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Loire valley, France

Coordinates: 47° 24' 15" N, 0° 58' 48" E

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Ashbourne [Asburne]


OS grid ref: SK 185 465

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Chomutov (German: Komotau) [Commitauia]

Czech Republic

Coordinates: 50° 27' 46" N, 13° 24' 40" E

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NGR: SP 340 790

An ancient city and a county of itself, locally in the county of Warwick. 10 miles north-east from Warwick, 18 miles south-east from Birmingham. The city comprises the parishes of St. Michael, Holy Trinity and St. John Baptist, all in the Archdeaconry of Coventry, diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. St. Michael and Holy Trinity are vicarages. St. John is a rectory not in charge, annexed to the headmastership of the free school

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Dancaster [Doncaster]
NGR: SE 575 024

A parish comprising the borough and market town of Doncaster, which has separate jurisdiction, the townships of Balby with Hexthorpe and Long Sandal with Wheatley in the Soke of Doncaster, and the township of Langthwaite with Tilts in the northern division of the wapentake of Strafforth with Tickhill, west Riding of the County of York. 37 miles south by west from York. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of York, and the patronage of the Archbishop of York.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

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Hailes Abbey

[Hales; Hayles]

near Winchcombe, Gloucestershire

OS grid ref: SP 050 301

Cistercian abbey founded 1246; possessed a phial of, ostensibly, the blood of Christ

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Naples (Neapolis)


Campania, Italy

Coordinates: 40° 50' 0" N, 14° 15' 0" E

Capital city of the historic kingdom of Naples

801 [777]

K. Henry. 7. Kinges prospered without the Popes blessing. Persecution in Couentry.

subiects. From thence he remoued toward Rome, where a great part of the Citie wall at the comming of the french King, fell downe. MarginaliaVide Phil. Cominæū de bello Neopol. lib. 5.

Afterward when the King was entred into the Citie, and the Pope (who then tooke part with Alphonsus King of Neaples against the French King) had immured himselfe within the mount of Adrian, the wall of the Castell fell downe of it selfe: whereby, when the King was both occasioned, and exhorted also by his Captaines to inuade þe Pope, and to depose him, & to reforme þe Church of Rome, (which he might then easely haue done, as it had pleased him) yet all these occasions offered so opportunely of God, moued not þe king to do his duty, & to help the poore church of Christ: 

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This account of Charles VIII's death and the belief that it was thefulfillment of Savanorola's prophecy is from Phillipe de Commines, De CarloOctavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii, trans. Johann Sleidan (Paris, 1561),pp. 205-12.

wherefore shortly after, returning home into France from Neapolis, either þe same yeare or þe next yeare folowing he was strooken with a sodeine sicknes at Amboise, as he was looking on thē that played at tennes, and that in the stinkingest place in all the Castle, where he fell downe & died within twelue houres, according to þe forewarning of Hieronimus, who wrote vnto him a little before, both of his sonnes death and of his owne, which was about the yeare of our Lord 1498. MarginaliaDe bello Neopolit. lib. 5.Ex Philip. Cominæo. Lib. 5.

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Like examples we haue many heere also in this our realme of England. 

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This lengthy digression, tying the prosperity of monarchs andtheir reigns to their resistance to 'papistry', is actually an attempt to goad Elizabeth and her councillors into further reforming the English Church.

So long as king Iohn kept out of the realme, the Popes authority and power, he continued safe and quiet with his nobles: but so soone as he brought the realme vnder tribute and subiectiō to that foreine Bishop, God stirred vp his Nobles against him, whereby he had much disquiet and trouble and soone thereupon decayed.

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MarginaliaExamples of kinges of England, which were blessed of God with long prosperitie, being enemies to the byshos of Rome.Of all the Kings of England, from William Conquerour, to this king Henry vij. were none which either longer continued, or more prosperously flourished, then King Henry the second, King Henry the third, King Edward the first, King Edward the third, of whome the first, how stout he was in withstāding Tho. Becket and Pope Alexander the iij. is sufficiently before comprehended, pag. 206.

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The second, which was sonne of King Iohn, albeit through the wretchednes of that time his power was not sufficient to repulse the Popes vsurped iurisdiction out of the Realme: yet his will was good: at least he so defended & prouided for his subiects, that they tooke no great wrong at the Popes handes: who reigned one yeare longer then Augustus Cæsar, MarginaliaAugustus reigned 55 yeares. which hath not commonly bene seene in any Prince.

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The third, which was King Edward the first, so vigilantly behaued himselfe for the publique cōmoditie & safetie of his people, that he defended thē frō all foraine power and hostilitie both of the Scottes (then our enemies, now our frendes) and also from the Bishop of Rome, takyng part with them against vs, as may appeare aboue, page 340. MarginaliaVide supra pag. 340. Furthermore of the same King, and of his woorthy Nobles and house of Parliament, how valiantly they stoode in deniall of the Popes subsidies, and also how the sayd King secluded out of his protection the Bishops, and especially the Archbishop Peccham for standing wyth the Pope, reade pag. 352. MarginaliaVide supra. 352.

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Now as touching King Edward the third, how little he regarded, how princely he with his Nobles likewise resisted the Popes reseruations and prouisions, how hee brideled the Archbishop Iohn Stratford, and reiected the vaine authority of the Bishop of Rome, both in defense of his subiects, and also in defence of claiming his right title in the Realme of France, reade pag. 383. MarginaliaVide supra. pag. 383.

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Not that I do heere affirme or define, as in a generall rule, that worldly successe and prosperitie of life alwayes followeth the godly, which we see rather to be geuen more often to the wicked sort: but speaking of the duty of Princes, I note and obserue by examples of histories, that such Princes as haue most defended the Church of Christ committed their gouernance, from iniurie and violence of the Bshop of Rome, haue not lacked at Gods hand great blessng and felicitie: MarginaliaWhat difference betweene moderat princes, and thē that were persecutors.whereas countrarywise, they whiche either themselues haue bene persecutours of Christes mēbers, or haue not shielded thē by their protection from foreine tiranny and iniuries, haue lacked at Gods hand that protection, which the other had, as may appeare by King Edward the second, Richard the third, King Henry the fourth, King Henry the v. king Henry the vj, &c. who because either negligētly they haue suffered, or cruelly caused such persecuting lawes to be made, & so much Christē blood iniuriously to be deuoured: therefore haue they bene þe lesse prospered of the Lord, so that either they were deposed, or if they florished for a while, yet they did not long continue, almost not halfe the time of the other kings before named.

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And therefore, as the state of the common wealth doth commonly folow the state of þe Church, as ye hard before: so it had bene to be wished, that this King Henry the vij.beyng otherwise a prudent & temperaunt Prince, had not permitted the vntemperaūt rage of the Popes Clergy so much to haue their willes ouer the poore flocke of Christ, as then they had: accordyng as by these persecutiōs aboue mētioned may appeare. The which king Henry vij. albeit he had a sufficiēt continuaunce, who had now raigned 24. yeares, yet notwithstāding here commeth the same thyng to be noted, wherof I speake before: that whē the Church of Christ begynneth to be iniuried with violēce, & to go to wracke through misorder & negligēce, the state of the common wealth can not there long endure without some alteration, & stroke of Gods correction. But howsoeuer this marke is to be takē, thus lyeth the story: that after the burnyng & vexyng of these poore seruauntes of Christ aboue recited, when the persecution begā now in the Church to be hoate, God called away the kyng, MarginaliaThe death of K. Henry. 7. the same yeare aboue mentioned, which was. 1509. after he had raigned þe terme of yeares. 24. Who if he had adioyned a litle more pitifull respect, in protectyng Christes poore mēbers, from the fire of the Popes tyrāny, to his other great vertues of singular wisedome, excellent tēperaunce, & moderate frugalitie: somuch had he bene cōparable with the best of those Princes aboue comprehended, as hee had bene inferiour but to a few: but this defect which lacked in him, was supplyed most luckely (blessed be þe Lord) by his posteritie succeding after him. Of whom in the next volume folowing (Christ thereunto assisting vs) we haue to specifie more at large.

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MarginaliaCouentry men persecuted.Among many other thynges incident in the raigne of this kyng Henry vij. I haue ouerpassed the history of certaine godly persons persecuted in the Diocesse of Couentry and Lichfield, as we finde them in the Registers of the Diocesse recorded, here folowyng.

The yeare of our Lord. 1485. March 9. amongest diuers and sundry other good men in Couētry, these ix. here vnder named were examined before Iohn Bishop of Couentry and Lichfield, in S. Michaels Church, vpon these Articles, folowyng in order. 

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These articles were copied from the register of John Hales, bishopof Coventry and Lichfield (Lichfield Record Office, Register Hales, fo. 166r-v;printed, with a translation, in Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], 64-73). It is most likely that a transcript (or even translation) of these abjurations was sent to Foxe as the 1563 edition was nearing completion (see Lollards of Coventry, pp. 53-54 for a discussion of this point).

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FIrst, Iohn Blomston MarginaliaI. Blomstone. was openly and publikely, infamed, accused reported & appeached that he was a very hereticke, because he had preached, taught, holden & affirmed, that the power attributed to S. Peter in the Church of God, by our Sauiour Iesus Christ: MarginaliaThe power of Peter flitteth not to his successours.immediatly did not flit, or passe frō him, to remaine with his successours.

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Item, that there was as much vertue in an herbe as in the Image of the Virgine Mary.

Item, that prayer and almes auayle not the dead, for incontinent after death, he goeth either to heauen or hell, MarginaliaPurgatory denied.whereupon he concludeth there is no Purgatory.

Item, that is was foolishnesse to go on Pilgrimage to the Image of our Lady of Dancaster, Walsingham or of the Tower of the Citie of Couentry: MarginaliaImages not to be worshipped.for a man might as well worship the blessed Virgin by the fire side in the kitchin, as in the foresayd places, and as well might a man worship the blessed Virgin, when he seeth his mother or sister, as in visityng the Images, because they be no more but dead stockes and stones.

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Item, that he sayd in English with a frowning countenaunce, as it appeared: a vengeaūce on all such horson Priestes, for they haue great enuy that a poore man should get his liuyng among them.

RIchard Hegham MarginaliaRichard Heghā. of the same Citie was accused. &c. to be a very hereticke, because he did hold that a Christen man beyng at the point of death, should renounce all his owne workes good and ill, MarginaliaMerites condemned. and submitte him to the mercy of God.

Item, that it was fondnesse to worship the Images of our Lady of Tower in the foresayd Citie, or of other Saintes, for they are but stockes and stones.

Item, that if the Image of our Lady of Tower were put into the fire, MarginaliaImages serue rather to be burned, then to be would make a good fire.

Item, that it were better to deale money vnto poore folkes then to offer to the Images of Christ and other Saintes, which are but dead stockes and stones.

RObert Crowther MarginaliaRobert Crowther. of the same Citie was accused, that he was an hereticke, because he did hold, that who so receiueth the Sacramēt of the altar in deadly sinne, or out of charitie, receiueth nothyng but bread and wine.

Item, that neither Byshop, nor Priestes or Curates of Churches, haue the power in the market of penaunce to bynde and loose. 

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Foxe omits one of the articles charged against Crowther. It follws this article and charges that Crowther wished the phrase describing Christ as conceived ofthe Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary, removed from the Apostles' Creed (seeLollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner,Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], p. 67).

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Item, that Pilgrimage to the Image of our Lady of Tower is foolishnesse, MarginaliaAgainst Pilgrimage. for it is but a stocke or a stone.

IOhn Smith MarginaliaIohn Smith. was accused to be a very hereticke, because he did hold that euery man is bounde to know þe Lordes

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