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764 [740]

K. Henry. 7. The history of the Turkes. Amurathes. The Turke distressed in fight.
¶ Amurathes the second, 8. after Ottomanus.

MarginaliaAmurathes the 8. after Ottomannus.AMurathes, as Philephus sayth, was the son of Celebinus, as Laonicus Chalcondiles testifieth, of Mahumetes 

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Most of this account of Murad II - including the citations of the twoauthors in this passage - is taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg,1580), pp. 647-51. Portions of it are taken from Christophe Richer's account of the Ottomans (via Bibliander's edition of the Koran) and Johannes Cuspinian's history of the Turks.

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: whose son soeuer he was, a wretched tiraunt he was, and permitted as a scourge of God, to correct þe sins of the Christians. In the story of Baiazetes, mentiõ was made before of Mustaphas his sonne, who was cõdemned to perpetual prison by Calepinus his brother. This Mustaphas escaping out of his brothers prison, was conueied to the Grecians, where he remained long in custody, til at length they vnderstanding the purpose of Amurathes, set him vp with sufficient habiliments and furniture of war, to fight against the sayde Amurathes his nephew. But in cõclusion, he being not able to make his partie good, MarginaliaMustaphas murthered by Amurathes his nephew.came into þe handes of his enemie, and had his necke broke with a bowstring, after the maner of the Turkish execution 
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'Mustapha' was an imposter, supported by the Byzantine emperor, who claimed to be the son of Bayezid who was taken prisoner by Timur. After considerable initial success, he was defeated and captured in 1422. He was not strangled with a bowstring (a punishment reserved for royalty) but instead hanged as a common criminal.

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The Grecians then terrified with this sinister aduersity required truce of the Turke, but when that would not be graunted, they procured vnto them Mustaphas, the other brother to Amurathes, being of the age of xiij. yeares: who likewise being armed of þe Grecians, got the City of Nice in Bithynia, from Amurathes his brother: Albeit it was not long but he was circumuented in the same Citie, and brought to Amurathes: MarginaliaThe turke murthereth his brother.who caused him likewise to taste of the same whip, as the other Mustaphas had done before 

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Mustapha, the younger brother of Murad II, was defeated and strangled at Bursa in 1423.

. MarginaliaAmurathes set against the Grecians.Amurathes being now out of all feare and doubt of brethren & kinsfolke to rise against him, conuerted all his power against the Grecians: and first raunging through out Thracia, MarginaliaThracia subdued to the turke. where diuers Cities yelded vnto him, which before belonged to the Emperour of Constantinople, frõ thence he set forward to the noble and famous City Thessalonica, MarginaliaThessalonica subdued.being then vnder the league and protectiõ of the Venetians. This Thessalonica is a Citie in Greece bordering vpon Macedonia, to þe Citizens wherof, S. Paule writeth, foreshewing vnto them in his 2. Epistle, of a defection to come before the comming of the day of the Lord 2. Thess. 2. MarginaliaThe defection spoken of Saint Paule declared. 2. Thess. 2. By the which apostacie or defection, what the holy Apostle doth meane, this story of the Turkes maye easely declare 
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This sentence is not is not from Casper Peucer, but is Foxe repeating his exegesis of 2 Thess. 2: 1-4. In an unusual piece of exegesis, Foxe is is interpreting the 'defection' usually regarded as a reference to apostasy by exegetes, of the conversion to Islam of regions in the Middle East and North Africa that were formerly Christian.

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. After Thessalonica was subdued, Phocis, with all the countrey about Athens, Beocia likewise, Aetolia, Acarnauia, with all the region beyond Peloponesus, vnto the coast of Corinth, to whome S. Paule also wrote other two epistles, were brought in bondage and slauery vnto the Turke.

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In Epirus, and in that quarter that adioyneth to Macedonia, named Albania, reigned then one Ioannes Castriotus, MarginaliaIoannes Castriotus. who perceiuing himselfe too weake to matche with the Turkes power, made with the Turke this cõuention, that he should haue Croia, MarginaliaCroia geuen to the turke. a famous Citie in Grecia, MarginaliaThe 3. sonnes of Castriotus, hostages with the turke.and also gaue to him his three sonnes for hostages, to wit, Constantinus, Reposius, and Georgius.

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In this George, MarginaliaGeorgius Scanderbeius, Alexder the great. such towardnes of noble courage, such vigour of minde, and strength of body singularly did appeare, that the Turke caused him more freely to be instructed after the Turkish religion and maner in his owne court: where he being traded vp, did so shoote vp as well in feates of actiuitie, as in strength of body, that he excelled all his equals: in so much that he was named Scanderbeius, which soundeth as much as Alexander Magnus.

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After this Alexander was grown vp to mature ripenes of age, and was well trained vp in feates of war, he was sent out by the Turke, to warre against Caramannus of Cilicia, The Turkes enemy. MarginaliaThe valiant Actes of Georgius Scanderbeius.In which expedition he sped himselfe most manfully, fighting hand to hande, first with a footeman of Scythia, then with an horseman of Persia, being chalenged by them both to encounter, first with the one, after with þe other: whom he so valiantly ouerthrew, þt he wan great renoun with þe Turk: In so much that he trusting to þe Turks fauour, whē he heard of the decease of his father, durst aske of þe Turke the graunt of his fathers dominion to be giuen vnto him. Which request, although Amurathes þe Turke did not denie him: yet notwithstanding he perceiuing the matter to be dalied out with fayre wordes, by subtill meanes and policie * Marginalia* Georgius Scãderbeius stealeth away from the turke to hys countrey slipt out of the Turks court, and came to Epirus his owne inheritance: where first by forged letters he recouered Croia. MarginaliaCroaia recouered. The other Cities of their voluntary minde, yeelded themselues vnto him, who then gathering vnto him the people of Epirus & Macedonia MarginaliaEpyrus and Macedonia recouered from the turke. (which were not so many in nūber, as with good willing minds they stucke vnto him) so mãfully and valiantly behaued himselfe, MarginaliaThe valiaunt actes of Georgius Scanderbeius against the turkes. that against all the puissance both of Amurathes, and also of Mahumete, he mainteined his owne, repulsed their violence, and put to flight their armies, many yeres together. But to returne againe to the course of Amurathes victories, after he hadthus preuailed (as is before signified) agaynst the East parts of Europa and Grecia, and had conuented thus for the dominion of Epirus, MarginaliaIllirica, or Sclauonia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, Liburnia, Albania, Bosna, spoyled and wasted by the turke. he inuaded Illiricum, (otherwise called now Sclauonia) conteining in it Dalmatia, Croacia, Istria, and Liburnia: which Countreys after he had spoiled and wasted, he continued his course to Albania, and Bosna. In which regions, when he had subdued a great part, and had led away an innumerable multitude of captiues, he moued further to Walachia and Seruia, vpon hope to conquere all Pannonia.

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There reigned at the same time in Seruia a certayne prince named Georgius Despota, MarginaliaGeorgius Despota prince of Seruia. who made great sute to the Turke for truce & peace, promising to giue his daughter to mariage: MarginaliaAn vngodly graunt of a Christen father to Marye hys daughter to the turke. for by þe Turkes lawe they may marry as many wiues as they lust. In was not long after Amurathes had maried the daughter of Despota, but he contrary to his league and promise, made warre vpon Despota his father in law, and expelled him out of his kingdome, taking from him diuers Cities, as Scopia, Nouomonte, Sophia, and all Misia. MarginaliaScopia, Sophia, Nouomõte, Mysia subdued of the turke. Georgius himselfe fled into Hungary, MarginaliaGeorgius Despota fled into Hungary. leauing behind him his son to defēd þe town of Sinderonia 

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Up to this point, Foxe's account of Murad II is taken almost entirelyfrom Peucer. Here he adds an atrocity story taken from Christophe Richer's historyof the Turks, which was printed along with Bibliander's edition of the Koran (Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran [Basel, 1550], III, p. 203).

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. Amurathes vnderstãding of the flight of Despoto his father in law, compassed the Citie of Sinderonia with a strõg siege, which whē he in few daies had expugned, MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turke vpon hys wiues brother.he tooke his wiues brother, sonne of Despota, and without regard of all mercy and affinitie, after the barbarous tyranny of the Turkes, put out his eies, with a basen red hoat set before his eies, and after that led him about with him, in derision and despite of his cowardly father. Ex Christof. Rhicherio Galle. & Gasp. Peuc. & alijs.

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Seruia beeing thus wonne and gotten, Amurathes thinking to go further into Hungary, MarginaliaBelgradum besieged of the turke.besieged the Citie called Belgradum, and no doubt, had also suppressed the same, had not the prouidence of God found a meanes, that partly through slaughter of his men, partly for lacke of victuall and other forage, he was compelled to raise his siege and retire.

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MarginaliaIoãnes Huniades, Vaiuoda.In the meane time Ioannes Huniades (of whom mention was made before, pag. 720.) had got great victories against the Turkish power, and had recouered parte of Seruia, and all Muldauia: against whome, Amurathes the Turke, with a mighty army, moued into Pannonia. But Huniades with the power and ayde of Ladislaus King of Polonia (but specially by the power of the Lord) did sonne infringe the puissance of the Turke, and gaue him the ouerthrow, recouering vnto the Christians the greatest part of Seruia and Bulgaria.

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MarginaliaFiue victories of Ioan. Huniades, against the turke gotten in one day.In this battaile Huniades had 

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This account of the 'winter war' of 1443 and events through thebattle of Varna is taken from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp,1541), fos. 22v-25v.

fiue sundry conflictes with the Turks vpõ one day, and with fiue victories put them to the worse, and toward night did so discomfit and ouerthrow the great captaine of Amurathes, called Bassa, MarginaliaThe great Bassaor duke of the turkes ouerthrowen by Huniades. the Duke of Anatolia (which is otherwise named Asia Minor) that he slue of the Turks that day, to the number of 30. thousand. Amurathes, although he was not a little thereat discouraged, yet dissembling his feare, with stout countenãce sent for Carambeius his principal stay & captaine, with a new power brought out of Asia, to assist him in his warres. MarginaliaThe victory of Huniades against Carambeis the great captaine of the turkes.Then Carambeius, in þe downes of Trãsiluania, Ladislaus the foresaid king of Polonie (the Lord so working) through the industrie of Ioannes Huniades, so receiued & with such celerity oppressed him vnprouided, that all his stout & sturdy army either was slaine downe right, or else put to flight & disparcled, Carambeius the Captaine being himselfe taken prisoner in the same field 
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These victories were won in the 'winter war' of 1443. Although Vladislav III and Hunyadi won several victories, the weather forced them to retreat.Their campaign was, however, hailed as a success in Europe.

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MarginaliaThe great turk brought to a great distresse.These victories of Huniades strooke no little terror to Amurathes, in somuch þt for distresse of minde he was ready to destroy himselfe (as some do write) but being cõfirmed by Helibeus Bassa his coūsailer, he kept himselfe wtin þe streites of þe moūt Rhodope. Who then hearing that Caramannus inuaded the same time the countrey of Bithinia and Pontus in Asia: MarginaliaAmurathes seketh truce of the Christians.was glad to take truce wyth Ladislaus and Huniades vpon such conditions as they listed to make themselues: MarginaliaThe conditions betweene Ladislaus kyng of Polonie, and Amurathes.which conditions were these, that Amurathes should depart clearely from all the region of Seruia, and should remoue from thence all his garrisons, which were placed in the Castles and forts of the same: Also he should restore George Despota (which is to say) Prince of Seruia vnto his possession, and set his children free, whome he had in captiuitie, and restore them to their inheritance. Item, that he shoulde make no more claime nor title to the countrey of Moldonia aboue mentioned, nor to that part of Bulgrauia which he had lost: and that he should desist heereafter from all wrongs and iniuries against the Christians. MarginaliaTruce betwene the Christians & the turkes for x. yeares.Vpon these conditions the Turke being agreed, so was truce concluded on both parts for tenne yeares, and with solemne othe betweene them confirmed.

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