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Brussels (Bruxelles: French)

[Brusels]

Belgium

Coordinates: 50° 51' 0" N, 4° 21' 0" E

 
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Buda [Ofen: German]

Hungary

Capital of Hungary 1361 - 1541

Coordinates: 47° 30' 0 N, 19° 1' 60 E

 
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Herceg Novi (Castelnuovo; Nouum Castellum) [Newcastle]

Dalmatia, Montenegro

Coordinates: 42° 28' 12" N, 18° 19' 12" E

 
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Island of Naxos [Naxus]

Aegean Sea, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 5' 0" N, 25° 28' 0" E

 
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Island of Paros [Parum]

Aegean Sea, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 5' 0" N, 25° 9' 0" E

 
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Pest [Pesta]

eastern part of Budapest, Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 28' 19" N, 19° 3' 1" E

776 [752]

K. Hen. 7. The history of the Turkes. The falsehoode of the Turke in keeping his promises.

innumerable thousandes of fresh Turkes, which stil were sent in, to rescue the other whiche were ouercome before, were compelled to flye into the Cittie of Egina. MarginaliaEgina taken of the turke.Which city the cruell Turkes (or rather Deuils on earth) wt muche labour, & violence of their great ordinaunce fet out of their shippes, subdued and cast downe to the ground: MarginaliaThe citizens of Egina slaine of the turkes.the Cittizens and inhabitauntes whereof, the Turke after he had burned their houses, and ransackt theyr goodes commanded to be slayne and killed euery one. MarginaliaThe women of Egina miserably entreated and captiued of the turkes.The weomen both noble and vnnoble, with their infantes, were geuen to the mariners to be abused, and from thence being shipped vnto Constantinople, were led away to perpetuall misery & slauery, which was in the yeare of our Lord. 1537.

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In the same iourny Solyman also tooke the Ile in the sayd sea of Eugeum, called Parum: MarginaliaThe Ile Parum and Naxus. also the Ile adioyning to the same named Naxus, and made them to him tributaries. The duke wherof was he which wrote the story both of these Ilandes aforesayd, and also of the other Ilandes called Cyclades, MarginaliaCiclades subdued of the turke. and other Dukes. MarginaliaEx Ioan. CrispoEx Ioan Crispo, Duce Naxi. &c.

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MarginaliaNote what hurt commeth by the dissention of Christiã princesThys done 

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From here down to the Venetian treaty with the Ottomans, Foxe isdrawing on Wolfgang Dreschler's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas,De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 234.

, Solymannus directed his Nauy vnto Apulia 
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Not Apulia in in Italy but Napoli de Romania (or Napulia), a Venetianfortress in the Aegean.

, where he set on land. x. thousand footmen, & 2000. horsemen, which spoiled likewise and wasted those parties while the Emperour, the pope and þe Venetians were together in warre and dissension. Furthermore the next yere folowing. an. 1538. great attemptes began in Stiria, MarginaliaStiria is a countrey or prouince neare adioyning to Austria. but by the resistance of the inhabitantes, the force of the barbarous turks was repulsed: notwithstanding gret spoyles of men & cattell were caryed from thence, and the country miserable spoyled. In the which yeare also the Turk turning into Hungary, gaue battaile vnto the Christians in Sauia: where through the fraudulent falshood of the Captayne Cassianerus (Wolfegangus nameth him Calcianus beyng (as they say) corrupted with money, our men were put to the worse. an. 1538.

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MarginaliaThe falshood of the turke with the Venetians.After that the Turkes had inuaded the Ilande of Corcyra abouesayde, the Venetians with Solyman the Turke had ioyned truce for a certayne time, for þe which they gaue the turke 300. thousand crownes, with the city of Neapolis, and Maluasia in the borders of Macedonia. But with in 4. or 5. yeares, the Turke to get a newe stipend of the Venetians, brake hys league, and inuaded theyr dominions: whereby they were enforced to enter new conditions agayn with him.

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MarginaliaNouum Castellū in Dalmatia, ouerthrowen by the turke, & the people slaine.In the yeare of our Lord, 1540 

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The following accounts of Süleyman's campaign in Hungary in 1540and the Hapsburg campaign in 1542 are taken from Giovann Battisto Ramusio'shistory as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 209-10. Again the horror stories of Turkish savagery are in Foxe's sources and are not the martyrologist's invention.

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. the restles Turke making hys return toward Hungary, by the way passing by Dalmatia, lay against the towne called Newcastle, beyng defended by the Spanyardes. In the which town because they refused to yeld themselues all the inhabitauntes and souldiours were put to the sword & slain euery one. This Nouum Castellum or Newcastle was a strong fort of þe Christians, whiche being nowe in the Turkes power, he had great aduauntage ouer all those quarters of Dalmatia, Stiria, Carinthia, and Hungaria. From thence he proceeded further, keeping his course into Hungary, where he planted his power against the City of Buda.

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MarginaliaThe contention in Hungary betweene Ferdinãdus & Vaiuoda & his successors.This Buda was a principall city in Hungary, about which great contention had bene (as ye heard before) betweene Ioannes Vaiuoda, and Ferdinandus. By reason wherof the Turke occasioned by Vaiuoda, came into Hūgary and deliuered the City to Vaiuoda. This Vaiuoda liuing not long after, left behinde him a sonne, whome being an infant he committed to the gouernance of one Georgius Monachus: who being left tutour vnto the infant, reduced all Transiluania, Buda, Pesta, with other parties of Hungary, which belonged to Vaiuoda before, to the subiection of the child. Ferdinandus hearing therof, in a great hast and anger: leuyed an armye to recouer his landes in Hungarie, and so laid siege to Buda. MarginaliaThe communication betweene Monachus and Ferdinandus.Monachus seing his part weake, first sent his legate to Ferdinandus, desiring him to talke and conferre with him vppon matter, as he pretended, pertayning to the behoofe of them both. Wherupon both the parties being agreed, the place and manner of their conuention was appoynted, and also the day and tyme assigned. Thus the partyes (according to the agreement) conuenting together with their armyes, with drawing a little aside, as they were entred in communication, sodenly among Ferdinandus men, happened a dagg to be heard, which by the heate of the day (as is thought) loosing of hys own accord, gaue a cracke. MarginaliaWhat hurt may come of rashe suspicion.The sound wherof comming to the eares of Monachus, he supposing the same to haue bene discharged, agaynst him, in great anger drewe out his sworde, bidding Ferdinandus auant wt his doubling dissimmulation, saying that he would neuer any more trust the promises of Christians, and immediatelye vppe on the same sent to Solymannus the Turke, for ayde agaynst the Christians, promising that he would surrenderto him free possession of Hungary, if he woulde come and vanquish the army of Ferdinandus lying about the siege of Buda. MarginaliaThe turke called agayne into Hungary by the dissentiõ betweene Monachus and Ferdinandus.The Turke maketh no long tarying, but taketh the occasion, and with a mighty power, flieth into Hungary, and eftsoones discharging the host of Ferdinandus, and putting them of from the siege of Buda, getteth the Citty into his own handes, commaunding the sonne of Vaiuoda with his mother, to follow after his camp.

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In the history of Ioannes Ramus it followeth, that when Solyman the Turk had thus preuayled against the Cittie of Buda aforesayd, & agaynst other parties more of Hūgary, by the assēt of the Empyre, MarginaliaThe cowardly viage of Ioachimus Duke of Brandeburg, against the turke.one Ioachimus duke of Brandeberg, prince Electour was assigned with a puissant army of chosen souldiours of all nations collected, to recouer the City of Buda from the Turke, and to deliuer the other parties of Christendome from the feare of the Tuke 

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This occurred in 1542.

. an. 1542. Whiche Ioachimus at his first setting foorth, appeared so couragious and valiaunt, as though he would haue conquered the whole world: but this great heate was so slaked in short time by the Turke, that before any great ieoperdy was offered vnto him, he was glad to to be discharged of the viage, and with shame enough, returned home againe. And would God he had left behynde him in the field, no more but his owne shame. For the enemies hauing intelligēce before of his cowardly departure, thinking to worke some poynt of maistry or victory before his goyng, did set vpon the right wing of his army (which chiefly consisted of Dutchmen of low Germany 
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I.e., soldiers from the Low Countries.

) out of the which they tooke awaye with them aboue 500. strong and valiaunt souldiours, Marginalia500. Christian souldiours taken and carried away of the turkes. not killing them, but carying them a way aliue. For whome it had bene muche better to haue stand to their weapon and to haue dyed manfully vppon the turkes, then by yealding themselues to be disgarnished of weapon and armoure, and so to be lefte to the cursed curtesie of the foule Turkes. To whome what curtesie was sheweed, by the sequele did appeare. For after þe Turkes had led them out of Hungary into their own dominiõ, after a most horrible & beastly sort they disfigured & mangled them, & so sent them abroad through all Grecia to be witnessrs of the Turkes victory. MarginaliaThe horrible punishments practised of the turkes against the Christians.Their kind of punishment was thus: First they had their right arme thrust through with an iron red hot, whereby they should be vnable and vnmeet to all labour & warefare. Secondly, theyr heades were shauen to the very sculles, after the maner of our Friers & monks, when they are newly shauen. Thirdly, they had all their priuy members cut of frõ their bodies to the intent to make thē vnfruitful for propagation which wound was so grieuous vnto them, that the greatest part of them died therupon, the few that recouered the torment therof, led a life more bitter & more miserable then deth it selfe. And this kinde of cruelty 
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This comparison of the Turks to Pharoah, and the cry for a new Moses,are Foxe's interpolations into Ramusio's account.

was executed in order vpõ them all. In much like sort did cruell Pharao exercise hys tyranny agaynst the people of God in Egipt: who to destroy the generation of them, caused all the male children to be drowned in the riuer. Whereby it is the more to be hoped, that seing the tiranny of this turkish Pharao is come to such an extremetie, the mercifull goodnesse of God will the more shortly send some Moses or other vnto vs for our speedy deliueraunce. This was by the cruell Turkes done. an. 1542. witnessed by Ioannes Ramus, MarginaliaEx Ioan Ramo, de rebus turcicis. lib. 2. which not onely writeth the story, but by the testimony also of hys owne eyes recordeth the same to be true, beholding with his eies one of the same number in the city of Vienna, who hauing wife and children in Bruxelles, eyther for shame or sorrow had no minde to returne home to his own house. Ex Ioan Ramo.

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But to returne agayne 

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Foxe took the following account of Ottoman conqusts, and allegedatrocities, in Hungary during 1542-44, down to the Ottoman invasion of Persia (in1548) from Martin Stella's letters, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, Deorigine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 605-620. Stella was a contempor-ary to these events, who lived in Vienna, and wrote letters to his brothers in 1543 and1544, describing Turkish campaigns in Hungary.

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to the City of Buda, from whēce we haue digressed, here is not to be pretermitted, MarginaliaThe falsenes of the turke in keeping no promise with the Christians.what falshood and what cruelty the turkes vsed toward the Christians there, after theyr victory. For after that Solyman þe Turke vpon the yelding and submission of the men of Buda, had geuen to them his promise of safety and life, within short time, the sayd turke picking a quarrell with them for selling Oxen vnto the Christians, and for barganing with them, slue all the Magistrates of the sayde Citty of Buda: like as in all other Citties, where so euer the Christians yelded vnto him, he neuer, or very rarely kept his promise with them, neyther did euer any christians speed better wt the turke, then they which most constantly did resist him.

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And as hys promise with the Magistrates of Buda was false and wretched: so hys cruelty with the souldiors therof was more much notorious & abhominable. MarginaliaAn horrible example of the beastly crueltie of the false turke.For in þe expugnation of Buda among þe rest whiche were slayne ij. cohortes or bands of Christian souldiors came alyue to his hands. To whom, when he seemed at the first to graūt pardon of life, he commaunded to put on their armour agayn, and to dispose themselues in order and battayle ar-

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