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Gyula (Guila: Romanian; Julau: German) [Iula]

SE Hungary nr Romanian border

Coordinates: 46° 39' 0" N, 21° 17' 0" E

 
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Herceg Novi (Castelnuovo; Nouum Castellum) [Newcastle]

Dalmatia, Montenegro

Coordinates: 42° 28' 12" N, 18° 19' 12" E

 
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Visegrád [Wizigradum]

Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 47' 5.39" N, 18° 58' 25.21" E

779 [755]

K. Henry. 7. The history of the Turkes. Pappa. Wizigradum surprised of the Turkes.

reason wherof the poore souldiors were forced to cast them selues into the ditch, thinking to swimme as well as they could, into the cittye: where many of them sticking in the mudde, were drowned: one pressing vpon an other: many were slayne of their enemies comming behinde them, they hauing neither hart, nor power to resist. A fewe whiche could swimme out, were receiued into the Citty: but the chiefe Captaines and warders of the towne were there slayne.

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The cittizens being destitute of theyr principall captaines and warriors, were in great perlexitie and doubt among thēselues, what to do, some thinking good to yeld, some counsayling the contrary. This while the mindes of the cittizens were distract in diuers & doubtfull sentences, the Magistrates minding to stand to þe turkes gentlenes, MarginaliaLet neuer good Christians stand to the turks gentlenes. sent out one of theyr heads vnto the turke, who in þe name of them all, should surrender to him the citty, and become vnto him tributaries, vpō cōdition they might enioy liberty of life & goods, which being to thē granted, after the turkish faith & assurance, first þe souldiors which were left wtin þe citty, putting of theyr armour, were discharged & sent away. Who being but onely 300. left of 4. ensignes of Italians, & of a thousand Germaynes, by the way were layd for by the Tartarians, for hope of theyr spoyle: so that they scattering a sunder one one way, an other an other to saue themselues as wel as they could: fled euery one what way he thought best. Of whome some wandering in woodes & marishes faynted for famine: some were taken and slayne by the Hungarians, a few with bare and empty, and wythered bodies, more like ghostes then men, escaped & came to Vienna. And this befell vpon the souldiors.

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Now vnderstand what happened to the yelding Citizens. So in story it followeth, that when the turke had entred the towne, and had visited the sepulchre of the kynges for three or 4. dayes he pretended muche clemency toward the ctttizens, as though he came not to oppresse them, but to be reuēged of Ferdinādus their king, & to deliuer them from the seruitude of the Germaines. MarginaliaThe cruelty of the turks against the Christians.On the fourth day, al þe chiefe & head men of the citty were cōmaunded to appeare before þe turke in a playne, not far frō the citty where the condemned persons before, were wont to be executed, as though they should come to sweare vnto the turke. MarginaliaWhat it is to yeld to the turke and to sticke to hys promise.At this commaundement of the turke, when the cittizens in great number, & in their best attyre were assembled, þe turk contrary to his fayth and promise, commaunded sodenly a generall slaughter to be made of them all. MarginaliaThe Cityzēs of Alba destroyed of the turkes.And this was þe end of the citizens of Alba.

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In the meane time, during the siege of Alba, the Hungarians meeting sometimes with the horsemen of þe Tartarians, which were sent out to stop their vitailes from þe citie, slue of them at one bickering. 3000. Turks. In which story is also reported & mentioned of mine author, 

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Martin Stella. Foxe took the following account of Ottoman conquests and allegedatrocities in Hungary during 1542-44, down to the Ottoman invasion of Persia (in1548) from Martin Stella's letters, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, Deorigine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 605-620. Stella was a contempor-ary to these events, who lived in Vienna, and wrote letters to his brothers in 1543 and1544, describing Turkish campaigns in Hungary.

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an horrible sight and example of misery, concerning a certayne captiue (a Christian belike) who comming into Vienna, MarginaliaHalfe of a young child found in the satchell of a captiue coming frō the turkes.was found to haue in his scrip or satchel the halfe of a yong childe of two yeares old, which remayned yet vneaten, the other halfe beyng eaten before. an. 1543. Ibid.

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MarginaliaThe castell of Pappa wonne of the turkes.Next after this was expugned the castle of Pappa, by þe Turkes. Let the castle now of Papa 

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Foxe is making a pun on the castle name of 'Papa' to suggest that the Turks might one day overthrow the Papacy.

take heede, least one day it follow after.

MarginaliaWizigradū gotte and surprised of the turkes.The like fidelitie the turkes also kept, with the fort of Wizigradum and the souldiours therof. This Wizigradū is situate in the mid way between Buda and Strigoniū. Of the which fort or Castle, the highest tower so mounteth vpon the hil, that vnlesse it be for famine and lack of water they haue not to dread any enemy. Notwithstanding so it happened, that the lower peece being wonne, they in the higher tower abiding foure dayes without drink were cōpelled wyth liberty graunted of life and goodes, to yelde themselues. MarginaliaThe false dealing and crueltie of the turkes against the Christians.But the deuilish turkes keeping no fayth nor promise, slue them euerye one, onely Petrus Amandus the captaine of the peece, excepted: who priuely was conueyed by the Captayne of the Turkes, out of the slaughter. an. 1544.

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MarginaliaNouum castellum in Dalmatia wonne by the turkes.To these moreouer may be added the winning of Nouum Castellum in Dalmatia, where he slue all that were wtin both soldiors & other, for that they did not yeld themselues in time. Thus the turke, whether they yelded to hym or not, neuer spared the people and the flocke of Christ.

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Marginalia

The discord of Christiā princes within themseiues.

The turke occasoned to returne out of Europe into Asia.

As the false & cruell Turk was thus raging in Hungary, and intended further to rage without all mercy and pitie of the Christians, and easely might then haue preuayled and gone whether he would for that Charles the Emperour and Franciscus the french king were the same tyme in warre and hostilitie, and also other Christen Princes, as Henry Duke of Brunswike, against Iohn Fredericke Duke of Saxonie, also Princes and rulers were conten-ding among themselues: MarginaliaThe prouidence of God for his Christians.beholde the gracious prouidence of our Lord and God toward vs, who seeing the misery & hauing pittie of hys poore Christians, sodeinely as with a snafle reined this raging beast, and brought him out of Europe into his owne country againe, by occasion of the Persians, who were then in great preparation of war agaynst the turkes, & had inuaded hys dominion. By reason wher of the turkes was kept there occupyed, fighting with the Persians a long continuance. Whiche warres at length being atchiued and finished, (wherein the sayd Turke lost great victoryes, with slaughter of many thousandes of his Turkes) he was not onely prouoked by the instigation of certaine euil disposed Hungarians, but also occasioned by the discord of Christan Princes, to returne agayn into Europe, in hope to subdue all the partes thereof vnto his dominion. Whereunto, when he had leuyed 
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This account of disease ravaging the Ottoman army (in 1552, althoughFoxe does not say so) is taken from Giovann Battisto Ramusio's history, as excerptedin Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp.210-11.

an armye incredible of such a multitude of turks, as þe like hath not light lightly bene heard of, MarginaliaAn other example of Gods prouidence for hissee agayne the mercifull prouidence & protection of our God toward his people. And as the Turke was thus intending to set forward with this innumerable multitude against þe Christians, the hand of the Lord sent such a pestilence through all the turkes army and dominions, reaching from Bithynia, and from Thracia, to Macedonia and also to Hungary, that all the turkes possessions almost seemed nothing els, but as a heape of dead corses, whereby his viage for that time was stopped, and he almost compelled to seeke a new army.

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Beside this plague of the Turkes aforesayde, whiche was worse to them then any warre, other lets also and domesticall calamities through Gods prouidence happened vnto Solymannus, the great rouer and robber of þe world which stayd him at home from vexing the christians, especially touching hys eldest sonne Mustapha.

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This Mustapha being hated 

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Foxe draws this account of the execution of Süleyman's eldest son,Mustapha, from a work by Nicholas Mossen, which was bound with BartolomeoGeorgevits, De origine imperii Turcorum (Wittenburg, 1560), sigs. L4r-M5v. Much of Georgevits' work was extracted in Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorumprincipis…Alcoran (Basel, 1550), III, pp. 164-91. Foxe probably consulted Georgevits's De origine after he read the extensive excerpts of it in Bibliander'sedition of the Koran.

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and partly feared of Rustanus the chiefe counsailour about the Turke, and of Rosa þe turkes concubine & after his wife, was diuers times complayned of to his father, accused, & at length so brought into suspicion and displeasure of the turke, by them aforesayd: that in conclusion hys father caused him to be sent for to hys pauilion, where 6. Turkes with visours were appoynted to put hym to death: MarginaliaSylyman the turke murdereth Mustapha his owne sonne.Who comming vppon hym, put (after theyr manner) a small corde or bowstring full of knottes about hys necke, & so throwing him downe vpon þe ground, not suffering hym to speake one word to hys father, wt the twitch therof throteled & strangled him to death his father standing in a secret corner by, and beholding the same. Whiche facte being perpetrate, afterward when the Tukre would haue geuen to an other sonne of hys and of Rosa called Gianger, the treasures, horse, armour, ornamentes and the prouince of Mustapha his brother: Gianger crying out for sorow of his brothers death: phy of thee, sayth he to hys father, þu impious and wretched dog, traytour, murderer, I cannot cal thee father, take the treasures the horse and armour of Mustapha to thy selfe: and wyth that taking out hys dagger, thrust it through hys own body. 
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Süleyman's son Cihangir did die shortly after his brother, but the storythat he committed suicide is fanciful. Foxe derived it from Mossen's account of Mustapha's murder in Bartolomeo Georgevits, De origine imperii Turcorum (Wittenburg, 1560), sigs. M4v-M5r.

And thus was Solyman murderer & parricide of hys owne sonnes: which was in the yeare of our Lord. 1552.

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MarginaliaThe louing prouidence of our Lord for his Christians.Wherein notwithstanding is to be noted the singular prouidence and loue of the Lord toward his afflicted christians. For this Mustapha as he was couragious & greatly expert and exercised in all practise of warre: so had he a cruell hart, maliciously set to shed the bloud of christians: Wherfore great cause haue we to congratulate, & to geue thanks to god, for þe happy taking away of this Mustapha 

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This is apparently Foxe's opinion, but it was widely held one. Mustapha was a favourite of the Janissaries.

MarginaliaGood hope at Gods hand to be conceaued of Christians.And no lesse hope also and good comfort we may conceaue of our louing Lord, hereby ministred vnto vs, to thinke þt our mercifull God after these sore afflictions of his Christians vnder these 12. Turks aboue recited: now after this Solyman intendeth some gratious good worke to Christendom, to reduce & release vs out of this so long & miserable turkish captiuitie: as may be hoped now by takyng away these yong impes of this impious generation, before they should come to worke theyr conceaued malice against vs: the Lord therefore be glorified and praysed. Amen.

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MarginaliaGood newes of the turkes lately repulsed by the Christians.Moreouer as I was in writing hereof, oportunely came to my handes a certayne writing out of Germanye, 

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Foxe is referring to a pamphlet, Newes from Vienna the 5 dayof August 1566 (London, 1566), STC 24716, which he proceeds to quote from at length.

certifyeng vs of suche newes & victory of late atchieued against the turke, as may not a little increase our hope and comfort vs, touching the decay and ruine of the Turks power & tyranny against vs. Which newes are these: þt after 
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The following account of a Turkish repulse when besieging thefortress of Gyula in Hungary in 1566 is reprinted from Newes from Vienna the5 day of August (London, 1566), STC 24716, sigs. B2r-B3r. In fact, the successwas ephemeral: Gyula fell to the Turks on 1 September 1566.

þe turkish tyrant had besieged with an army of 30000. men, the famous & strong town and castle of Iula in Hungary lyeng 40. dutch myles beyond the riuer Danubius, which cittye had, by the space of 6. weekes susteined many grieuous assaultes: God through hys great mercy & goodnes so comforted the sayd towne of Iula and the poore Christians therein, at theyr earnest prayers, that the Turke with

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