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K. Henry. 7. Prophesies of the Turke and the Pope, which of them is the greater Antichrist.

bernacles of his palace betweene the Seas, in the glorious & holy mountaine, yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.

To this place of Daniell aboue prefixed, might also be added the Prophesie of the said Daniell written in the vij. chapter, 

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Daniel 7:7-18.

and much tending to the like effect: where he intreating of his vision of foure beastes (whiche signifie the foure Monarchies) and speaking now of the fourth Monarchie, hath these words.

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MarginaliaDani. cap. 7.After this, I saw in the visions by night, and behold, the fourth beast was grimme and horrible, and maruelous strong. It had great yron teeth: it deuoured, and brake in peeces, and stamped the residue vnder his feete: and it was vnlike the other beastes that were before it, for it had ten hornes. As I considered the hornes, behold, there came vp among them another little horne, before whome, there were three of the first hornes pluckt away. And behold, in this horne, were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking presumptuous things, and seemed more stoute then the other. Which horne also (whē I looked on) made battaile with the saints, & preuailed against thē: vntill the old aged came, & iudgement was giuen to the Saintes of the highest, and till the appointed time was come, that the Saints shuld haue the kingdōe.

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Thus haue ye heard the plaine words of Daniell. In the which, as he doth manifestly describe the comming of Antiochus the great aduersary, toward the latter ende of the Iewes: so by the same Antiochus is figured also to vs the great aduersary of Christ, which is the Turke.

MarginaliaVide Rodulphum Gualt. de Antichristo.Although some there be notwithstanding, which wyth great learning & iudgement, do apply this place of Daniel aboue recited, not to the Turke, but rather to the Pope, & that for vj. or vij. speciall causes herein touched and noted. 

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These arguments are from the fourth homily of Rudolph Walther's De antichristo. See Rudolph Walther, Antichrist, trans. J[ohn] O[ld] (London, 1556), STC 25009, fos. 15r-147v.

MarginaliaThe first note.The first is this, that the wicked transgressours of the couenaunt shall ioine with him deceitfully and hypocritically, which shall pollute the tabernacle of strength, & take away the perpetuall sacrifice, and bring in the abhomination of desolation.

MarginaliaThe second note.The second note is, that the Prophet declareth, how the learned among þe people shall teach many, & that they shall fall into the sword, into fire, and captiuitie, and shall be banished, whereby they shall be tried, chosen, & made bright and pure, &c. All which (say they) is not amōg the Turkes to be seene, but only in the Popes Church: where þe faithfull preachers & teachers of the people are slaine and burned, and go to wracke, &c. Where likewise it foloweth, that they shall be holpen against Antichrist, and that many false brethren shall ioine vnto them dissemblingly, &c. To thys they alledge that the Christians haue no such help against the Turke, whereunto such false brethrē should ioine thēselues, as is and hath bene commonly seene amōg þe Christians against the Pope, MarginaliaHelpes of the Christians against the Pope. from time to time, almost in all Countreys: as in Germany by the Protestants & free Cities: In Englād in King Henries time by þe Lord Cromwell, and afterward by King Edward, & now by Queene Elizabeth: In Scotland by þe godly nobilitie: In France, by the Queene of Nauarre and her sonne: and also by the Prince of Condy and the worthy Admirall, and his two breethren, and many others: In Flaunders, by thē whom the Regent calleth Beggers: So as was in the time of the Machabees, against Antiochus.

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MarginaliaThe third note.Thirdly, that the King shall exalt himselfe aboue all that hath the name of God, and shal lift vp his mouth to speake presumptuously against God.

MarginaliaThe fourth note.Fourthly, that he careth not for the desires of women: which may seeme to note how the Popes doctrine shall forbid the honest and lawfull mariage in Churchmen.

MarginaliaThe fift note.The fift specialtie which they apply to the Pope, is that foloweth in the Prophet, saieng: Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor any God: but in steade of him, shall set vp his God Mauzzim, MarginaliaMauzzim the popes God. & shall worship him with siluer, & gold, & pretious stone, &c. which they do apply to þe Pope, setting vp his God of bread, & worshipping him with glistering golden ornamēts & most solemne seruice.

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MarginaliaThe sixte note.Sixtly, it foloweth: & he shall encrease them with much glory and riches, and shall diuide vnto them, lands & possessions, &c. meaning that the Pope hauing dominiō ouer treasures of gold and siluer, and all precious things of the land, shall indue his Cardinals, Prelats, his flatring doctours, with Friers and Monkes & Priestes, and all such as shal take his part, wt great priuilegies, liberties, reuenues & possessions. And thus, I say, some there be, which apply this prophesie of the vij. and xj. chapter of Daniell, MarginaliaThe 7. and 11. chapt. of Dan. meaneth the great Antichrist the turke. vnto þe Bishop of Rome. Whom although I take to be an extreme persecutour of Christes Church: yet I iudge rather those two chapters of Daniel concerning þe litle horne in the middle of the x. hornes, and the great destroier of the pleasant land and glorious holy mountaine, to meane first Antiochus, and by him secondly to meane the great Antichrist, the Turke: who hath now set already þe tabernaclesof his palace betwene the Seas, accordyng to the Prophecies of Daniell, as is abouesayd.

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Ouer & besides these Prophecies aboue alledged, may be added also the Prophecie of Ezechiel chap. 39. Marginalia

Ezech. cap. 38. 39.

Gog & Magog.

speakyng of Gog & Magog: 
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Ezekiel 39:1-29.

which as it may be applied to the oppressiō of the Iewes vnder the Heathen multitude, which stopped the buildyng of the Citie, and vnder the Syrian kynges: &c. yet in the same also is expressed the calamitics and afflictions of Christes Churche in these latter tymes, vnder the Saracens and the Turkes. &c.

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MarginaliaThe prophesies of the new Testament, concerning the turke.Proceeding further in this matter, let vs come now to the Prophecies of þe new Testament & marke the wordes of S. Paule writyng to the * Marginalia* 2. Thessal. 2. Thessalonians, which then were Christened, & now either are Turkish, or vnder the Turke, which wordes be these: 

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2 Thess. 2:2-4.

Be ye not sodenly moued in your mynde, nor troubled, neither by spirite, nor by word, nor by letter as sent frō vs, as though the day of Christ were at land. Let no mā deceaue you by any meanes, for the Lord will not come, before there come a defection, or a departing first, and that wicked mā be reueled, the sonne of perdition, which is an aduersary and is extolled aboue all power, and that which is called God: so that he shall sit in the tēple of God, boasting himselfe to be God. &c. MarginaliaThe defection in time of Antichrist declared.Although this defection 
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In an unusual piece of exegesis, Foxe is interpreting the 'defection'usually regarded as a reference to apostasy by exegetes, of the conversion to Islamof regions in the Middle East and North Africa that were formerly Christian.

& departing may haue a double vnderstādyng, as well of the popes sect (which is gone & departed frō the free iustificatiō by fayth onely in Christ, through þe promise of grace) as of the Turkes: yet leauing a while to speake of the Pope because it appeareth more notoriously in þe Turke, we will chiefly apply it to him: in whō so aptly it doth agree, that vnles this great defection frō faith in so many Churches, had hapned by the Turke, it had bene hard to vnderstād the Apostles mynde, which now by the history of these Turkes is easie and euident to be knowen, cōsidering what a ruine hath happened to the Church of Christ by these miserable Turks, what Emperies, nations, kyngdomes, countreys, townes and Cities by remoued from the name & professiō of Christ, how many thousandes & infinite multitudes of Christen men and children, in Asia, in Afrike, & in Europe, are caried away from Christes Church to Mahumetes Religion, some to serue for the Turkes gard among þe Ianizarites, some for souldiours, some for miners, some for gunners, to fight & warre agaynst the Christians: so that the most part of all the Churches plāted once by þe Apostles, are now degenerated into Turks, onely a small hādful of Christiās reserued yet in these West partes of Europe, of the which small residue, what shall also become shortly, except Christ himselfe do helpe. Christ onely himself doth know. How great this defection hath bene spokē of by S. Paule, thou mayest see (gentle Reader) in the table aboue described. pag. 741.

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Notwithstanding this text of the holy Apostle (as I a fore said MarginaliaVide supra. pag. 903.) may be verified also with no lesse reason, vpō the Byshop of Rome, MarginaliaThe place of S. Paule 2. Thess. 2. applyed to the Pope. thē vpon the Turke, both for that he is a man of sinne, that is, his seate & Citie is a great mainteiner of wickednesse, & also for that he is an aduersary, that is, contrary in all his doynges and proceedyngs to Christ.

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Thirdly, for that he sitteth in the temple of God, and so did not Mahumet.

Fourthly, because he is an exalter of himselfe, & sitteth more like a God then a man in Rome, wherof see more in the booke set forth in English, called the CONTESTATIONS of the Popes. 

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The lack of pagination for this section (at least in the 1570 edition where it first appeared) is almost certainly because it was a late insertion into thetext. It is also almost certain that this section was a response to the revolt of thenorthern earls in 1569 and the papal deposition of Elizabeth at the beginning of 1570. This section is illustrated with a dozen woodcuts depicting historical, or putatively historical, instances of papal dominance over secular rulers. All but one of thesewoodcuts was newly created, apparently for this section. (The woodcut depicting thehumiliation of Henry IV at Canossa, which had been used earlier in the volume, wasreused in this section). The expense involved in creating these woodcuts suggeststhat Day may have received financial support for producing this section. It iscertainly true that Archbishop Parker aided Foxe in researching this section.

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Yet while the carving of the woodcuts must have taken weeks, if not months,it would appear that the text for this section was composed fairly quickly. This section consists of a summary of the rise of the papacy, an exegesis of passages in St Paul's second letter to the Thessalonians identifying the Antichrist, as well as a summary of papal attempts to depose and dominate European rulers. This sectionconcludes with 'The Image of Antichrist', which, in turn, is an exact reprinting of ananonymous work, A solemne contestation of diverse popes for the advancing of their supremacy (London, 1560), STC 20114, which had been printed by John Daya decade earlier. (For a discussion of this work, and an argument that Foxe himselfcompiled it, see Thomas S. Freeman, 'A solemne contestation of diverse popes: A Work by John Foxe?', English Language Notes 31[1994], pp. 35-42). Apart from nuggets of information contributed by others, there is littlenew research in this section, which largely reiterates episodes already described in theActs and Monuments. What is striking, however, are the important borrowings, acknowledged and unacknowledged, from William Tyndale's Practice of Prelates.Foxe did not normally cite Tyndale's work, probably becausehe had access to better and more detailed sources. But in this section, Foxe gives an indication that Tyndale's interpretation of history had on his thought. For a discussion of this book see Thomas S. Freeman, 'A solemne contestation of diverse popes: A Work by John Foxe?' English Language Notes 31 (1994), pp. 35-42.

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Fiftly, for that he seduceth and hath seduced by his apostasie, the most part of all Christendome from the doctrine and free promises of God, into a wrong and straūge way of saluation, which is, not to be iustified freely before God onely by our fayth in Christ his welbeloued sonne (vnto the whiche fayth the promise of God freely and graciously hath annexed all our saluation onely, & to no other thyng) but hath taught vs to worke our saluation by an infinite number of other thynges: In so much that he bindeth the necessitie of our saluation also to this, that we must beleue (if we will be saued) and receaue him to be the Vicare of Christ in earth. &c. MarginaliaEx Bonifacio Extrauag.

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But to returne agayne vnto the Turkes, among all the prophecies both of the old Testamēt & of the new, there is none that paynteth out the Antichristian kyngdome of the Turkes, better then doth the reuelation of S. Iohn, whose wordes let vs weigh and cōsider. Who in the Apocalipse 9. where he speaketh of openyng the seuenth & last seale, (which signifieth the last age of the world) and there writyng of the vij. trompets of the vij. Angels at the soundyng of the vi. Aungell saith, 

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Rev. 9:14-18.

MarginaliaApoc. 20.Loose the iiij. Aungels, which are bound in the great riuer Euphrates. And the foure Aungels were losed, which were ready both day and houre, and moneth, and yeare, to slay the third part of men. And the number of horsemen were 20. thousand tymes ten thousand: and I heard the number of them. And thus I sawe in a vision, horses, and them that

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