. Süleyman withdrew his armies from Turkey to deal with the threat and Mehmed overran these territories.

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. Some agayne doe geue to Baiazetes onely these two sonnes Celebinus and Mustaphas: and hold that Calepinus or Celebinus had two sonnes, to wit, Orchanes and Mahumetes, and adde moreouer that the sayd Orchanes beyng somewhat yoūg, was slayne of his vncle Moses, MarginaliaTirãny betwene vncle and nephew. who gouerned but ij. yeares. For Mahumetes to reuenge his brothers death slew Moses, MarginaliaMurther reuenged with murther. and inuaded his dominion 
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Orhan was the eldest son of Süleyman (Calepine), the eldest son of Bayezid. Musa (Moses) was Süleyman's brother, who defeated and killed him. After Süleyman's death, the Byzantine emperor, who had Orhan in custody, released him to make war on Musa. Musa retalitated by un-successfully besieging Constantinople in 1411. The same year he also defeated his brother Mehmed. In 1413, however, Mehmed defeated Musa and killed him. Mehmed then defeated Orhan, captured him and had him blinded.

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. The Greeke stories make no mention at all of Orchanes.

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¶ Mahumetes the 7. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaMahometes the 7. after Ottomãnus.THis Mahumetes 

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This account of Mehmed I is taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Frankfurt, 1594), p. 1205.

, whether he was the sonne of Baiazetes, or els of Calepinus 
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Mehmed was the youngest son of Bayezid, Süleyman (Calepine) was his elder brother.

, conuerted to himselfe alone the kingdome, or tyrãy rather, of the murdering Turks. Who afflicted the Christiãs with sore warres within Europe, especially the countrey called Wallachia, MarginaliaWallachia assaulted by Mahometes. lying not farre frõ the floud Danubius, betwene Hungary & Thracia. From thence he remoued into Asia, where he recouered diuers partes of Galatia, Pontus, Capadocia, Cilicia, whiche before Tamerlanes had alienated from the Turkes. MarginaliaThe Turkes seat at Adrianopolis.This Mahumetes planted his chief Imperiall seate in Adrianople not farre from Constãtinople, within the countrey of Thracia. In some writers the conflict betwene Sigismund & the great Turke, wherein the Christians were so discomfited, is referred rather to this Mahumetes, then to Calepinus: of which conflict mention is aboue made in the story of Sigismundus. pag. 719. MarginaliaVide supra. pag. 719. This Mahumetes reigned, as sone say 14. yeares, & dyed in the yeare of our Lord. 1419. Other affirme 17. yeares 
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Mehmed I reigned from 1413-21.

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¶ Amu-
SS.iiij.
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