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Ægina [Æegira; Aegira]

Aegean Islands, Saronic Gulf, Greece

 
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Island of Corfu (Corcyra)

Ionian Sea, Greece

Coordinates: 39° 40' 0" N, 19° 45' 0" E

 
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Island of Kythira (Cythera) [Cythara]

Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 36° 10' 0" N, 23° 0' 0" E

 
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Island of Zakynthos (Zante) [Zacynthus]

Ionian Islands, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 48' 0" N, 20° 45' 0" E

 
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Kőszeg (Ger: Güns) [Gunza]

Vas, Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 22' 54.88" N, 16° 33' 7.96" E

 
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Tabriz [Tauricia]

Iran

Capital of the Safavid Iranian empire 1501 - 1548

Coordinates: 38° 5' 0" N, 46° 17' 0" E

775 [751]

K. Henry. 7. The history of the Turkes. Gunza besieged. Corcyra wasted by the Turkes.

and bring them word, where the enemies lay, & what was the number of them. Wherof when intelligence was geuē them, that the remnaunt of the Turkes army was remayning in the tentes behind, word was sent to their fellowes inVienna, to issue out, and to ioyn also with them against the tayle of the turkes, whiche had entrenched themselues within the campe. Other were appoynted to followe the chase, least peraduenture þe turks seeing our men to recule backe might returne again vpon thē, & help their felowes. Which thinges being thus ordered and appoynted, in the meane time, while part of the Vienians were houering after the mayne armye, the rest encountered with them that were left in the campe. Who seeing themselues ouermatched, first defenced theyr campe with a deepe ditch & Bulwarke, to delay the time, vntill some helpe might come to them from the army. Secondly the directed messengers to the Christians, to entreate for peace. Thirdly they conueied their priuy letters vnto Solyman for speedy ayde and rescue. But all the wayes and passages being stopped by the Christians, there letters were intercepted, and so the miserable Turkes being destitute of all hope & sucour, seing no other remedy, made out of theyr campe, to hassarde and proue the vttermost for their defence: MarginaliaThe rest of the turkes slaine in the campe.but in conclusiõ, in their desperate venture they were enclosed about by our men on euery side, and there put to the sword and slayne, a few only excepted, who escaping out very hardly by secret passages, shifted after the rest of their fellowes, as well as they could. Their carriage and other furniture lefte behind them in their tentes, was distributed amongst þe souldiers onely such thinges reserued as might serue for the publike vse and commoditie of the Cittie.

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Thus through the mercifull protection 

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The following passages, declaring that the Ottoman failure at Viennawas due to God's favour and protection of the Protestants, are Foxe's interpolations into the text.

and benefite of almighty God, Austria was deliuered from the fierce and barbarous hostilitie of the cruell Turkes: notwithstãding that neither Ferdinandus the king, nor the Emperour his brother were there present, MarginaliaThe mercyfull protection of God ouer Christendome.but only þe power of God, thorough the valiauntnes of the worthy Germaines, defēded that cittie, in defence wherof consisted þe safety & deliuerãce, (no doubt) of all these West partes of Christendome. For the which immortall prayse and thankes be vnto our immortall God in Christ our Lord, according as he hath of vs most graciously and worthely deserued. MarginaliaGods blessing goeth with the mainteyners of his true worship & religion.Wherin by the way take this for a note (gentle reader) how & after what maner Gods blessing goeth with the true reformers of his religion, and so much the more is it to be noted, for that the Turkes in so many battailes & sieges heretofore, where neuer so repulsed & foyled, as at this present time in incountring wt the protestantes & defenders of sincere Religion. This citty of Vienna was besieged & deliuered þe yeare of our Lord. 1529. The assaultes of the Turke 
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The number of assaults on Vienna and the size of the Ottoman army are taken from Giovann Battisto Ramusio's history as excerpted in LaonicusChalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 207-8.

against þe City are numbred to be 20. and his repulses as many. The nūber of his army which he first brought, was 25000. wherof were reckened to be slayne 80. thousand and aboue. During the time of his siege, he led away out of the country about many captiues: 
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This passage, relating purported cruelty of the Turks, was taken from the German historian Wolfgang Dreschler's De Saracenorum et Turcorum orgine etrebus gestis, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine etr rebus gestisTurcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 233. This is a good example of Foxe seizing uponstories of Turkish atrocities.

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virgins and Matrones he quelled & cast them out naked: the children hee stucke vpon stakes.

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Solymannus thus put from þe hope of victorye of Vienna after he had breathed himselfe a while at home, the second yere after, which was an. 1531. repayring his host, returned agayne into Hungarye, with no lesse multitude, then before: where first he got the towne called Gunza 

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This brief account of Süleyman's conquest of Guns (Koeszegh), afortress (not a town as Foxe states) comes from Giovann Battisto Ramusio's historyas excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), pp. 207-8. In fact, as other accounts cited by Foxe indicate, Süleyman had to raise the siege of Guns.

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being but slenderly kept with a small garrison. By reason whereof the townsmen and souldiours yelding thēselues vnto the Turke, were constrayned to agree vpon vnreasonable conditions. Ex Ioan. Ramo.

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MarginaliaEx Melchiore Soitero lib. 2. de Bello Pannonico.Melchior Soiterus in his second booke 

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Foxe draws on Melchior Soiterus's history of Süleyman's wars in Hungary and the Balkans, De bello Pannonico, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 519-20,for this account of the siege of Guns. Foxe also consulted Wolfgang Dreschler's history. Dreschler also relates that the Ottoman army numbered 200,000and that they besieged Guns for 30 days (see Laonicus Chalkokondylas, Deorigine et et rebus gestis Turcorum [Basel, 1556], p. 233).

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writing De bello Pannonico, touching the foresaid Towne of Gunza, or Gunzium, differeth herein something from Ramus, declaring how this Gunza being a small town in Hungary and hauing in it but onely a 100. souldiours (or as Wolfegangus Drechslerus in his chronicle 
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Dreschler also relates that the Ottoman army numbered 200,000and that they besieged Guns for 30 days (see Laonicus Chalkokondylas, Deorigine et et rebus gestis Turcorum [Basel, 1556], p. 233).

reporteth, at the most but 200. souldiours) vnder the valiaunt captayne Nicholas Iureschitz, MarginaliaNicholaus Iureschitz a valiaunt Captayne. defended themselues so manfully and wonderfully, through the notable power of God, against the whole puissance of 200. thousand Turkes, that they beyng notwithstanding distressed with lacke and penury of purueiance and sodenly of the Turkes inuaded, yet with pure courage and promptnes of hart, susteined the vttermost force and violence of xiij. assaultes of that gret multitude, for the space of 25. dayes together.

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Although the narration of the authour may seme to some incredible, yet thus he writeth, that what tyme the great ordinance and battering peeces of the Turkes were planted vpon two mountaynes much higher then þe town whereby they within the towne were oppressed both before and behinde, in so much that 8 ensignes of the Turks were already within the towne, yet by the reason of wo-men and children and other impotent persons, who in the middle of the towne were congregate in an house together such a noyse and clamour went vp to heauen praying and crying to God for helpe, MarginaliaA miraculous example of the Lordes protection & prouidence that the turkes within the walles supposing a new army of fresh souldiours to be sent into þe towne for sodayn feare, voyded the towne, & leaped down from the walles agayn (which before they had got) whom no man eyther pursued or resisted: for neuer a souldjour almost was left on the walles, which was not eyther slayne or els wounded with the Turks ordinance. At what time through the Lordes prouidence it so happened, that one Ibrahimus Bassa, neare about the Turke, seeing bothe the town to be small, and the great destruction of the Turkes in the siege thereof, and that the captayn in no case woulde yeld, perswaded the Turke, declaring howe the Towne being so little was not worth the losse of so many men, in þe winning wherof there was no glory, & if he were repulsed, great dishonour might follow: wherby the Turke being perswaded, did follow hys counsaile, which was thys þt Nicholaus the Christen captaine beyng called vnto him vnder pledges and safe conduict, should receaue the town as of his hand and gift, with condition that he shold do no violence to hys souldiours left behinde and wounded, but should procure such meanes as he could, for the recuring of them: MarginaliaThe turke raiseth his siege from Gunza.and so he raysing his siege departed. An other cause 

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This account of Süleyman's retreat in 1532 comes from Giovann Battisto Ramusio's history (as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origineet rebus gestis Turcorum [Basel, 1556], p. 208), except that the mention of theColloquies of Augsburg and Ratisbon are from Foxe.

might be also, whiche moued him so sodaynly to rayse hys siege, for that he heard the Palatine not to be far of in pursuing after him, and therfore taking his flight by þe mountaines of the Noricians, he returned with muche spoyle of Christian mens goods into Constantinople. Ex Melchiore Soit. lib: 2. de bello Panno.

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MarginaliaThe Emperour Charles & Ferdinandus begin at length to sturre against the turke.For so it was prouided the same time in Germany, after the counsaile of August and of Ratisboon (at what time the controuersie of Religion betweene the Protestantes & the papistes, was differred and set of, to the next generall Councel) that Charles the 5. and Ferdinandus his brother hauing vnderstanding of the Turke thus raunging in Hungary, should collect of the Germaynes, Hungarians, and Spanyards and others, an able army of 80. thousand footmen, and 30000. horsemen, to repulse the inuasions of the Turke. But Solymanus hauing intelligence of thys preparation of the Christian power comming toward him whether for feare, or whether to espy further oportunitie of tyme, for hys more aduauntage and our detriment, MarginaliaThe turke refuseth to tarry the Christian army.refused at that time to tary theyr comming, and so speeding hys returne vnto Constantinople, retired with much spoyle and pray sent before him, as is aboue premised: Whiche was in the yeare of our Lord. 1532.

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MarginaliaThe turke warreth against the king of Tunece.Not long after 

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The brief account of the Tunisian campaign, the Ottoman invasionof Persia and the assault upon Corfu come from Wolfgang Dreschler's history asexcerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556, p. 234).

, being the yeare of our saluation, 1534. Solymannus intending ij. warres at once, first sent Corradinus Barbarossa the admiral of his nauies into Afrike to war against the kyng of Tunece: MarginaliaTunece wonne of the turke.Whõ the Barbarossa also dispossessed & depriued of his kingdome: MarginaliaTunece recouered againe by Charles the Emperour.but Charles the Emperour, the next yeare following. an. 1535. restored the said king agayne into hys kingdome, and deliuered in the same viage 20. thousand captiues out of seruitude.

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The same tyme the Turke also sent an other captayne into Hungary, to warre agaynst Vaiuoda while he hym selfe taking hys course to Persia, planted his siege agaynst the Citty Taurus, MarginaliaTaurus a citie of Persia taken of the turkes. which he in short space subdued and expugned. Albeit he long enioied not the same: for Tahames king of the Persians, sodaynly comming vpon the Turks vnprepared, slue of them 20. thousand, Marginalia20 thousand turkes slaine of the Persian king and tooke hys concubines to the great foyle and reproch of the Turke 

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This Ottoman defeat never took place. Süleyman tried to engage theSafavid ruler in battle, but Shah Tahmasb I relied on scorched earth tactics and avoided battle.

.

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Two yeare after this, which was the yere of our Lord 1537. Solymannus, who coulde not be quyet at home nor rest in peace, returning agayne out of Asia into Europe wt 270. ships, great and little, set vppon Corcyra, MarginaliaCorcyra the Iland wasted & spoyled by the turkes. an other Iland belonging to þe Venetians, which he besieged x. daies wasting and burning the Townes and fieldes as he went beside the destruction of much people therein, whom partly he slue, partly led away captiues. MarginaliaThe Ile of Zazinthus & Cythara spoiled by the turkes.From thence 

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The following account of of Süleyman's conquests in the Aegean comes from the account written by Giovanni Crispi, the duke of Naxos, as excerpt-ed in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556),pp. 589-90. The horrified descriptions of Turkish cruelty are in Crispi's text and arenot Foxe's insertions.

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he sayled to Zacynthus and Cythara, an other Ilande not farre off from Corcyra, bordering neare to the coastes of Epyrus and Grecia. Where he sodaynly by night inuading the husband men in villages and fields, sleeping and mistrusting no harme, drew them out of theyr houses and possessions, men and women, besides children, to the number of ix. hūdreth whom he made hys bondslaues: MarginaliaCaptiues of the Christians. burning moreouer theyr houses, and carying away all the goodes and cattell beyng without the sayd Citties of Zazinthus and Cythara. Ex. Ioan. Crispo.

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MarginaliaWarre betwene the Egyenetes & the turkes.From thence these helhoundes turned theyr course to þe siege and spoyle of Egina, a rich and populous Iland, lying betweene Grecia and Asia. Where first the Egenians did manfully in battaile resist them, and were like to haue preuayled: but being weryed at length and oppressed with

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innume-
TT.iiij.
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