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Chalcis

Euboea, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 28' 0" N, 23° 36' 0" E

 
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Dinakas [Dinastrum]

Berat, Albania

Coordinates: 40° 47' 15" N, 19° 50' 54" E

 
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Harran

Carrhae Carrae), Turkey

Coordinates: 36° 52' 0" N, 39° 2' 0" E

 
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Island of Kefalonia (Cephallenia) [Cephalenia]

Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 12' 0" N, 20° 30' 0" E

 
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Island of Lemnos [Lemnus]

Eastern Aegean, Greece

Coordinates: 39° 55' 0" N, 25° 15' 0" E

 
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Island of Santa Maura (Leucadia)

[Leucas] Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 39° 00 N, 22° 00 E

 
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Island of Tenedos (Bozcaada) [Tenarus]

Aegean, Turkey

Coordinates: 39° 49' 0" N, 26° 3' 0" E

 
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Island of Zakynthos (Zante) [Zacynthus]

Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 48' 0" N, 20° 45' 0" E

 
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Jajce [Iaiza]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Capital of historic kingdom of Bosnia

Coordinates: 44° 30' 0" N, 17° 27' 0" E

 
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Lezhë (Alessio; Lyssus) [Lysson]

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 47' 60" N, 19° 40' 0" E

 
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Otranto (Hydruntum)

Puglia, Italy

Coordinates: 40° 9' 0" N, 18° 29' 0" E

 
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Shkodër

Scutari Skodra) [Scodra), Albania

Coordinates: 42° 4' 0" N, 19° 30' 0" E

768 [744]

K. Henry. 7. The history of the Turkes. Certaine Cities subdued by the Turke. Baiazetes.

which he would, he caused the king to be apprehended, and cruelly to be slaine, or rather torne in peeces: and so inuading the land of Misia, exercised the like tyraunie vpõ all his kindred and affinitie.

This Misia by fraude being taken and lost, Mahumete flieth againe toward Europe, where he assailed the Iland Euboia, otherwise called Nigroponte, making a bridge of a marueilous frame ouer the sea Euripus, to conuey ouer his army out of Grecia, and there laide his siege to the Citie Chalcis, MarginaliaThe siege of Chalcis in Euboia. which at length in thirty dayes he ouercame, not without a great slaughter of his army: who in þe siege thereof is said to haue lost 40. thousand of þe Turkes. MarginaliaThe cruell tyrãny of the turke against the City of Chalcis.But þe slaughter of the Christians was greater: for when the City was won, the tirant commanded most cruelly, none to be spared within the whole citie, but to be put to the sword, whosoeuer was aboue the age of twenty yeares. This cruelty was shewed of þe barbarous Tirant for anger and fury, because such a number of his Turkes were slaine at the siege therof, being reckned (as is said) to 40. thousand. In the fierce 

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The following anecdote is from Giovann Battisto Ramusio as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 193.

siege of this Citie, MarginaliaEx Ioanne Ramo de rebus Turcicis.it is memorable that is in stories recorded, MarginaliaThe noble stratageme of women in defending that Citie.how that the women of that Citie, seeing the men to begin to faint, and the Citie to lie in present danger, tooke the matter themselues in hand, and plaieng the men, went to the walles, and there defended the Citie with no lesse trouble to the enemie, then the men had before done, and so for a space continued, so long as any mans strength and diligence could do anie good. A great cause of the losse of this Citie and Iland, is imputed to the cowardly timidity of the Venetians nauy: who being there present, and hauing prosperous winde, yet durst not, or would not aduenture vpon the Turkes bridge, which if they had done, the Iland of Euboia and Chalcis, had not so soone bin ouermatched of the Turks.

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Thus all the East partes of Grecia being subdued to þe Turkish tiraunt, with all Achaia, Attica, Acarnania, & Euboia, shortly after folowed also Peloponesus, brought in like subiection to the Turke. Within this Peloponesus were these prouinces conteined, Achaia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolica, and Archadia, &c. MarginaliaPeloponesus, Achaia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolica, Archadia, Christen prouinces in Grecia, subdued of the turke. The Venetiãs in this Peloponesus had great possessions, and had made vp the wall againe toward the Sea side, neare to the streites of Corinth before mentioned, where for the more speede of the worke, they had 30. thousand workemen to the building thereof, which when it came to the knowledge of the Turke, he brast into the countrey of Peloponesus wyth an army of 80. thousand, and first wasting the regions of the Coroneans, and Methoneans, and making a greate slaughter of the Venetians, in short time he brought the whole dominiõ of Peloponesus vnder his yoke & tribute.

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Long it is and more lamentable to recite all the victories of this Mahumete gotten against the Christiãs both by land & sea: who after he had ouercome the Ile Lesbos aboue mentioned, and had cruelly slaine Nicolaus Catalusius the Prince thereof, turning his army towarde the sea of Pontus Euxinus, MarginaliaCapha taken of the turke.got the countrey of Capha from the Genuans. Before 

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This sentence is from Giovann Battisto Ramusio as excepted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 194.

was declared how truce was taken betweene Georgius Scanderbeius, and the Turke for ten yeares: which truce being expired, Mahumete leaueth no time vnspēt, no diligence vnsought, but maketh all his power to Epyrus & Albania, which he after long fatigation of siege, at length ouercame and subdued. In þe which tract also he wanne from the Venetians, Scodra, Lysson and Dinastrum. Notwithstanding, when Scanderbeius the valiant Captaine had done against the Turke what in mans strength did lie, yet being ouermatched with power and multitude, seeing no possibilitie to make his partie good, was forced to depart his countrey as an exile, and went to Italy, & there being sent for by þe Popes letters, MarginaliaThe counsayle of Scanderbeiuus, how to fight against the turke.openly declared not to be possible otherwise to resist þe furious rage of the barbarous Turkes by the strength of any one king or prince, vnlesse all Europe, with one cõsent shuld ioine their power & force together. And thus Georgius Scanderbeius, a man of puissant courage, being driuen out of his countrey, continued his age in exile. Whose courage & vehemency is reported to haue bin such, that in fighting against þe barbarous enemie, for very egernes of spirit, his bloud was seene to burst out of his lippes. MarginaliaA notable example of singular courage in a Captaine. It is testified also of him, that being prouoked, he neither denied to fight, and in his fighting, neuer turned his backe, neyther yet was euer wounded, but onely once with a lyght shaft in his foote, neither euer set against the Turke wyth moe then 6000. horsemen, and 3000. footemen: who is said with his owne hand to haue slaine aboue 2000. Turkes, whome with such violence he did strike, that many of thē he did cleaue asunder from the head to the middle. MarginaliaThe commendation of Scanderbeius agaynst the turkes.

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Neither yet was the vnsatiable greedines of thys Turkish helhound with all this satisfied, but still he con-ceiued greater things in his minde, thynking to conquere the whole world, and so passing forward towards Europe, subdued all Illiria, slaieng Stephanus the King of Bosna, about the yeare of our Lord 1463. But afterwarde Mathias Coruinus, MarginaliaMathias the sonne of Huniades. the sonne of Huniades afore mentioned, recouered againe the said kingdome of Bosna, with many other Cities neare vnto Croacia and Dalmatia, and moreouer repulsed Mahumete the Turke in his second siege of Iaiza, taking his tents and munitions lefte behinde him.

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Moreouer, the sayd Mahumete passing vnto Walachia, set vpon Dracula the Prince thereof, by which Dracula, although he had no great power of souldiours, yet he so inclosed & enuironed þe Turke, that he had almost lost his whole army, of whom a great part notwithstanding was destroied, and many of his ensignes taken. Into Dalmatia was sent two Captaines of the Turke, who fighting against the prouinces of þe Venetians, made great spoyle and waste about þe regions of Stiria & Carinthia: MarginaliaStiria, Carinthia, taken of the turke. where also the Venetiau power was discomfited, & Hieronimus Nouell their Captaine slaine. At length truce was taken betweene þe Turke & the Venetians, vpon this conditiõ, that Scodra, Tenarus, & Lemnus should be yeelded vnto him, and that they shoulde pay to him yearely 8. thousand duckets for the free passage of their Marchants.

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After this peace concluded with the Venetians, Mahumete himselfe saileth ouer into Asia, sending two of his great captaines abroad to sundry places: of whom, Mesithes was sent against þe Rhodes wt a mighty nauie. The other called Acomates Bassa was sent into Italy to take Rome and all the West Empire. Concerning the viage of which two Captaines, this was the euent, that Mesithes after his great trauaile and MarginaliaRhodes besieged.bloudy siege against þe Rhodians, was faine to retire at length with great shame and losse. The other Captaine Acomates (as is said) was sent into Italy, with a nauie of a hundreth Ships, and fifteene thousand men, MarginaliaLeucadia, Cephalenia Zacinthus, Fauelona, taken of the turke.who by the way in his sailing got Leucadia (which now they call S. Maure) Cephalenia, and Zacynthus, and sayling by Fauelona, arriued in Apulia, and so passing along by the sea side, spoiled and wasted diuers parts by the coast, till at length he come to Hidruntum, a City of Calabria in Italy, which after long siege he ouercame and subdued, and brought such a terrour into all Italy, MarginaliaThe pope flyeth for feare of the turke.that the Pope forgetting all other things, yet mindfull of himselfe, with all haste fled out of Rome. After the Citie of Hydruntum was taken, MarginaliaHydruntum taken. and the Turkes placed in the same, which was the yeare of our Lord 1481. Mathias Coruinus Huniades son was sent for by the Italians, to set vpon the said Citie: vnto the rescue whereof, when Acomates was about to make his returne with 25. thousand Turkes, in the meane time newes came þt Mahumete the great Turke was dead, by reason wherof the siege brake vp, and þe Citie was deliuered to the Italians againe, and so was Italy deliuered at that time out of that present perill and daūger. This 

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These last sentences are from Giovann Battisto Ramusio as excepted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p.194.

Mahumete wanne from the Christians 200. Cities, and twelue kingdomes, and two Empires, MarginaliaThese two Empires were Constantinople and Trapezunce. which he ioined both together. He died in the yeare abouesayd, anno. 1481.

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¶ Baiazetes second, the 10. after Ottomannus.

MAhumetes aforesaid 

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This account of Bayezid II's reign is largely taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 657-63 although the narrative of Selim's accession to the throne is taken from Giovann Battisto Ramosio's history, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum. One detail (of Bayezid's payment to the Master of the Knights of St John) came from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine.

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had three sonnes, of the which, Mustapha the eldest, through voluptuousnes & carnall lust, died before his father. The other two were Baiazetes and Demes, otherwise called Zizimus. Aboute whom, great cõtrouersie arose amongst the Turks which of them should succeede in their fathers kingdome: For neither of them was present at Constantinople whē Mahumetes died, Baiazetes being in Cappadocia, & Demes in Lycaonia, wherfore when great dissention was amõg the nobles for the succession, and great strife & bloudshead for the matter, the Ianizarites, MarginaliaOf these Ianizarites, read before pag. 636. which were the Turkes garde, did proclaime Baiazetes Emperour: others in the absence of Baiazetes the father, did choose Corcuthus his sonne. Baiazetes the father cõming at length from Cappadocia, partly through yelding, partly by corrupting wt money, got þe wils of the Ianizarites, & was made Emperour. Demes the other brother being in Lycaonia more neare, although he made no lesse speede in his cõming, yet was preuented of Baiazetes, and excluded out of Cõstantinople. Wherfore he being put backe from all hope of his kingdome, incited by some of his frends, moued warre against his brother, who being ouercome in three battailes by Acomates Baiazetes Captain, who had got Hydruntum before, did flie to the greate Maister of the Rhodes, leauing in a place called Carræ, his mother, and two yong MarginaliaBaiazetes slayeth his brothers & mother, and his two nephews.

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children,
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