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Edirne (Adrianopolis)

Thrace, Greece

2nd Ottoman capital to 1453

Coordinates: 41° 40' 0" N, 26° 34' 0" E

 
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Gallipoli (Kallipolis) [Callipolis; Calipolis]

Thrace, Turkey

Coordinates: 40° 24' 37 N, 26° 40' 15 E

 
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Krujë (Italian: Croia)

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 31' 0" N, 19° 48' 0" E

 
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Patras

Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 15' 0" N, 21° 44' 0" E

 
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Sicyon (Sikyon) [Sycione]

Peloponnese

City in ancient Greece [the village of Vasiliko now occupies the site]

 
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Szeged (Segedin) [Seledinus]

Csongrád, Hungary

Coordinates: 46° 15' 18" N, 20° 8' 42" E

 
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Varna [Verna]

Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 13' 0" N, 27° 55' 0" E

765 [blank]

K. Henry. 7. Warre betweene Ladislaus, and Amurathes. Huniades. Scanderbeius.

This done, MarginaliaAmurathes returneth into Asia.Amurathes the tyraunt addresseth himselfe toward Asia, to resist the inuasion of Caramannus aforesaid 

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In fact, Murad wished to abdicate in favour of his son Mehmed.To serve that end, and ease the crisis in the Ottoman treasury caused by having towage war in both Anatolia and Europe, he made peace with Vladislav III ofHungary, George Branković, despot of Serbia and with the emir of Karaman. News of Murad's subsequent abdication led the papacy to break the treaty and launch a newcrusade against the Turks.

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. MarginaliaThe Popes dispensation and absolution abused.At what time Pope Eugenius so soone as he heard the Turke to be returned into Asia, sendeth Iulianus Cæsarianus his Cardinall (whose story is before touched 
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1583, pp. 697-700.

, page. 683.) vnto Ladislaus the foresaid king, with full dispensation and absolution, to breake his othe and league wyth the Turke, promising moreouer great hope of aide, if he would go in armes stoutly against the tirant.

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MarginaliaThe popes rashe counsayle pernicious to Christendome.¶ Where by the way is to be noted, that as there is no truth of promise in that pestilēt sea of Rome, neither was there euer any war prospered, which was taken in hande by the Popes counsaile: MarginaliaNothyng prospereth that is taken in hand by the popes setting on. so was there neuer any counsaile of the Pope, that brought with it more detriment to Christianitie, then this. But the Pope belike thought, that as he might lawfully breake promise with Iohn Hus, and with other Christians, MarginaliaThe pope breaketh truce made betwene the Christians and the turke. so also he needed not to obserue anye league or truce taken with the Turke: but it turned much otherwise then the Popes blinde braines imagined, as by the sequele is to be seene 

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This sentence in Foxe's addition to Cuspinian's account of the battleof Varna. Blaming the papacy for Ottoman successes is a favourite theme of Foxe's.

. MarginaliaThe pope moued Ladislaus to breake truceFor Ladislaus being thus excited by the vnaduised and sinister instigation of Pope Eugenius, contrary to the truce stablished a little before, set out with his army from Seledinus, and so proceeding to Walachia and Burgaria, came to Varna, a towne of Bulgary, where he fell sicke.

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It was not long but the Turke hauing thereof intelligence, left his warres begon with Caramannus in Asia 

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Murad returned to Europe from Anatolia, but he had not been at warwith Karaman. He had been in retirement, but re-ascended the throne to deal withthis emergency.

, and with great iourneis made haste into Europe, passing ouer by þe straites neare to Calipolis, MarginaliaThe false dealing of the Italian Nauie.where all þe Italian nauy still looking on, and whether of purpose, or whether for cowardlines, would not stirre one ore to stop the passage of the Turkish army 
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Actually Byzantine, Venetian and Burgundian ships tried to preventMurad's army from crossing the Bosporus but were thwarted by storms and Turkishcannon.

. When Amurathes was come to Adrianopolis in Thrasia, vsing such celeritie as no mã looked for, within viij. daies he was in Burgaria, & there encamped himselfe against Ladislaus. MarginaliaThe battell of Varna, betwene Ladislaus king of Polonie, and Amurathes.The day of battaile being set, the armies ioined on both sides. Huniades was himself there present, but all the matter was ruled by Iulianus the Cardinall, and þe Popes Clergy. The fight cõtinued three daies and three nightes together, with great courage & much bloudshed on each side: insomuch that the field did stand with lakes of bloud. They semed at the first to incline to the Christians, by breaking the first ranks of the Turkes. MarginaliaThe popish prelats were the cause of losing the field.But the Priests and Prelates which were at the field (which had bene more fitte to haue bene in the Church) seeing the Turkes to begin to flie, vnskilfully left their array to pursue the enemy, so that they leauing the other standings of the Christians naked, gaue great aduantage to the Turks, with their darts & shot to disturbe the Christian rankes. By the which occasion, Amurathes inclosing þe Christiãs with his army roūd about, obteined the victory. In the which field, Ladislaus the yong king of Polony, hauing his horse first killed vnder him, was stooken downe, & slaine. MarginaliaA iust punishment vpon the popish prelates for their vniust dealing.The Popes Bishops flieng to saue themselues, fell into the marishes, and there were destroied, susteining a durtey death condigne to their filthy falshode and vntruth 
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The comment about a dirty death being suitable for the pope's bishopsis Foxe's insertion into Cuspinian's accout.

. MarginaliaIulianus the Cardinall slaine in the warre and spoyled.Iulianus þe Cardinall, which with the Pope was the chiefe doer in breaking the league 
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The description of Julian's death is from Johannes Cuspinian, DeTurcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 25v, but Foxe adds the comment blaming Julian for the defeat.

, in the way was found dead, being full of wounds, and spoiled to his naked skinne. Of the rest of þe army that escaped by flieng, part was drowned in þe marishes, some perished miserably for hunger, some for cold, watching & wãdering in the woods. MarginaliaHuniades escapeth.Huniades hardly escaped the danger, by the mercifull prouidence of God, being reserued to the further profite and commoditie of Christendome.

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MarginaliaThe worthy commendation of Iohn Huniades.This Iohn Huniades 

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This encomium of Hunyadi is Foxe's addition to the text.

the worthy warrier was borne in Walachia, being Earle of Bistrice, of all Captaines þt euer went against the Turkes, most famous & singular, prudent in wit, discret in counsaile, expert and politike in warre, prompt of hand, circumspect before he attempted, quicke in expedition: in whom wãted almost no good propertie requisite in a warlike Captaine. Against two most mighty and fierce tirants, Amurathes and Mahumetes, through the Lords might, he defended all Pannonia, and therefore was called the thunderbolt and terrour of the Turkes. Like as Achilles was vnto þe Grecians, so was he set vp of God to be as a wal or bulwarke of al Europe against the cruell Turkes and enemies of Christ, and of his Christians. Neither was there any King or Prince that euer achieued such noble victories, either so many in number, or so profitable for þe publique vtilitie of all Europe, as did he, and that not onely in the daies of this Amurathes, but also of Mahumetes his successour, as heereafter remaineth further to be seene. This battaile of Amurathes against the Christians at Varna in Bulgaria, was fought in the yeare of our Lord 1404.

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Amurathes 

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Foxe draws the reminder of his account of Murad's reign from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 649-51.

by reason of this victorious ouerthrow againste the Christians, surprised with no small pride,directed his iourney incontinent toward the Grecians, MarginaliaAmurathes taketh his viage against the Grecians. where Castriotus was, otherwise called Scanderbeius. And first commyng to Peleponesus, and breaking downe the wall about the straits of Corinthe, encoūtred with the brother of the Emperour of Constantinople, whom with his sodeine commyng he oppressed, with all the Greekes army, ere they were prouided. Paleologus the Emperour after that, did build vp the wall againe: but at the Turkes biddyng he was cõpelled to vndoe it agayne: which wall afterward the Venetians did repayre. After the demolitiõ of the wall, Amurathes entring into * Marginalia* Peloponesus, Sycione, Patris, with all the partes of Thessalia & Achaia, brought vnder the turke.Peloponesus, tooke diuers townes and Cities, as Sycione, and Patris, and moreouer made all the parts of Thessalia and Achaia tributaries vnto him.

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The next yeare after this battaile of Amurathes fought agaynst the Christians at Varna, the Turke beyng now about the partes of Grecia, purposed to bend all his force and mayne agaynst the countrey of Epyrus belongyng to Georgius Castriotus Scanderbeius. MarginaliaThe memorable actes of Scanderbeius against Amurathes.Of this Scanderbeius mētion was made before, how he was brought vp in the Turkes Court, from whence we declared also how subtillie he conueyed him selfe, and came to the possession of his owne patrimony of Epyrus. * Marginalia* This Epyrus is a countrey in Grecia bordering neare to the partes of Macedonia. Which Epirus this noble and victorious Scanderbeius (whom the Lord also had raysed vp the same tyme with Huniades, to bridle the fury of the Turkes) valiaūtly defended agaynst all the power of Amurathes: MarginaliaVij. captaines of the turkes ouercome by Castriotus. Scanderbeius.In so much that he discomfited and vanquished vij. of the most expert Bassas or Dukes of the Ottomã Emperour, one after an other, with all their armies of most piked and chosen souldiours, dislodged them of their tentes, and expulsed them vtterly out of all Epyrus. Also when Amurathes himselfe with his whole puissaunce, had enuironed about the Citie of Croia, with cruell siege and ordinaunce out of measure, yet notwithstandyng the sayd Scãderbeius (through the power and blessing of the Lord) 

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The material in round brackets is Foxe's insertion into Peucer's account.

beate him out of the field, & repulsed him from his siege.

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MarginaliaAmurathes renounced his dominion, & made himselfe a turkish monke.After this discomfiture, the saying is that Amurathes, to keepe his vow made before, after his victory at Varna, gaue himselfe into a religious order, liuyng a contemplatiue life with certaine other Priestes ioyned vnto him, in the forest of Bithynia, renouncing the gouernement of his realme to the handes of Haly one of his Princes (for thou must vnderstãd, good Reader, that the Turkes also be not without their sondry sectes of Religion, no more then we Christians are without our Friers and Monkes.)

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In the meane tyme while Amurathes this Turkishe tyrãne was cloystered vp in his Monkish Religion 

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After the battle of Varna, Murad had retired again to an asceticlife, only to re-ascend the throne in 1446. The reason for Murad's return, however,was to deal with a revolt of the Janissaries and not because of Hunyadi.

, Ioannes Huniades in the kyngdome of Hungary, and Castriotus Scanderbeius in Grecia, MarginaliaTwo Christian warriers in Europe stirred vp of God to vanquish the turks. kept great styrre against the Turkes. By reason wherof Amurathes was takē againe from his Monkish vow and profession, & brought agayne into the field: MarginaliaThis Iohn Huniades is reported of 20. battels with the turke, to lose but two.For first Huniades had rescued the whole coūtrey of Hungary: and had propulsed moreouer all the might of the Turkes farre frõ Seruia. And although the peuishe practise of Georgius Prince of Seruia, had oft tymes disclosed his counsailes vnto the Turkes, whereby twise he was brought in daunger, yet notwithstandyng (through the Lordes gracious protection) he was preserued, and deliuered by the sayd George vnto the Hungarians agayne, & after that manfully vãquished the Turkes, so that they had no resting place about those parts of Seruia and Bulgaria, so long as he liued.

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MarginaliaEpyrus & Macedonia, defended by Scanderbeius.On the other side in Grecia, Castriotus Scãderbeius so foyled the Turke in defence of his coūtrey Epirus and Macedonia, and kept Amurathes so short, that not onely he was not able to wynne any great Towne in all Epyrus: but also commyng from Epyrus in the straites, was so intãgled by Castriotus, that he was forced to geue battaile: MarginaliaAmurathes ouercome by Scãderbeius.In the which battaile he was so vanquished, & most part of his army slayne, that for grief and sorrow conceaued, he fallyng into a rauyng sicknesse, was trãsported out of his pauillon vnto Adrianople, and there in fury & madnesse dyed, after he had reigned 34. yeares, which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1450.

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This Amurathes first 

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This description of the founding of the Janissaries is from CasperPeucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), p. 651. This includes the emotive passages on the horrors of Christian children being brought up as Moslems.

ordained the order of Ianizarites. Which were the men children of such Christians as he conquered & tooke captiue: whom he forced to renounce the faith of Christ, wherein they were Baptized & brought them vp in Mahumetes law, & exercised them in the same feates of warre as he did his owne people: and after that they came to mens estate, he named them Ianizari MarginaliaIanizari among the turkes. (that is to say) souldiours of a straunge countrey, and made them to garde his person. They weare on their head is stead of an helmet, a white attire made of the grossest sort of woll, and in so manifolde aboute their head, that it can not bee pierced with a sword. It hãgeth downe on the backe with

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a tayle,
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