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Adana

Antioch in Cilicia Antioch on the Sarus) [Adena] Turkey

Coordinates: 37° 0' 0" N, 35° 19' 16.8" E

 
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Crisseum (Caput Sancti Galli)

 
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Durrës (Dyrrachium)

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 19' 0" N, 19° 27' 0" E

 
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Island of Kefalonia (Cephallenia) [Cephalenia]

Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 12' 0" N, 20° 30' 0" E

 
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Island of Santa Maura (Leucadia)

[Leucas] Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 39° 00 N, 22° 00 E

 
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Koroni (Corone) [Coron]

Messenia, Greece

Coordinates: 36° 47' 46" N, 21° 57' 29" E

 
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Methoni

Mothone Modon; Methone), Messinia, Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 36° 49' 0" N, 21° 42' 0" E

 
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Pylos (Pilos) [Pilus]

Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 36° 54' 0" N, 21° 41' 0" E

 
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Tarsus

(Tarsos; Juliopolis) [Iuliopolis; Tharsus]

Cilicia Prima (Mersin Province), Turkey

Coordinates: 36° 55' 0" N, 34° 54' 0" E

 
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Terracina

Lazio, Italy

Coordinates: 41° 17' 0" N, 13° 15' 0" E

 
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Theodosia

Feodosiya Kappa, Capha), Crimea

Coordinates: 45° 2' 56" N, 35° 22' 45" E

 
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Vlorë

Vlona Valona), Albania

Coordinates: 40° 27' 0" N, 19° 29' 0" E

 
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Zadar

Zara Jadra) [Iadra], Dalmatia, Croatia

Coordinates: 44° 6' 51" N, 15° 13' 40" E

769 [745]

K. Hen. 7. The history of the Turkes. Zelymus made Emperour

children, whom Baiazetes slue.

This Demes being wyth the maister ot the Rhodes, was desired first of Pope Innocent the 4. then of Ludouicus the 2. Frenche king, but especially of Mathias Coruinus, king of Hungarie, entending by him to obtaine great victory against Baiazetes. MarginaliaRead before pag 734.But in conclusion the Knights of the Rhodes sent him to the B. of Rome, where he being kept, and afterwardes sent to Charles the 8. French king, for an hostage of Pope Alexander the 6. was poysoned by the way at Terracina, by the sayde Pope Alexander, as is before declared. MarginaliaFalse treasō worthely recompensed.After whose death Baiazetes, to requite the foresayde Acomates for his good seruice, put hym to the halter, partly misdoubting his power, partly for lucre sake to haue his treasure: Whose death redounded to the great profit of the christians, for somuch as he was euer an vtter enemy to the religion and name of Christ.

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Baiazetes thus being confirmed in his tyrannie, made hys first expedition against Walachia, where hee subdued two great fortes, one called Lithostomus, the other called Moncastrum. MarginaliaLithostomus, Moncastrum, Christian fortes subdued of the turke. From thence he remooued hys power, taking his voiage into Asia, thinking to be reuenged of the Sultane of Egypt, which had succoured and entertayned before hys brother Demes against hym, where he lost two great battailes, the one fought at Adena, the other at Tarsus: MarginaliaThe turke ouerthro.wen at Tarsus.but specially at the field at Tarsus the armye of the Turke tooke such a wound, that of a 100. M. brought into the fielde, scarse the thirde part remained vnslayne. But as touching 

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The details of Bayezid's payment to the Master of the Knightsof St John (who at this time were based in Rhodes) is from Johannes Cuspinian,De Turcorum orgine (Antwerp, 1541), fos. 43v-44r.

the Rhodians, although they were succourers of Demes aforesayde, yet Baiazetes (whether for feare, or for subtilty) abstained to prouoke them with warre, but rather entred with them the league of peace, requiring the master of the Rhodes to kepe hys brother safe vnder his custody, promising for his yerely salary, to be paied vnto him euery yere in the moneth of August. 45000. duckets.

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Thus Baiezetes being ouerthrown and terrifed with euill lucke fighting against the Sultane of Egypt, remooued from Asia, and directed his army into Europe, MarginaliaDyrachium taken of the turke.where he got Dyrrachium neare vnto Velona, & had a great victory ouer the Christian armye in the countrey of Croatia, wher the Illyrians, Pannonians and Croatians ioyning their power together, encountred with the Turke and lost the field, about the yeare of our Lord. 1493. 

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Foxe is taking his account of this battle from Casper Peucer,Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), p. 659 but no such battle ever took place.

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MarginaliaThe turke a gainst the Venetians.From thence the Turke leading his armye against the Venetians, had with them diuers and doubtfull conflicts, where the Turke sometimes was put to the woorse, and sometimes againe preuailing, out of Iadra and diuers other cities about Dalmatia, MarginaliaThe Christians caryed away captiues.caried away great multitudes of Christians into captiuitie, whych was about the yere of our Lord. 1498. 

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These raids actually took place in the years 1499-1502.

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MarginaliaPeloponesus agayne inuaded by the turke.Two yeares after thys, whych was the yeare of oure Lorde. 1500. Baiazetes with 150. M. armed men, entred into Peloponesus, whych although Mahumete had expugned before, yet the Venetians had defended Methone, otherwise called Modon, all this while against the Turks. 

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Again, this chronology (taken from Peucer) is inaccurate. Thecoastal fortress of Methoni fell to the Turks in 1500. There were a series of largeTurkish raids on the Peloponnesos, but the full-scale invasion described by Peucerand Foxe never occurred.

Which Methone the Turke besieged wyth three armies, hauing about the wals 500. great brasen Canons, wherof 22. were most violent and hurtfull, wherewith he battered the City both day and night: but the Citizens, which were wythin the Citie, committing themselues to God, defended their Citie as well as they could, rather chusing to dye then to yeelde vnto the Turkes tyrannie. But the Turcke preuailing, and they not able to wythstande the siege, the Christians conuented together into a certaine house prepared for the purpose, bothe menne, women, and children, where they setting the house on fire, gaue themselues rather to be burned, then to come into the tyrauntes handes. Certaine women also wyth their children, cast themselues headlong into the sea, by that meanes to auoid the turkishe captiuitie. MarginaliaMethone taken of the turkes, and miserably destroyed.Some wryters there be which affirme that the Methonians, seeing 5. great shyps of the Venetians comming with men aud vitailes towarde them, issued downe from the walles to the sea side to receiue them, which were all taken captiues, being aboue the number of a thousand: which al being tied with long ropes, were brought before the tyraunt, and in his sight were cruelly slaine, except certaine Nobles whom Cherseogles, sonne in lawe to Baiazetes, got to be pardoned, amongst whome was Andreas Gritto. MarginaliaCoron, Pilus, Crisseū yelded to the turkes.The Citie of Coron, & also Pilus Cities in Grece being terrified with the example of the Methonians, yeelded themselues to the power of the turks. Crisseum otherwise called Caput Sancti Galli, was expugned by Cherseogles, by force of gunnes.

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These thynges thus atchieued, although Baiazetes went away victor vnto Constantinople, yet notwithstanding the Venetians, through the helpe of the kynges of Fraunce and Spayne, had wonne from the Turke Chephalenia an Ilande very commodious for theyr trafficke:Also had gotten other two Ilandes, Leucas and Nericus otherwise called Sancta Maura, slaying al the garrison of the Turkes. MarginaliaChephalenia, Leucas, Nericus Ilandes recouered of the turkes by the Venetiās. But afterwarde peace being taken betweene the Venetians and the Turckes, by the counsaile of Andreas Gitto aforesayde, the Turkes so agreed, that Leucas and Nericus the Ilandes abouesayde, should be rendred vnto the Turke, and the Venetians should keepe stil the possession of Chephalenia.

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MarginaliaTruce betwene the Venetians & the turke.Vnto this league the Turke did the rather condescend, for that hee had to maintaine warre agaynst Ismaell Sophus in Asia, king of Persia: Which Sophus was stirred vp by Gods prouidence to warre wt thys Baiazetes, MarginaliaWarre betwene Sophus and Baiazetes. wher by the Christian Churches in Europe myght haue some breathing time, and freedome from the Turkes cruell tyranny & bloudshed. This Sophus was a valiant Turke, 

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Shah Ismail I, of the Safavid dynasty, ruler of Persia, was not aTurk.

who with great power & victories had ouerrunne a great compasse of the East partes of Asia: then passing from Assiria into Media, and returning againe into Armenia, hee made warre against the Albanians, Hiberians, and Scythians, and from thence comming vnto Asia Minor, encountred with Corcuthus Baiazetes sonne, and afterward cōming to Bithynia, fought with Caragius Bassa, MarginaliaCaragius the turkes captayne taken prisoner & slaine of Sophus. Baiazetes Captaine, whome he ouercame and put to flight, and afterward tooke him aliue and his wife prisonners. Afterward he was encountered by Halibassa an other captaine of the Turkes, whome Techelles one of the sayd Sophus captaines meeting in the plaine of Galatia did withstand, and so by the way slue Caragius the Captain, and hanged hym vppon a poale in the sight of Halibassa, MarginaliaHalibassa the turkes captayne slaine.which Halibassa shortly after was slaine in warre, and hys army scattered and put to flight. 
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This account came from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 600-602. It confuses Shah Ismail I with Shah Kulu, the leader of a rebellion against Ottoman rule, which broke out in 1511 in a region ruled by Bayezid's son Korkud. During the course of the rebellion, Shah Kulu defeated and killed Karagöz Pasha, the Ottoman governor of Anatolia. Shah Kulu then defeatedand killed Hadim Ali Pasha, the Ottomam grand vizier. However, Shah Kulu was also killed in this battle and his death ended the rebellion.

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Thus through the admirable example of Gods iustice and prouidence, were these turks kept occupied, & so came it to passe, þt these Barbarians being blasphemous against the sonne of God, 

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This passage is from Caspar Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), p. 1233 although Foxe would have wholeheartedly endorsed the sentiment.

shoulde thus horribly run one to the destruction of an other, being worthely punished wt mutuall slaughter and bloudshed for theyr impiety and blasphemy against Christ and his religion, MarginaliaRest geuen to the Christians. by the discorde of the turkes.wherby in the meane time some rest was geuen to the Christians.

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Baiazetes partly by these victories discouraged, partly diseased and languishing of the goute, and partly also broken with age, finding himselfe vnweldy to the regiment of that tumultuous kingdome, began to haue talke with his nobles about the chusing of one to succede him. The occasion whereof ministred much matter of inward warres amongst the Turkes. This Baiazetes had in all 6. sonnes, wherof three died before him, and three yet were left aliue, to witte, Acomates, Corcuthus and Zilymus, Baiazetes himselfe had moste minde to Acomates, but the chiefest of his nobles did fauor rather Zelymus: who through theyr traiterous incitation prouoked him to stirre warre against hys father: and notwythstanding that he was ouercome in war, yet through intercession he was reconciled agayne to his father, MarginaliaZelymus made Emperour against his fathers will.and afterwarde proclaimed againe Emperor against his fathers will, through the helpe & fauour of the soudionrs, entring the first beginning of hys kingdome, wt the murthering of hys owne father. The storye whereof in some authors is thus declared. 

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The following narrative, which takes up the remainder of Foxe'saccount of the reign of Bayezid II, comes from the Italian historian Giovann BattistoRamusio's history, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebusgestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 195-6. Foxe went to the trouble of includingthis account because it underscored what he perceived as the lack of family loyaltyamong the Ottomans (see C177/93).

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After that the Ianizarites MarginaliaWhat these Ianizarites were, read pag. 736. had perswaded wyth Baiazetes for that he himselfe was vnweldy, therfore he should do well to constitute some successour, and that he had assigned Acomates to succeede him, þe Ianizarites being offended with the sayd Acomates, because he would not enlarge their stipends and bribe them, compassing about the kings pallace wyth their priuy swordes whych they hadde vnder theyr garments, wyth a mighty crie, required Zelymus to be appointed for their Emperor. Vnto whom when Baiazetes had answered that he had assigned Acomates, they refused him because he was fatte, grosse, and vnable thereunto: but needes would haue Zelymus, which was stoute and warlike, to be made Emperour: and withall drew out their swords, crying Zelymus, Zelymus. Thē Baiazetes geuing place to their fury, shewed himselfe content to geue them Zelymus: whom the Ianizarites receiuing, brought him into the pallace: vnto whom Baiazetes his father geuing place, MarginaliaThe counsaile of Baiazetes to his sonne Zelymus.willed him not to be so hasty & furious in hys doings, but to be modest and take heede what hee dyd, and not to follow hys fury, but to geue place vnto time, whych reuealeth all thinges, and thinke hymselfe to be a man subiect to dangers and ieoperdies as other men are: and thus speaking, he resigned hys Imperiall throne and seate vnto him, & went away all heauy, entring into a certaine order of their religion. Wherupon folowed great exclamatiōs of the people saluting Zelymus as Emperor. Who then taking the rule vpō him, begā wt great cruelty to gouern, destroying many of his nobles, such as had stood against him

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